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Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
Cognition heavily relies on social determinants and genetic background. Latin America comprises approximately 8% of the global population and faces unique challenges, many derived from specific demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as violence and inequality. While such factors have been described to influence mental health outcomes, no large-scale studies with Latin American population have been carried out. Therefore, we aim to describe the cognitive performance of a representative sample of Latin American individuals with schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical factors. Additionally, we aim to investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) relates to cognitive performance in patients and controls.
We included 1175 participants from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico): 864 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 unaffected subjects. All participants were part of projects that included cognitive evaluation with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and clinical assessments.
Patients showed worse cognitive performance than controls across all domains. Age and diagnosis were independent predictors, indicating similar trajectories of cognitive aging for both patients and controls. The SES factors of education, parental education, and income were more related to cognition in patients than in controls. Cognition was also influenced by symptomatology.
Patients did not show evidence of accelerated cognitive aging; however, they were most impacted by a lower SES suggestive of deprived environment than controls. These findings highlight the vulnerability of cognitive capacity in individuals with psychosis in face of demographic and socioeconomic factors in low- and middle-income countries.
Typhlocoelum cucumerinum is a tracheal parasite of birds widely distributed across the globe. Nevertheless, aspects of the biology of this cyclocoelid are still poorly understood. Herein, we report the finding of T. cucumerinum in definitive and intermediate hosts from an urban waterbody of Brazil. The parasite was initially detected during the necropsy of domestic Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) found dead in the locality. Coproparasitological tests in live animals revealed that 12/47 (25.53%) Muscovy ducks and 2/8 (25%) mallards (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) were infected with T. cucumerinum. Moreover, rediae and metacercariae morphologically similar to T. cucumerinum were found in 3/248 (1.33%) Biomphalaria straminea collected in the same waterbody frequented by the birds. The conspecificity between the adult and the larval stages was confirmed molecularly (100% similarity in Cox-1). Moreover, the phylogenetic position of T. cucumerinum was determined for the first time based on partial fragments of the 28S, Cox-1 and Nad-1 genes. The species grouped with other members of the subfamily Typhlocoelinae with sequences available, but the data obtained do not support the distinctiveness of the genera Typhlocoelum and Tracheophilus. Further studies involving a broader range of species can result in taxonomic rearrangements in Typhlocoelinae.
Diagnosis of CHD substantially affects parent mental health and family functioning, thereby influencing child neurodevelopmental and psychosocial outcomes. Recognition of the need to proactively support parent mental health and family functioning following cardiac diagnosis to promote psychosocial adaptation has increased substantially over recent years. However, significant gaps in knowledge remain and families continue to report critical unmet psychosocial needs. The Parent Mental Health and Family Functioning Working Group of the Cardiac Neurodevelopmental Outcome Collaborative was formed in 2018 through support from an R13 grant from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to identify significant knowledge gaps related to parent mental health and family functioning, as well as critical questions that must be answered to further knowledge, policy, care, and outcomes. Conceptually driven investigations are needed to identify parent mental health and family functioning factors with the strongest influence on child outcomes, to obtain a deeper understanding of the biomarkers associated with these factors, and to better understand how parent mental health and family functioning influence child outcomes over time. Investigations are also needed to develop, test, and implement sustainable models of mental health screening and assessment, as well as effective interventions to optimise parent mental health and family functioning to promote psychosocial adaptation. The critical questions and investigations outlined in this paper provide a roadmap for future research to close gaps in knowledge, improve care, and promote positive outcomes for families of children with CHD.
Varicella poses an occupational risk and a nosocomial risk for susceptible healthcare personnel and patients, respectively. Patients with varicella are thought to be infectious from 1 to 2 days before rash onset until all lesions are crusted, typically 4–7 days after onset of rash. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases to assess evidence of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) transmission before varicella rash onset. Few articles (7) contributed epidemiologic evidence; no formal studies were found. Published articles reported infectiousness at variable intervals before rash onset, between <1 day to 4 days prior to rash, with 1–2 patients for each interval. Laboratory assessment of transmission before rash was also limited (10 articles). No culture-positive results were reported. VZV DNA was identified by PCR before rash onset in only one study however, PCR does not indicate infectivity of the virus. Based on available medical literature, VZV transmission before rash onset seems unlikely, although the possibility of pre-rash, respiratory transmission cannot be entirely ruled out.
Parasites have the power to impose significant regulatory pressures on host populations, making evolutionary patterns of host switching by parasites salient to a range of contemporary ecological issues. However, relatively little is known about the colonization of new hosts by parasitic, commensal and mutualistic eukaryotes of metazoans. As ubiquitous symbionts of coelomate animals, Blastocystis spp. represent excellent candidate organisms for the study of evolutionary patterns of host switching by protists. Here, we apply a big-data phylogenetic approach using archival sequence data to assess the relative roles of several host-associated traits in shaping the evolutionary history of the Blastocystis species-complex within an ecological framework. Patterns of host usage were principally determined by geographic location and shared environments of hosts, suggesting that weight of exposure (i.e. propagule pressure) represents the primary force for colonization of new hosts within the Blastocystis species-complex. While Blastocystis lineages showed a propensity to recolonize the same host taxa, these taxa were often evolutionarily unrelated, suggesting that historical contingency and retention of previous adaptions by the parasite were more important to host switching than host phylogeny. Ultimately, our findings highlight the ability of ecological theory (i.e. ‘ecological fitting’) to explain host switching and host specificity within the Blastocystis species-complex.
In April 2019, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released its recovery plan for the jaguar Panthera onca after several decades of discussion, litigation and controversy about the status of the species in the USA. The USFWS estimated that potential habitat, south of the Interstate-10 highway in Arizona and New Mexico, had a carrying capacity of c. six jaguars, and so focused its recovery programme on areas south of the USA–Mexico border. Here we present a systematic review of the modelling and assessment efforts over the last 25 years, with a focus on areas north of Interstate-10 in Arizona and New Mexico, outside the recovery unit considered by the USFWS. Despite differences in data inputs, methods, and analytical extent, the nine previous studies found support for potential suitable jaguar habitat in the central mountain ranges of Arizona and New Mexico. Applying slightly modified versions of the USFWS model and recalculating an Arizona-focused model over both states provided additional confirmation. Extending the area of consideration also substantially raised the carrying capacity of habitats in Arizona and New Mexico, from six to 90 or 151 adult jaguars, using the modified USFWS models. This review demonstrates the crucial ways in which choosing the extent of analysis influences the conclusions of a conservation plan. More importantly, it opens a new opportunity for jaguar conservation in North America that could help address threats from habitat losses, climate change and border infrastructure.
Superior caval vein stenosis is a known complication following paediatric heart transplantation. Herein, we sought to assess the incidence of superior caval vein stenosis and need for intervention in a single centre paediatric heart transplantation programme. A retrospective review was performed to identify variables associated with superior caval vein stenosis and need for intervention. Patients were identified based on angiographic and echocardiographic signs of superior caval vein stenosis. Of 204 paediatric heart transplantation recipients, 49 (24.0%) had evidence of superior caval vein stenosis with no need for catheter intervention and 12 (5.9%) had superior caval vein stenosis requiring catheter intervention. Overall, patients with superior caval vein stenosis with and without intervention had more cavopulmonary anastomosis (41.7%; 20.4%), pre-transplant superior caval vein procedures (41.7%; 28.6%), and bicaval approach (100.0%; 98.0%), compared to the group with no stenosis (11.9% and p = 0.015, 12.6% and p = 0.004, 73.4% and p < 0.001, respectively). Smaller recipients and donors were more likely to need intervention. Intervention was also seen more frequently in recipients who were younger at diagnosis (4.7 years) compared to non-intervention (13.3 years; p = 0.040). Re-intervention was required in 16.7% patients (n = 2) and was not associated with any complications.
Amphistome species belonging to the genus Catadiscus are poorly studied intestinal trematodes found primarily in Neotropical anurans. Herein, developmental stages of an amphistome species found during herpetological and malacological surveys in a temporary marsh pond from Brazil were subjected to morphological (light and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular analyses. Adult parasites recovered from anurans were identified as Catadiscus marinholutzi. Amphistome cercariae found in the planorbid snails Drepanotrema depressissimum and Drepanotrema lucidum from the same waterbody were used for experimental and molecular studies. Immature parasites, morphologically compatible with members of Catadiscus, were experimentally obtained in laboratory-reared tadpoles. Sequencing of a partial region of 28S rDNA gene of both adult and cercariae revealed 100% similarity between these developmental stages, confirming their conspecificity. Phylogenetic analyses were attempted for the first time to reveal the position of a species of Catadiscus in the superfamily Paramphistomoidea. Catadiscus marinholutzi falls in a virtual polytomy together with other paramphistomoids, which leaves its phylogenetic relationships within the group unclear. Moreover, the high genetic divergence to Diplodiscus spp. (10.06–10.84%) cast doubts on the placement of Catadiscus within Diplodiscidae. Hence the species composition of the Diplodiscidae should be re-evaluated in further studies using a broader spectrum of related taxa.
A late Pleistocene glaciolacustrine record was studied at Fagnano Lake (54°35´S, 67°20´W), central Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, southernmost South America. Two profiles from the Río Valdéz outcrop were collected for isotopic, geochemical, sedimentological, and geophysical analyses. The sedimentological characteristics, such as rhythmites, presence of dropstones, absence of fossil record, and scarce presence of organic matter, suggest deposition in an ice-contact lake, possibly dammed by the Fagnano paleoglacier. Organic matter of C3 plant origin suggests certain cold and wet conditions. A chronology of the late Pleistocene outcrop was obtained from five 14C ages resulting in an age-depth model. The time span covered 49.01 cal ka BP to 32.14 cal ka BP. Based on the thickness of the deposit and the calculated average sedimentation rate, the glacial environment could have been present in the study area prior to the last glacial maximum, in agreement with the Inútil-San Sebastián paleoglacier. Both glaciers flowed from the same mountain ice sheet in the Darwin Cordillera, which makes it possible to infer a different behavior of this ice cap from those of the Patagonian Andes, perhaps forced by different atmospheric dynamics and proximity to the wet and cold subantarctic air masses.
El Maye is a community located in the municipality of Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo, in the central region of Mexico. During the late Postclassic period (1350–1521 AD), the Aztecs controlled the area through the establishment of a dual-headed system, one part belonging to the Aztec government and the other to the local government. El Maye was the local government center for the Ixmiquilpan territory under the Aztec domain. The residential units of El Maye archaeological site were constructed in 6 different occupational phases, with the presence of large rooms, stucco floors and walls, offerings, and a variety of ceramics belonging to the late Aztec III ceramic period (1400–1520 AD). The Axis Project of the Mezquital Valley (PEVM-ENAH) and the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (LEMA-UNAM) have undertaken a collaborative study of the El Maye site by performing absolute radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS) dating. For a better understanding of the emergence and development of El Maye, a series of AMS 14C dates of charcoal and bone samples recovered from different stratigraphic levels, was performed. This allowed us to locate the occupation of the site between 1320 and 1625 cal AD.
The inhibitory effect of positional syllable frequency is a well-known phenomenon in visual word recognition: words with high-frequency syllables require extra time for deactivating the lexical syllabic neighbors. The inhibitory effect implies that a connection exists between graphemes, phonemes, the first syllable, and the phonological lexicon. However, experimental results of the first developmental stages of occurrence are scarce and inconclusive. A second- and fourth-grade sample of typical school readers participated in a lexical decision task containing high/low frequency words and high/low syllable frequency words. Our primary hypothesis was that the inhibitory effect would be found on both school grade groups. We did not predict significant differences in magnitude of effect between second- and fourth-grade participants. A general inhibitory effect was found, and separate analyses by school grade groups also indicated significant inhibitory effects. Furthermore, second- and fourth-grade children showed small sizes of the inhibitory effect, resembling the sizes found in adult normal readers. Our results suggest that Spanish readers reach a functional connection between syllables and words at an early stage. The straightforward theoretical implication is that the inhibitory effect relies heavily on the structural properties of the lexical access system that are acquired at an early age.
The ability to manage emotions is an important social-cognitive domain impaired in schizophrenia and linked to functional outcome. The goal of our study was to examine the impact of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) on the ability to manage emotions and brain functional connectivity in early-course schizophrenia.
Participants were randomly assigned to CET (n = 55) or an enriched supportive therapy (EST) control group (n = 45). The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and measures of emotion management performances were collected at baseline, 9, and 18 months follow-up. The final sample consisted of 37 CET and 25 EST participants, including 19 CET and 12 EST participants with imaging data. Linear mixed-effects models investigated the impact of treatment on emotion management and functional connectivity from the amygdala to ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC).
The CET group showed significant improvement over time in emotion management compared to EST. Neither functional connectivity changes nor main group differences were observed following treatment. However, a significant between-group interaction showed that improved emotion management ability was associated with increased functional connectivity between the left amygdala and the left dlPFC in the CET group exclusively.
Our results replicate the previous work demonstrating that CET is effective at improving some aspects of social cognition in schizophrenia. We found evidence that improvement in emotion management may be associated with a change in amygdala-dlPFC connectivity. This fronto-limbic circuit may provide a mechanistic link between the biology of emotion management processes that can be enhanced in individuals with schizophrenia.
Through diversity of composition, sequence, and interfacial structure, hybrid materials greatly expand the palette of materials available to access novel functionality. The NSF Division of Materials Research recently supported a workshop (October 17–18, 2019) aiming to (1) identify fundamental questions and potential solutions common to multiple disciplines within the hybrid materials community; (2) initiate interfield collaborations between hybrid materials researchers; and (3) raise awareness in the wider community about experimental toolsets, simulation capabilities, and shared facilities that can accelerate this research. This article reports on the outcomes of the workshop as a basis for cross-community discussion. The interdisciplinary challenges and opportunities are presented, and followed with a discussion of current areas of progress in subdisciplines including hybrid synthesis, functional surfaces, and functional interfaces.
Psychosocial stress in childhood and adolescence is linked to stress system dysregulation, although few studies have examined the relative impacts of parental harshness and parental disengagement. This study prospectively tested whether parental harshness and disengagement show differential associations with overall cortisol output in adolescence. Associations between overall cortisol output and adolescent mental health problems were tested concurrently. Adolescents from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) provided hair samples for cortisol assay at 15 years (N = 171). Caregivers reported on parental harshness and disengagement experiences at 1, 3, 5, 9, and 15 years, and adolescents reported at 15 years. Both parent and adolescent reported depressive and anxiety symptoms and antisocial behaviors at 15. Greater parental harshness from 1–15 years, and harshness reported at 15 years in particular, was associated with higher overall cortisol output at 15. Greater parental disengagement from 1–15 years, and disengagement at 1 year specifically, was associated with lower cortisol output. There were no significant associations between cortisol output and depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or antisocial behaviors. These results suggest that the unique variances of parental harshness and disengagement may have opposing associations with cortisol output at 15 years, with unclear implications for adolescent mental health.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) tend to lack insight, which is linked to poor outcomes. The effect size of previous treatments on insight changes in SSD has been small. Metacognitive interventions may improve insight in SSD, although this remains unproved.
We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the effects of metacognitive interventions designed for SSD, namely Metacognitive Training (MCT) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT), on changes in cognitive and clinical insight at post-treatment and at follow-up.
Twelve RCTs, including 10 MCT RCTs (n = 717 participants) and two MERIT trials (n = 90), were selected, totalling N = 807 participants. Regarding cognitive insight six RCTs (n = 443) highlighted a medium effect of MCT on self-reflectiveness at post-treatment, d = 0.46, p < 0.01, and at follow-up, d = 0.30, p < 0.01. There was a small effect of MCT on self-certainty at post-treatment, d = −0.23, p = 0.03, but not at follow-up. MCT was superior to controls on an overall Composite Index of cognitive insight at post-treatment, d = 1.11, p < 0.01, and at follow-up, d = 0.86, p = 0.03, although we found evidence of heterogeneity. Of five MCT trials on clinical insight (n = 244 participants), which could not be meta-analysed, four of them favoured MCT compared v. control. The two MERIT trials reported conflicting results.
Metacognitive interventions, particularly Metacognitive Training, appear to improve insight in patients with SSD, especially cognitive insight shortly after treatment. Further long-term RCTs are needed to establish whether these metacognitive interventions-related insight changes are sustained over a longer time period and result in better outcomes.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Based on technologies capable of data collection between the millimeter and nanometer scales, correlative imaging has been transforming how researchers obtain molecular and spatial information from specimens. Attempts to combine multidimensional data are often met with the challenge of overcoming suboptimal sample conditions such as reduced fluorescence signal, poor specimen preservation, anisotropic specimen deformation, and low specimen contrast. These issues motivated the development and use of enhanced sample preparation procedures, as well as specialized imaging software to overcome such challenges. In this work we present three simple methods to correlate optical and scanning electron microscopy images.