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Biomarkers for psychiatric disorders are critical for patient stratification, premorbid diagnosis and personalized treatment. Our aim is to identify protein biomarkers for anxiety disorders by comparing the synaptic proteomes of a well-established mouse model of high (HAB), normal (NAB) and low (LAB) anxiety-related behavior.
We have compared protein expression levels using 15N metabolic labeling and quantitative proteomics. Mice were metabolically labeled through feeding with a 15N-enriched diet. Synaptosomes from unlabeled HAB and LAB mice were then compared with synaptosomes from 15N labeled NAB mice by quantitative mass spectrometry. Protein expression differences were validated with Western blots, enzymatic assays and in silico pathway analysis.
We have identified numerous protein expression differences between HAB and LAB synaptosome proteomes. We observed alterations in energy metabolism pathways such as the Krebs cycle as well as in mitochondrial function. Furthermore, we detected changes in transport and phosphorylation processes.
We present an accurate proteomics platform for biomarker discovery in psychiatric disorders. We identified candidate biomarkers and pathways involved in anxiety pathophysiology. Our data provide the basis for the establishment of a biomarker panel that will shed light on anxiety pathophysiology and can be applied for optimal therapeutic intervention.
Ocular-motor inhibition errors and saccadic hypometria occur at elevated rates in biological relatives of schizophrenic patients. The memory-guided saccade (MS) paradigm requires a subject to inhibit reflexive saccades (RSs) and to programme a delayed saccade towards a remembered target.
MS, RS, and central fixation (CF) tasks were administered to 16 patients who met the criteria for DSM-IV schizophrenia, 19 of their psychiatrically healthy siblings, and 18 controls.
Patients and siblings showed elevated MS error rates reflecting a failure to inhibit RSs to a visible target, as required by the task. In contrast to controls, prior errors did not improve MS accuracy in patients and siblings.
The specific characteristics of the elevated MS error rate help to clarify the nature of the disinhibition impairment found in schizophrenics and their healthy siblings. Failure to inhibit premature saccades and to improve the accuracy of subsequent volitional saccades implicates a deficit in spatial working-memory integration, mental representation and/or motor learning processes in schizophrenia.
A serial slaughter trial was carried out to examine the developmental change of physical and chemical body composition in pigs highly selected for lean content. A total of 48 pigs (17 females and 31 castrated males) were serially slaughtered and chemically analysed. Eight pigs were slaughtered at 20, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 140 kg live weight, (LW) respectively. The carcass was chilled and the left carcass side was dissected into the primal carcass cuts ham, loin, shoulder, belly and neck. Each primal carcass cut was further dissected into lean tissue, bones and rind. Additionally, the physical and chemical body composition was obtained for the total empty body as well as for the three fractions soft tissue, bones and viscera. Viscera included the organs, blood, empty intestinal tract and leaf fat. The relationship between physical or chemical body composition and empty body weight (EBWT) at slaughter was assessed using allometric equations (log10y=log10a+b log10 EBWT). Dressing percentage increased from 69·4 to 85·2% at 20 to 120 kg and then decreased to 83·1% at 140 kg LW, whereas percentage of soft tissue, bones and viscera changed from 23·5 to 33·0%, 10·1 to 6·3% and 14·7 to 10·3%, respectively, during the entire growth period. Substantial changes in proportional weights of carcass cuts on the left carcass side were obtained for loin (10·5 to 17·5%) and belly (11·3 to 13·8%) during growth from 20 to 140 kg. Soft tissue fraction showed an allometric coefficient above 1 ( b=1·14) reflecting higher growth rate in relation to the total empty body. The coefficients for the fractions bones and viscera were substantially below 1 with b=0·77 and 0·79, respectively, indicating substantial lower growth relative to growth of the total empty body. Lean tissue allometric growth rate of different primal cuts ranged from b=1·02 (neck) to 1·28 (belly), whereas rates of components associated with fat tissue growth rate ranged from b=0·62 (rind of belly) to 1·79 (backfat). For organs, allometric growth rate ranged from b=0·61 (liver) to 0·90 (spleen). For the entire empty body, allometric accretion rate was 1·01, 1·75, 1·02 and 0·85 for protein, lipid, ash and water, respectively. Extreme increase in lipid deposition was obtained during growth from 120 to 140 kg growth. This was strongly associated with an increase in backfat and leaf fat in this period. Interestingly, breeds selected for high leanness such as Piétrain sired progeny showed an extreme increase in lipid accretion at a range of LW from 120 to 140 kg, which indicates that selection has only postponed the lipid deposition to an higher weight compared with the normally used final weight of 100 kg on the performance test. The estimates obtained for allometric growth rates of primal carcass cuts, body tissue and chemical body composition can be used to predict changes in weight of carcass cuts, determine selection goals concerning lean tissue growth, food intake capacity, etc. and generally as input parameters for pig growth models that can be used to improve the efficiency of the entire pig production system for pigs highly selected for lean content.
The objective of this study was to develop accurate mathematical-statistical functions to estimate body composition of live pigs between 20 and 140 kg weight from total body water (TBWA) determined by the deuterium dilution technique. Chemical body compositions during the growth period are essential input parameters for biological pig growth models, which are used to estimated the nutrient requirements, improve the entire production system, determine optimal slaughter weight, optimize selection for food intake, etc. In the present study, 48 pigs (17 female and 31 castrated males) were used in an experimental station to obtain protein, lipid, ash and water content at 20, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 140 kg live weight. At each target weight, body water of the animals was determined by the deuterium dilution technique. Eight pigs of each live-weight group were slaughtered and chemically analysed. Water content of the empty body decreased from 74 to 53%, whereas lipid content rose from 7 to 30%. Between 20 and 30 kg body weight, protein content increased from 16 to 17% and thereafter decreased to 16%. Ash content was constant at 3%. To estimate body composition of the remaining animals from TBWA (%) determined by deuterium dilution technique, two sets of exponential prediction functions were used to describe the relationship between chemically analysed body components and TBWA (%). The first set of prediction functions fitted one intercept for the entire growth period and the second set of prediction functions fitted a different intercept for each weight class. Correlation coefficients between estimated and chemically determined empty body water, lipid, protein and ash for the first set of functions were 0·93, 0·86, 0·83 and 0·65, respectively. The second set of prediction functions showed higher accuracy (2 to 10%), but had the disadvantage of non-continuous estimates over the entire growth period. In contrast, by using the first set of prediction functions, a continuous accurate estimation of body composition of live pigs was obtained over a large range of growth (20 to 140 kg) based on deuterium dilution space.
We evaluated selected cool-season annual and perennial legumes as potential ground covers to supply nitrogen and to increase beneficial arthropod populations in a pecan orchard. Densities of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae), lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), damsel bug (Hemiptera: Nabidae), green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), brown lacewings (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae), hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae), spined soldier bug and other stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and spiders (Araneida) were monitored at 7–14 day intervals during the growing season for three years. Aboveground biomass production and nitrogen content of the legumes was measured for two years. Aphids peaked during early spring each year, with the highest density usually on ‘Dixie’ crimson clover and ‘Kenland’ red clover. Density of lady beetles was positively correlated with that of aphids, but spider densities were not. Other arthropods usually were not abundant. Nitrogen in the tops of the annual legumes ranged from 20 kg/ha to 89 kg/ha when assessed after a single harvest at anthesis; for the perennial legumes it was from 108 kg/ha to 179 kg/ha following two harvests in June and September. We chose two annual legumes (‘Dixie’ crimson clover and hairy vetch) and two perennial legumes (‘Louisiana S-1’ white clover and ‘Kenland’ red clover) for further evaluation.
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