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Learn to solve the unprecedented challenges facing Online Learning and Adaptive Signal Processing in this concise, intuitive text. The ever-increasing amount of data generated every day requires new strategies to tackle issues such as: combining data from a large number of sensors; improving spectral usage, utilizing multiple-antennas with adaptive capabilities; or learning from signals placed on graphs, generating unstructured data. Solutions to all of these and more are described in a condensed and unified way, enabling you to expose valuable information from data and signals in a fast and economical way. The up-to-date techniques explained here can be implemented in simple electronic hardware, or as part of multi-purpose systems. Also featuring alternative explanations for online learning, including newly developed methods and data selection, and several easily implemented algorithms, this one-of-a-kind book is an ideal resource for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in online learning and adaptive filtering.
In infracardiac, infradiaphragmatic total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, all four pulmonary veins connect to a descending vertical vein that usually drains to the portal vein or one of its tributaries. Obstruction is common, and definitive treatment is surgical repair. We present a case of late-diagnosed infradiaphragmatic total anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a premature neonate who was too high risk for surgery and underwent palliative stenting of the venous duct. We demonstrate the feasibility of a transhepatic approach when umbilical access is no longer available.
Several Miscanthus species are cultivated in the Midwest and Northeast US and feral populations can displace the native plant community and potentially negatively affect ecosystem processes. The monetary cost of eradicating feral Miscanthus populations is unknown, but quantifying eradication costs will inform decisions on whether eradication is a feasible goal and should be considered when totaling the economic damage of invasive species. We managed experimental populations of Miscanthus sinensis and Miscanthus × giganteus in three floodplain forest and three old field sites in central Illinois with the goal of eradication. We recorded the time invested in eradication efforts and tracked survival of Miscanthus plants over a five-year period, then estimated the costs associated with eradicating these Miscanthus populations. Finally, we used these estimates to predict the total monetary costs of eradicating existing M. sinensis populations reported on EDDMapS. Miscanthus populations in the old field sites were harder to eradicate, resulting in an average of 290% greater estimated eradication costs compared to the floodplain forest sites. However, the cost and time needed to eradicate Miscanthus populations was similar between Miscanthus species. On-site eradication costs ranged from $390 to $3316 per site (or $1.3 to $11 m-2) in the old field sites, compared to only $85 to $547 (or $0.92 to $1.82 m-2) with labor comprising the largest share of these costs. Using our M. sinensis eradication cost estimates in Illinois, we predict that the potential costs to eradicate populations reported on EDDMapS would range from $10 to $37 million dollars, with a median predicted cost of $22 million. The monetary costs of eradicating feral Miscanthus populations should be weighed against the benefits of cultivating these species; ultimately providing a comprehensive picture of the relative costs and benefits of adding these species to our landscapes.
Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mechanical devices at delivering high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (HQ-CPR) in various transport settings. Herein, this study investigates the efficacy of manual and mechanical HQ-CPR delivery on a fire rescue boat.
A total of 15 active firefighter-paramedics were recruited for a prospective manikin-based trial. Each paramedic performed two minutes manual compression-only CPR while navigating on a river-based fire rescue boat. The boat was piloted in either a stable linear manner or dynamic S-turn manner to simulate obstacle avoidance. For each session of manual HQ-CPR, a session of mechanical HQ-CPR was also performed with a LUCAS 3 (Stryker; Kalamazoo, Michigan USA). A total of 60 sessions were completed. Parameters recorded included compression fraction (CF) and the percentage of compressions with correct depth >5cm (D%), correct rate 100-120 (R%), full release (FR%), and correct hand position (HP%). A composite HQ-CPR score was calculated as follows: ((D% + R% + FR% + HP%)/4) * CF%). Differences in magnitude of change seen in stable versus dynamic navigation within study conditions were evaluated with a Z-score calculation. Difficulty of HQ-CPR delivery was assessed utilizing the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.
Participants were mostly male and had a median experience of 20 years. Manual HQ-CPR delivered during stable navigation out-performed manual HQ-CPR delivered during dynamic navigation for composite score and trended towards superiority for FR% and R%. There was no difference seen for any measured variable when comparing mechanical HQ-CPR delivered during stable navigation versus dynamic navigation. Mechanical HQ-CPR out-performed manual HQ-CPR during both stable and dynamic navigation in terms of composite score, FR%, and R%. Z-score calculation demonstrated that manual HQ-CPR delivery was significantly more affected by drive style than mechanical HQ-CPR delivery in terms of composite HQ-CPR score and trended towards significance for FR% and R%. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion was higher for manual CPR delivered during dynamic sessions than for stable sessions.
Mechanical HQ-CPR delivery is superior to manual HQ-CPR delivery during both stable and dynamic riverine navigation. Whereas manual HQ-CPR delivery was worse during dynamic transportation conditions compared to stable transport conditions, mechanical HQ-CPR delivery was unaffected by drive style. This suggests the utility of routine use of mechanical HQ-CPR devices in the riverine patient transport setting.
In this chapter, we discuss the measurement of working memory capacity and attention control. We begin by examining the origins of complex span measures of working memory capacity, which were created to better understand the cognitive processes underpinning language comprehension. We then review evidence for the executive attention theory of working memory, which places attention control at the center of individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Next, we describe the relationship between working memory capacity, attention control, and language comprehension, and discuss how maintenance and disengagement – two functions supported by the control of attention – contribute to performance across a range of cognitive tasks. We then identify factors that threaten the construct and criterion validity of measures of working memory capacity and attention control and detail the steps our laboratory has taken to refine these measures. We close by providing practical recommendations and resources to researchers who wish to use our new measures of working memory capacity and attention control in their work.
Scheduling methods are important for effective production and logistics management, where tasks need to be allocated and performed with limited resources. In particular, the Job-shop Scheduling Problem (JSP) is a well known and challenging combinatorial optimization problem in which tasks sharing a machine are to be arranged in a sequence such that encompassing jobs can be completed as early as possible. Given that already moderately sized JSP instances can be highly combinatorial, and neither optimal schedules nor the runtime to termination of complete optimization methods is known, efficient approaches to approximate good-quality schedules are of interest. In this paper, we propose problem decomposition into time windows whose operations can be successively scheduled and optimized by means of multi-shot Answer Set Programming (ASP) solving. From a computational perspective, decomposition aims to split highly complex scheduling tasks into better manageable subproblems with a balanced number of operations so that good-quality or even optimal partial solutions can be reliably found in a small fraction of runtime. Regarding the feasibility and quality of solutions, problem decomposition must respect the precedence of operations within their jobs and partial schedules optimized by time windows should yield better global solutions than obtainable in similar runtime on the entire instance. We devise and investigate a variety of decomposition strategies in terms of the number and size of time windows as well as heuristics for choosing their operations. Moreover, we incorporate time window overlapping and compression techniques into the iterative scheduling process to counteract window-wise optimization limitations restricted to partial schedules. Our experiments on JSP benchmark sets of several sizes show that successive optimization by multi-shot ASP solving leads to substantially better schedules within the runtime limit than global optimization on the full problem, where the gap increases with the number of operations to schedule. While the obtained solution quality still remains behind a state-of-the-art Constraint Programming system, our multi-shot solving approach comes closer the larger the instance size, demonstrating good scalability by problem decomposition.
Tree-ring chronologies encode interannual variability in forest growth rates over long time periods from decades to centuries or even millennia. However, each chronology is a highly localized measurement describing conditions at specific sites where wood samples have been collected. The question whether these local growth variabilites are representative for large geographical regions remains an open issue. To overcome the limitations of interpreting a sparse network of sites, we propose an upscaling approach for annual tree-ring indices that approximate forest growth variability and compute gridded data products that generalize the available information for multiple tree genera. Using regression approaches from machine learning, we predict tree-ring indices in space and time based on climate variables, but considering also species range maps as constraints for the upscaling. We compare various prediction strategies in cross-validation experiments to identify the best performing setup. Our estimated maps of tree-ring indices are the first data products that provide a dense view on forest growth variability at the continental level with 0.5° and 0.0083° spatial resolution covering the years 1902–2013. Furthermore, we find that different genera show very variable spatial patterns of anomalies. We have selected Europe as study region and focused on the six most prominent tree genera, but our approach is very generic and can easily be applied elsewhere. Overall, the study shows perspectives but also limitations for reconstructing spatiotemporal dynamics of complex biological processes. The data products are available at https://www.doi.org/10.17871/BACI.248.
Background: Poorly-defined cases (PDCs) of focal epilepsy are cases with no/subtle MRI abnormalities or have abnormalities extending beyond the lesion visible on MRI. Here, we evaluated the utility of Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) MRI perfusion in PDCs of pediatric focal epilepsy. Methods: ASL MRI was obtained in 25 consecutive children presenting with poorly-defined focal epilepsy (20 MRI- positive, 5 MRI-negative). Qualitative visual inspection and quantitative analysis with asymmetry and Z-score maps were used to detect perfusion abnormalities. ASL results were compared to the hypothesized epileptogenic zone (EZ) derived from other clinical/imaging data and the resection zone in patients with Engel I/II outcome and >18 month follow-up. Results: Qualitative analysis revealed perfusion abnormalities in 17/25 total cases (68%), 17/20 MRI-positive cases (85%) and none of the MRI-negative cases. Quantitative analysis confirmed all cases with abnormalities on qualitative analysis, but found 1 additional true-positive and 4 false-positives. Concordance with the surgically-proven EZ was found in 10/11 cases qualitatively (sensitivity=91%, specificity=50%), and 11/11 cases quantitatively (sensitivity=100%, specificity=23%). Conclusions: ASL perfusion may support the hypothesized EZ, but has limited localization benefit in MRI-negative cases. Nevertheless, owing to its non-invasiveness and ease of acquisition, ASL could be a useful addition to the pre-surgical MRI evaluation of pediatric focal epilepsy.
Background: Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) may produce different motor responses according to the brain area stimulated. In this study, we describe a new motor response characterized by finger movements such as a person playing piano, which we named the Piano Player Hand (PPH) sign. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the CES results of 252 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent SEEG between January 2005 and December 2019 at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital. The patients’ characteristics, SEEG findings and CES parameters were extracted to find common clinical and anatomical features. Results: The PPH sign was identified 20 times from 12 patients, with stimulation of either the supplementary motor area (SMA), anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), pre-SMA, middle frontal gyrus and anterior insula. It was obtained with high frequency stimulation, with intensity ranging from 0,7 to 3mA and mostly contralateral to the stimulation side (19/20). It was part of the ictal semiology of five patients. An afterdischarge was observed in five of the relevant CES. Conclusions: The PPH sign is a novel clinical sign, obtained mainly, but not exclusively, with CES of a small vicinity encompassing the SMA, pre-SMA and ACG. The PPH sign, when occurring ictally, may point to the premotor mesial frontal surface of the brain.
Collaboration is common practice within design disciplines and beyond. Brainstorming, discussions, and prototyping tend to occur within the same physical space. The reduction of human interaction during the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted these practices. In this paper, we focus on the possibilities and challenges of remote prototyping of four student teams by combining a double diamond approach with tools to overcome remote work challenges. The results were analyzed to understand crucial tools, advantages, and obstacles. The key challenges and opportunities were then identified and examined.
This chapter provides an overview of electromigration in metals, starting from the early studies on bulk metals to the current studies on copper interconnects. As microelectronics technology advances, electromigration becomes an important reliability problem for on-chip interconnects, evolving from the microscale to the nanoscale in copper lines. Key concepts are introduced, including the electron wind force, the Blech short-length effects, and copper damascene interconnects.