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The main aim of the current study was to present the abilities of widely used crop models to simulate four different field crops (winter wheat, spring barley, silage maize and winter oilseed rape). The 13 models were tested under Central European conditions represented by three locations in the Czech Republic, selected using temperature and precipitation gradients for the target crops in this region. Based on observed crop phenology and yield from 1991 to 2010, performances of individual models and their ensemble were analyzed. Modelling of anthesis and maturity was generally best simulated by the ensemble median (EnsMED) compared to the ensemble mean and individual models. The yield was better simulated by the best models than estimated by an ensemble. Higher accuracy was achieved for spring crops, with the best results for silage maize, while the lowest accuracy was for winter oilseed rape according to the index of agreement (IA). Based on EnsMED, the root mean square errors (RMSEs) for yield was 1365 kg/ha for winter wheat, 1105 kg/ha for spring barley, 1861 kg/ha for silage maize and 969 kg/ha for winter oilseed rape. The AQUACROP and EPIC models performed best in terms of spread around the line of best fit (RMSE, IA). In some cases, the individual models failed. For crop rotation simulations, only models with reasonable accuracy (i.e. without failures) across all included crops within the target environment should be selected. Application crop models ensemble is one way to increase the accuracy of predictions, but lower variability of ensemble outputs was confirmed.
This study aimed to apply the generalizability theory (G-theory) to investigate dynamic and enduring patterns of subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), and reliability of two widely used SCC assessment tools.
G-theory was applied to assessment scales using longitudinal measurement design with five assessments spanning 10 years of follow-up.
Community-dwelling older adults aged 70–90 years and their informants, living in Sydney, Australia, participated in the longitudinal Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.
The sample included 232 participants aged 70 years and older, and 232 associated informants. Participants were predominantly White Europeans (97.8%). The sample of informants included 76 males (32.8%), 153 females (65.9%), and their age ranged from 27 to 86 years, with a mean age of 61.3 years (SD = 14.38).
The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE).
The IQCODE demonstrated strong reliability in measuring enduring patterns of SCC with G = 0.86. Marginally acceptable reliability of the 6-item MAC-Q (G = 0.77–0.80) was optimized by removing one item resulting in G = 0.80–0.81. Most items of both assessments were measuring enduring SCC with exception of one dynamic MAC-Q item. The IQCODE significantly predicted global cognition scores and risk of dementia incident across all occasions, while MAC-Q scores were only significant predictors on some occasions.
While both informants’ (IQCODE) and self-reported (MAC-Q) SCC scores were generalizable across sample population and occasions, self-reported (MAC-Q) scores may be less accurate in predicting cognitive ability and diagnosis of each individual.
Taking into account epidemiological data about growing frequency of acute and chronic disorders of maxillofacial area evaluation of psychopathological disorders in this group of patients is of great importance.
The purpose was to diagnose symptoms of psychopathological disorders in maxillofacial surgeons’ patients.
The study used psychometric method. The validated scales used were SAS, SDS, Holmes and Rahe stress scale, HCL-32-R1. We included all patients who have applied to the clinic of Moscow State Medico-Stomatologic University from January 2010 to March 2013 and who gave Inform Consent.
Study sample consists of 408 patients (206 men, 202 women), 18-71 years old. According to somatic status all patients were divided into three groups. First group (n=160) – patients with chronic somatic disease resulted in fixed deformity of maxillofacial area. 41,3% of patients had depressive symptoms, 31,3% had anxiety symptoms and 16,3% had hypomania symptoms. Second group (n=127) - patients with acute posttraumatic face tissue injury. 10,7% of patients had symptoms of depression, 20% of patients had symptoms of anxiety and 32,3% of patients had symptoms of hypomania.
Third group (n=121) – patients without evident somatic pathology wishing to perform surgical correction of appearance.51,2% of patients had depressive symptoms, 40,5% of patients had anxiety symptoms and 35,7% of patients had hypomania symptoms.
Our data suggest that 10-55% of maxillofacial surgeons’ patients have different symptoms of mental disorders (affective, anxiety). Further investigation needed to determine syndromal characteristics and nosological diagnosis and to elaborate psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy approaches.
To examine an effect of personality disorders on clinical features and disease course of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
Materials and methods:
We’ve examined 358 inpatients (220 female, 138 male; mean age 57,6 ± 4,3years) with Arterial Hypertension (AH), Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) and Atrial Fibrillation (AF). Main methods were psychopathological, pathopsychological and clinico-instrumental.
Two groups of patients were determined. In the first group (216 patients, 64,8% female, mean age 56,9±2,1 years; mean CVD duration 9,2±3,1 years) clinical course of CVD is subjected to personality disorder's dynamics. Synergistic type of CVD clinical course is characterized by reactive somatopsychic lability, CVD manifestation at the time of stressful situation, CVD symptoms redoubling by somatoform disorders. CVD exacerbations correlate with psychogenic depressive phases and\or climacterial period. In most cases (76,1%) further CVD dynamics is characterized by hypochondriacal personality development. In the second group (142 patients, 70,4% female, mean age 57,6±1,4 years; mean CVD duration 9,2±2,2 years) clinical course of CVD doesn’t correlate with personality disorder's dynamics. Alternating type of clinical course of CVD is characterized by hereditary and somatogenic factors.
These data enable to explain ambiguous results about reciprocal influence of personality disorders and CVD received in many studies. Our findings are of great practical importance and show the necessity of differentiated approach in complex treatment of CVD.
In the view of growing number of patients consulting plastic surgeons and cosmetologists, evaluation of psychopathological disorders and personality traits of these patients is of great importance.
The purpose of this screening study was to evaluate and to compare pathocharacterological and pathopsychological traits of plastic surgeons and cosmetologists’ patients.
The study used psychometric method. The validated scales used were Leonhard Personality Inventory, NEO-PI-R, SAS, SDS, HCL-32- R1, Holmes and Rahe stress scale, SAF. We included all patients who have applied to the Institute of Plastic Surgery and Cosmetology from February 2012 to June 2012 and who gave Inform Consent.
Study sample consists of 123 patients (103 women), 18-70 years. In the group of cosmetologists’ patients (n=92; 76 women; mean age 44,6+-2,5 years) histrionic and anxiety-phobic personality traits predominated. Constitutionally determined or gained extroversion, expressivity, impulsivity and emotional instability were detected. Anxiety symptoms were detected in 32,4% of patients; depressive symptoms were detected in 35,8% of patients. In the group of plastic surgeons’ patients (n=31; 27 women; mean age 36,7+-1,8 years) pedantic, sticking and disthymic personality traits predominated. Introversion, high level of self-control and detachment were detected. Anxiety symptoms were detected in 22,9% of patients; depressive symptoms were detected in 21,7% of patients.
Our data give evidence of statistically significant differences in pathocharacterological and pathopsychological traits of plastic surgeons and cosmetologists’ patients. about one-third of these patients report about symptoms of depression, anxiety and hypomania. Complex diagnostic examination needed in order to determine nosological diagnosis and treatment strategies.
The β-diversity of fleas parasitic on small mammals in 45 regions of the Palearctic was partitioned into species [species contributions to β-diversity (SCBD)] and site ( = assemblage) contributions [local contributions to β-diversity (LCBD)]. We asked what are the factors affecting SCBD and LCBD and tested whether (a) variation in ecological, morphological, life history and geographic traits of fleas can predict SCBD and (b) variation in flea and host community metrics, off-host environmental factors, host species composition of flea assemblages can predict LCBD. We used spatial variables to describe geographic distribution of flea assemblages with various LCBD values. SCBD significantly increased with an increase in abundance and a decrease in phylogenetic host specificity of a flea as well as with size and latitude of its geographic range, but was not associated with any morphological/life history trait. LCBD of flea assemblages did not depend on either flea or host species richness or environmental predictors, but was significantly affected by compositional uniqueness ( = LCBD) of regional host assemblages and variables describing their species composition. In addition, variation in LCBD was also explained by broad-to-moderate-scale spatial variables. We conclude that SCBD of fleas could be predicted via their ecological and geographic traits, whereas LCBD of their assemblages could be predicted via host composition.
The Cosmic Web is a complicated highly-entangled geometrical object. Remarkably it has formed from practically Gaussian initial conditions, which may be regarded as the simplest departure from exactly uniform universe in purely deterministic mapping. The full complexity of the web is revealed neither in configuration no velocity spaces considered separately. It can be fully appreciated only in six-dimensional (6D) phase space. However, studies of the phase space is complicated by the fact that every projection of it on a three-dimensional (3D) space is multivalued and contained caustics. In addition phase space is not a metric space that complicates studies of geometry. We suggest to use Lagrangian submanifold i.e., x = x(q), where both x and q are 3D vectors instead of the phase space for studies the complexity of cosmic web in cosmological N-body dark matter simulations. Being fully equivalent in dynamical sense to the phase space it has an advantage of being a single valued and also metric space.
It is shown that the set of conservation laws for the nonlinear system of equations describing plane steady potential barotropic flow of gas is given by the set of conservation laws for the linear Chaplygin system. All the conservation laws of zero order for the Chaplygin system are found. These include both known and new nonlinear conservation laws. It is found that the number of conservation laws of the first order is not more than three, assuming that the laws do not depend on the velocity potential and are not non-obvious ones. The components of these conservation laws are quadratic with respect to the stream function and its derivatives. All the Chaplygin functions are found, for which the Chaplygin system has three non-obvious conservation laws of the first order that are independent of velocity potential. All such non-obvious first-order conservation laws are found.
The dynamic growth of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from emerging economies – mostly from so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) – is widely acknowledged as one of the key developments in the global economy in the last fifteen years. Today emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) account for nearly one-tenth of the foreign sales and foreign assets of the top 500 multinationals in the world, compared to only 1–2 per cent in 1995 (UNCTAD, 2010). In the 2000s, the number of companies from emerging economies in the Fortune Global 500 has more than tripled (from twenty-one to seventy-five). In the new decade, competition between multinationals from developed countries and EMNEs with global aspirations (defined by Boston Consulting Group as ‘global challengers’) will continue to intensify. This new trend in globalisation of the world economy was reflected recently in booming interest in EMNEs in international business (IB) and strategic management (SM) fields, including publication of several books on the subject (Rugman, 2005; Goldstein, 2007; Casanova, 2009; Larcon, 2009; Ramamurti and Singh, 2009a).
Most of the existing EMNEs literature is either quite descriptive or is based on rather limited arguments in the early theoretical interpretations of foreign expansion of MNEs from emerging economies. Attempts to explain the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI) and reinforcement of EMNEs’ positions with country-specific advantages (CSA) come across several difficulties. Reasoning based on CSAs could not suffice the need for our comprehensive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of EMNEs’ competitive advantages. On one hand, today (as compared to the second half of the twentieth century) FDI is no longer the only attribute of multinational activities. Cross-border value-adding non-equity arrangements are gaining at least similar strategic importance for MNEs from both developed and emerging economies.
The incidence of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the United States decreased during 2005–2008, but noninvasive community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections also frequently lead to hospitalization. We estimated the incidence of all MRSA infections among inpatients at US academic medical centers (AMCs) per 1,000 admissions during 2003–2008.
Retrospective cohort study.
Setting and Participants.
Hospitalized patients at 90% of nonprofit US AMCs during 2003–2008.
Administrative data on MRSA infections from a hospital discharge database (University HealthSystem Consortium [UHC]) were adjusted for underreporting of the MRSA V09.0 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code and validated using chart reviews for patients with known MRSA infections in 2004–2005, 2006, and 2007.
The mean sensitivity of administrative data for MRSA infections at the University of Chicago Medical Center in three 12-month periods during 2004–2007 was 59.1%. On the basis of estimates of billing data sensitivity from the literature and the University of Chicago Medical Center, the number of MRSA infections per 1,000 hospital discharges at US AMCs increased from 20.9 (range, 11.1–47.7) in 2003 to 41.7 (range, 21.9–94.0) in 2008. At the University of Chicago Medical Center, among infections cultured more than 3 days prior to hospital discharge, CA-MRSA infections were more likely to be captured in the UHC billing-derived data than were healthcare-associated MRSA infections.
The number of hospital admissions for any MRSA infection per 1,000 hospital admissions overall increased during 2003–2008. Use of unadjusted administrative hospital discharge data or surveillance for invasive disease far underestimates the number of MRSA infections among hospitalized patients.
We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 µJ are focused to intensities ranging between 1013 and 1017 W/cm2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.
Plasma filamentation is often encountered in collisionless shocks and inertial confinement fusion. We develop a general analytical description of the two-dimensional relativistic filamentary equilibrium and derive the conditions for existence of potential-free equilibria. A pseudopotential equation for the vector-potential is constructed for cold and relativistic Maxwellian distributions. The role of counter-streaming is explained. We present single current sheet and periodic current sheet solutions, and analyze the equilibria with electric potential. These solutions can be used to study linear and nonlinear evolution of the relativistic filamentation instability.
We present preliminary results of new spectroscopic observations of dwarf nova BZ UMa in quiescence. Fifty medium resolution spectra allow us to reproduce the radial velocity curve from the Hα emission line. We confirm that BZ UMa shows extremely unusual emission lines profiles, Unlike the classical single or the double-peaked profiles usually observed in spectra of dwarf novae, emission lines of BZ UMa consist of at least five peaks.
One of the high levels of actinide, and in particular Cm, waste streams at the Russian radiochemical Production Association (PA) Mayak was generated during spent fuel reprocessing. Using oxalate precipitation, the rare earth elements (REE) and transuranic elements (TRU) settled out in the form of oxalate residues. Due to in high REE contents in this residue, the mineral-like matrix based on (REE)PO4 solid solution, with monlclinic monazite structure have been proposed to use as a suitable ceramics form for final actinide immobilization. For this purpose the synthetic REE oxalates were first transformed into REE orthophosphates in a thin-film evaporator (TFE). Then the (REE)PO4 powder was compacted both by either hot uniaxial pressing (HUP) or cold uniaxial pressing followed by sintering (CUP). This ceramic with the monazite structure has a high density and exhibits chemical durability by leaching.
We prove the existence of a family of Travelling Wave (TW) solutions for a large class of scalar reaction-diffusion equations with degenerate, nonlinear diffusion coefficients and monostable nonlinear reaction terms. We also investigate stability. Specifically, we show that, as in the linear diffusion case , the slowest TW in the family yields the asymptotic rate of the propagation of disturbances from the unstable rest state in these systems. In addition, we give conditions on the reaction term and diffusion coefficient ensuring the existence of interfaces.
The problem of nonlinear adjustment of localized front-like perturbations to a state of geostrophic equilibrium (balanced state) is studied in the framework of rotating shallow-water equations with no dependence on the along-front coordinate. We work in Lagrangian coordinates, which turns out to be conceptually and technically advantageous. First, a perturbation approach in the cross-front Rossby number is developed and splitting of the motion into slow and fast components is demonstrated for non-negative potential vorticities. We then give a non-perturbative proof of existence and uniqueness of the adjusted state, again for configurations with non-negative initial potential vorticities. We prove that wave trapping is impossible within this adjusted state and, hence, adjustment is always complete for small enough departures from balance. However, we show that retarded adjustment occurs if the adjusted state admits quasi-stationary states decaying via tunnelling across a potential barrier. A description of finite-amplitude periodic nonlinear waves known to exist in configurations with constant potential vorticity in this model is given in terms of Lagrangian variables. Finally, shock formation is analysed and semi-quantitative criteria based on the values of initial gradients and the relative vorticity of initial states are established for wave breaking showing, again, essential differences between the regions of positive and negative vorticity.
1·54 jim light-emitting erbium-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon films have been fabricated by standard low temperature (200 – 250 °C) PE CVD technique. The films were doped with erbium during the deposition by making use of a new fluorine-containing metalorganic compound Er(HFA)3*DME [where HFA=CF3C(O)CHC(O)CF3, DME=CH3OCH2CH2OCH3]. Photoluminescence spectra of the a-Si(Er):H films were studied within the range 0·6–1·7 pm at both 77 K and 295 K. A photoconductivity was also detected. The photo- to dark conductivity ratio was on the order of 103.
Cumulative thermal annealing (TA) changes the photoluminescence (PL) intensity in erbium-doped a-Si:H films prepared using DC magnetron sputtering of a composite Er-Si target at substrate temperature 200°C. The intensity of erbium-related 1.54 νm PL at 77 K is enhanced about 50 times after TA at 300°C for 15 min in nitrogen atmosphere. No erbium-related PL is observed after TA at T≤500°C. The TA process is discussed in terms of a model of partial structural rearrangement in an a-Si(Er):H amorphous network.
We studied flea assemblages on rodents in different habitats of
the Ramon erosion cirque in the Negev Desert to examine
whether host–habitat relations influence flea spatial distribution.
species parasitizing 12 rodent species were
recorded. There was significant positive relationship between flea species
and body mass of the host species; no
relationships were found between relative richness of flea assemblage and
either the number of habitats occupied by the
host species or the size of host geographical range. The differences in
pattern of flea parasitism among habitat types within
host species were determined by both environmental features of a habitat
and the specific pattern of habitat use by rodents.
There was replacement of Xenopsylla conformis by Xenopsylla
Meriones crassus and Gerbillus dasyurus among
different habitats. The results of ordination of the flea collections from
each individual host demonstrated that the flea
assemblages were segregated mainly along 4 axes, which explained 86% of
total variance. Each of the ordination axes
corresponded with a change in flea species composition. The directions
these changes were (1) among-hosts within a
habitat and (2) among-habitats within a host.
This article discusses the role of some pathogenetical factors in the main morphological variants of vascular dementia and their correlation with certain clinical parameters. On the basis of computer-tomographical (CT) studies of 62 patients with dementia, it was possible to distinguish three groups of patients, according to the type of parenchymatous brain lesions: (1) 14 patients with “pure” leukoaraiosis (LA); (2) 23 patients with ischemic foci (IF), and (3) 25 patients with a combination of LA and IF. A comparative study of these groups confirmed the concept that in the development of LA and dementia related to it, a special role is being attributed to such factors as arterial hypertension and aging.
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