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The Ediacaran rangeomorph Fractofusus misrai is the most common and best-preserved of the E Surface fossil assemblage in the Mistaken Point Ecological Reserve of southeastern Newfoundland, Canada. Fractofusus has been interpreted as a fusiform epifaunal soft-sediment recliner, and like other rangeomorphs it has a self-similar, fractal-like branching morphology. The rangeomorph branching of Fractofusus has been considered to be identical on the upper and lower surfaces; however, study of specimens with complex biostratinomic histories suggests clear differences between the upper and lower surfaces. The first-order branches grew downwards into the sediment from a high point near the midline but grew above the sediment–water interface at their lateral and distal margins. Our new three-dimensional appreciation of rangeomorph branching in Fractofusus explains many of the taphomorphs of Fractofusus including straight, curved, kinked and tousled forms. The three-dimensional morphology, mode of life, taphonomy and palaeoenvironmental interactions of F. misrai are discussed along with a new three-dimensional reconstruction.
Secondary phosphate assemblages from the Hagendorf Süd granitic pegmatite, containing the new Mn-Al phosphate mineral, nordgauite, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Nordgauite nodules enclose crystals of the jahnsite—whiteite group of minerals, showing pronounced compositional zoning, spanning the full range of Fe/Al ratios between jahnsite and whiteite. The whiteite-rich members are F-bearing, whereas the jahnsite-rich members contain no F. Associated minerals include sphalerite, apatite, parascholzite, zwieselite-triplite solid solutions and a kingsmountite-related mineral. The average compositions of whiteite and jahnsite from different zoned regions correspond to jahnsite-(CaMnMn), whiteite-(CaMnMn) and the previously undescribed whiteite-(CaMnFe) end-members. Mo-Kα CCD intensity data were collected on a twinned crystal of the (CaMnMn)-dominant whiteite and refined in P2/a to wRobs = 0.064 for 1015 observed reflections.
Dietary pattern (DP) analysis allows examination of the combined effects of nutrients and foods on the markers of CVD. Very few studies have examined these relationships during adolescence or young adulthood. Traditional CVD risk biomarkers were analysed in 12–15-year-olds (n 487; Young Hearts (YH)1) and again in the same individuals at 20–25 years of age (n 487; YH3). Based on 7 d diet histories, in the present study, DP analysis was performed using a posteriori principal component analysis for the YH3 cohort and the a priori Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated for both YH1 and YH3 cohorts. In the a posteriori DP analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the ‘healthy’ DP were found to have lower pulse wave velocity (PWV) and homocysteine concentrations, the ‘sweet tooth’ DP were found to have increased LDL concentrations, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure and decreased HDL concentrations, the ‘drinker/social’ DP were found to have lower LDL and homocysteine concentrations, but exhibited a trend towards a higher TAG concentration, and finally the ‘Western’ DP were found to have elevated homocysteine and HDL concentrations. In the a priori dietary score analysis, YH3 participants adhering most closely to the Mediterranean diet were found to exhibit a trend towards a lower PWV. MDS did not track between YH1 and YH3, and nor was there a longitudinal relationship between the change in the MDS and the change in CVD risk biomarkers. In conclusion, cross-sectional analysis revealed that some associations between DP and CVD risk biomarkers were already evident in the young adult population, namely the association between the healthy DP (and the MDS) and PWV; however, no longitudinal associations were observed between these relatively short time periods.
Studies of individual nutrients or foods have revealed much about dietary influences on bone. Multiple food or nutrient approaches, such as dietary pattern analysis, could offer further insight but research is limited and largely confined to older adults. We examined the relationship between dietary patterns, obtained by a posteriori and a priori methods, and bone mineral status (BMS; collective term for bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD)) in young adults (20–25 years; n 489). Diet was assessed by 7 d diet history and BMD and BMC were determined at the lumbar spine and femoral neck (FN). A posteriori dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis (PCA) and three a priori dietary quality scores were applied (dietary diversity score (DDS), nutritional risk score and Mediterranean diet score). For the PCA-derived dietary patterns, women in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the ‘Nuts and Meat’ pattern had greater FN BMD by 0·074 g/cm2 (P = 0·049) and FN BMC by 0·40 g (P = 0·034) after adjustment for confounders. Similarly, men in the top compared to the bottom fifth of the ‘Refined’ pattern had lower FN BMC by 0·41 g (P = 0·049). For the a priori DDS, women in the top compared to the bottom third had lower FN BMD by 0·05 g/cm2 after adjustments (P = 0·052), but no other relationships with BMS were identified. In conclusion, adherence to a ‘Nuts and Meat’ dietary pattern may be associated with greater BMS in young women and a ‘Refined’ dietary pattern may be detrimental for bone health in young men.