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Increasing evidence suggests that clock genes may be implicated in a spectrum of psychiatric diseases, including sleep and mood related disorders as well as schizophrenia. The bHLH transcription factors SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE41 and SHARP2/DEC1/BHLHE40 are modulators of the circadian system and SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE40 has been shown to regulate homeostatic sleep drive in humans.
In this study, we characterized Sharp1 and Sharp2 double mutant mice (S1/2-/-) using online EEG recordings in living animals, behavioral assays, global gene expression profiling and bioinformatic modeling. Gene expression in human brains samples was performed with qRT-PCR.
EEG recordings revealed attenuated sleep/wake amplitudes and alterations of theta oscillations. Increased sleep in the dark phase is paralleled by reduced voluntary activity and cortical gene expression signatures reveal associations with psychiatric diseases. S1/2-/- mice display alterations in novelty induced activity, anxiety and curiosity. Moreover, mutant mice exhibit impaired working memory and deficits in prepulse inhibition resembling symptoms of psychiatric diseases. Network modeling indicates a connection between neural plasticity and clock genes, particularly for SHARP1 and PER1, which are also significantly downregulated in the frontal cortex of schizophrenic patients.
Our findings support the hypothesis that abnormal sleep and certain (endo)phenotypes of psychiatric diseases may be caused by common mechanisms involving components of the molecular clock including SHARP1 and SHARP2
Most germplasm lines and improved sorghum genotypes identified as resistant to shoot fly (Atherigona soccata Rond.), stem borer (Chilo partellus Swin.), midge (Contarinia sorghicola Coq.) and head bugs (Calocoris angustatus Leth.) are resistant to only one of these insects which usually will infest the same crop during the same season. At ICRISAT Center, India, a technique was developed in which entries were subjected to an array of combinations of pest infestations for identifying and separating genotypes with resistance to one or more insects.
Using this technique, 220 resistance sources and breeding lines were evaluated for multiple insect resistance. Less than 10% of shoot fly resistance sources had acceptable resistance (< 3 on a scale of 1–9) to shoot fly, but over 50% showed good resistance (scores of 1–3) to stem borer. IS 18551 and IS 2195 were the best entries with resistance to both shoot fly and stem borer. However, the majority (80–90%) of shoot fly and stem borer resistant sources were highly susceptible to midge with scores > 8. Similarly, all midge resistant sources were highly susceptible to shoot fly but less so to stem borer where seven midge lines had scores < 5. IS 22464 was the best midge line with a score of 3 for stem borer resistance. Advanced breeding lines showed a wider range of resistance to shoot fly, stem borer and midge with a higher frequency for resistance to stem borer, PS 28060−3 and PM 14388−1 were the most promising breeding lines.
Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the insect-pest management either alone or in combination with other control methods. A number of sorghum genotypes showing varying levels of resistance to spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe have been identified using natural and artificial infestations. Major resistance mechanisms are antibiosis and tolerance, though some genotypes exhibit ovipositional non-preferences. There have been a number of factors involved in spotted stem borer resistance; a resistant genotype possesses either one or a combination of these traits. Progress has been made in developing borer resistant breeding lines with moderate yield and acceptable grain quality. Borer resistance is a quantitatively inherited trait governed by additive and non-additive genes. Epistatic gene effects are more pronounced under artificial borer infestation. Cytoplasmic effects appear to be present.
Several species of Chilo are serious pests of cereal crops. The important species attacking cereals are Chilo agamemnon, C. orichalcociliellus and C. partellus on maize and sorghum; C. auricilius and C. zacconius on sugar-cane, and rice; C. suppressalis on rice; and C. sacchariphagus indicus on sugar-cane. Insects are reared in the laboratory on natural and artificial diets for various purposes, namely for insecticide testing, hormone and pheromone manipulation, biological control, host-plant resistance, etc. Rearing of an insect in the laboratory requires rearing facilities, colony establishment, research and development of rearing techniques, resources, and maintenance of insect quality. All these aspects for rearing major Chilo spp. have been discussed. However, detailed information is available only for C. partellus and C. suppressalis. Techniques used for resistance screening and damage evaluation against spotted stem borer, C. partellus using naturally occurring population and artificial infestation are described.
The paper stresses the fact that an integrated pest management system is not a new concept leading to a more stable agroecosystem, but was practiced by the farmers for centuries; host-plant resistance is one of its major components. The system was destabilized by the introduction of new sorghum varieties and hybrids not resistant against the major sorghum insect pests like shootfly Atherigona soccata (Rondani); stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe); midge, Contarinia sorghicola (Coquillet); and headbugs, Calocoris angustatus (Lethiery). In order to balance the agroecosystem again, an integrated insect pest management system for sorghum has to be developed based on traditional pest management practices. These are host-plant resistance, cultural control and biological control. Insecticides should be used only if absolutely necessary. For a better understanding of such a control approach, a summary of the biology and population dynamics of the major insects is given, together with a brief account on the levels and mechanisms of host-plant resistance so far known. Based on this information, the rainfall pattern, plant duration to maturity, time of planting, natural enemies and insecticides, a sorghum based integrated pest management system is proposed for the monsoon and post-monsoon season in which host-plant resistance alone or in combination with the above mentioned control methods could be used.
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