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Several hypotheses may explain the association between substance use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. However, few studies have utilized a large multisite dataset to understand this complex relationship. Our study assessed the relationship between alcohol and cannabis use trajectories and PTSD and depression symptoms across 3 months in recently trauma-exposed civilians.
In total, 1618 (1037 female) participants provided self-report data on past 30-day alcohol and cannabis use and PTSD and depression symptoms during their emergency department (baseline) visit. We reassessed participant's substance use and clinical symptoms 2, 8, and 12 weeks posttrauma. Latent class mixture modeling determined alcohol and cannabis use trajectories in the sample. Changes in PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed across alcohol and cannabis use trajectories via a mixed-model repeated-measures analysis of variance.
Three trajectory classes (low, high, increasing use) provided the best model fit for alcohol and cannabis use. The low alcohol use class exhibited lower PTSD symptoms at baseline than the high use class; the low cannabis use class exhibited lower PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline than the high and increasing use classes; these symptoms greatly increased at week 8 and declined at week 12. Participants who already use alcohol and cannabis exhibited greater PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline that increased at week 8 with a decrease in symptoms at week 12.
Our findings suggest that alcohol and cannabis use trajectories are associated with the intensity of posttrauma psychopathology. These findings could potentially inform the timing of therapeutic strategies.
Childhood adversities (CAs) predict heightened risks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) among people exposed to adult traumatic events. Identifying which CAs put individuals at greatest risk for these adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) is important for targeting prevention interventions.
Data came from n = 999 patients ages 18–75 presenting to 29 U.S. emergency departments after a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and followed for 3 months, the amount of time traditionally used to define chronic PTSD, in the Advancing Understanding of Recovery After Trauma (AURORA) study. Six CA types were self-reported at baseline: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect and bullying. Both dichotomous measures of ever experiencing each CA type and numeric measures of exposure frequency were included in the analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) of these CA measures as well as complex interactions among these measures were examined as predictors of APNS 3 months post-MVC. APNS was defined as meeting self-reported criteria for either PTSD based on the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and/or MDE based on the PROMIS Depression Short-Form 8b. We controlled for pre-MVC lifetime histories of PTSD and MDE. We also examined mediating effects through peritraumatic symptoms assessed in the emergency department and PTSD and MDE assessed in 2-week and 8-week follow-up surveys. Analyses were carried out with robust Poisson regression models.
Most participants (90.9%) reported at least rarely having experienced some CA. Ever experiencing each CA other than emotional neglect was univariably associated with 3-month APNS (RRs = 1.31–1.60). Each CA frequency was also univariably associated with 3-month APNS (RRs = 1.65–2.45). In multivariable models, joint associations of CAs with 3-month APNS were additive, with frequency of emotional abuse (RR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.43–2.87) and bullying (RR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99–2.10) being the strongest predictors. Control variable analyses found that these associations were largely explained by pre-MVC histories of PTSD and MDE.
Although individuals who experience frequent emotional abuse and bullying in childhood have a heightened risk of experiencing APNS after an adult MVC, these associations are largely mediated by prior histories of PTSD and MDE.
Racial and ethnic groups in the USA differ in the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Recent research however has not observed consistent racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic stress in the early aftermath of trauma, suggesting that such differences in chronic PTSD rates may be related to differences in recovery over time.
As part of the multisite, longitudinal AURORA study, we investigated racial/ethnic differences in PTSD and related outcomes within 3 months after trauma. Participants (n = 930) were recruited from emergency departments across the USA and provided periodic (2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months after trauma) self-report assessments of PTSD, depression, dissociation, anxiety, and resilience. Linear models were completed to investigate racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic dysfunction with subsequent follow-up models assessing potential effects of prior life stressors.
Racial/ethnic groups did not differ in symptoms over time; however, Black participants showed reduced posttraumatic depression and anxiety symptoms overall compared to Hispanic participants and White participants. Racial/ethnic differences were not attenuated after accounting for differences in sociodemographic factors. However, racial/ethnic differences in depression and anxiety were no longer significant after accounting for greater prior trauma exposure and childhood emotional abuse in White participants.
The present findings suggest prior differences in previous trauma exposure partially mediate the observed racial/ethnic differences in posttraumatic depression and anxiety symptoms following a recent trauma. Our findings further demonstrate that racial/ethnic groups show similar rates of symptom recovery over time. Future work utilizing longer time-scale data is needed to elucidate potential racial/ethnic differences in long-term symptom trajectories.
Nutritional studies (House, 1954, a-d; House and Barlow, 1956) with the sarcophagid Pseudosarcophaga affinis (Fall.) have been in progress for a number of years at the Belleville laboratory. Recently a new technique was developed for the care of large numbers of small lots of P. affinis. This makes use of a convenient holder for larval rearing tubes; a cage assembly for rearing pupae and flies; and a rack to hold a large number of cages, each easily accessible and uniformly illuminated, in a minimum of space. When this equipment is used, the treatment of the insects is more uniform and less time-consuming than with the equipment previously used. The new technique and equipment are described in this paper.
An unique development in insect dietetics is announced, namely, the rearing of an hymenopteran — Itoplectis conquisitor (Say), an ichneumonid endoparasitoid of other insects — axenically on a chemically-defined synthetic diet. First heuristic attempts produced a yield of about 17% adults.
Agria [= Pseudosarcophaga] affinis (Fall.) and Aphaereta pallipes (Say) make an excellent host-parasitoid couple for a determination of effects of host diet on a parasitoid. The anatomy, life history, and behaviour of these insects have been described (Salkeld, 1959; Coppel et al., 1959). Moreover, A. affinis can be reared axenically on chemically defined diets and it is readily attacked in the laboratory by A. pallipes, a parasitoid of the onion maggot, Hylemya antiqua (Meig.). This parasitoid deposits eggs into the body cavity of its host and these increase in size: the duration of the egg stage depends on the age of the host larva when parasitized (Salkeld, 1959).
In India, sorghum is grown during the post-rainy season on Vertisols with stored soil moisture. As water stress towards the end of the growing season is believed to be a major cause of poor yields in these crops, an experiment was carried out involving five sorghum genotypes and four sowing dates with and without irrigation.
Supplementary irrigation with 40 mm of water in the earliest sown crop increased grain yields by 24 and 26% in 1979 and 1982, respectively, while irrigation with a total of 120mm water in the latest sown crop increased yields by 87 and 60% compared with the corresponding dryland crops. Early sowings always resulted in better stover and grain yields irrespective of irrigation treatment. Grain yields of hybrids were similar to those of the cultivars but their stover yields were less. The post-rainy season cultivar SPY 86 gave the best grain yield across sowing dates. The widely grown post-rainy season cultivar M 35–1 yielded less but produced more stover and its yields were more stable. The importance of the stability of grain and stover yields and of evaluating the materials for more than one date of sowing in selecting sorghums for the post-rainy season is discussed.
ZnSe/GaAs heterojunctions were investigated by contactless electroreflectance and photoreflectance techniques. Negative surface charge densities on the order of 1012 cm-2 were observed for films grown on n-type GaAs indicating a large contribution to the conduction band barrier between the materials due to band bending. The conduction band offset was also measured using a new photoreflectance technique involving a tunable pump laser.
High quality ZnSe:Cl has been grown on GaAs by gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE); elemental Zn and H2Se are used as source materials, with ZnCl2 as a dopant source for donors. Atomic Cl concentrations ([Cl]) approaching 1020 cm−3 have been incorporated into the lattice as indicated by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). At incorporation levels greater than 1020 cm−3, an appreciable decrease in the growth rate has been observed. The sharp transition to a negligible growth rate is attributed to the occurrence of a surface chemical reaction originating from Cl and H which are present in the GSMBE environment. For [Cl] as high as 4 x 1018 cm−3, the films exhibited high crystalline quality, as indicated by photoluminescence originating from a single intense donor-bound excitonic transition. Hydrogenation of semiconductors can potentially result in the electrical passivation of incorporated acceptor and donor species. In the case of ZnSe:Cl, H was present in the ZnSe layers, but did not appear to adversely affect the electrical properties of the n-type films. In contrast, for the growth of ZnSe:N, where a nitrogen plasma cell was employed as a source of nitrogen, the H concentration (as determined by SIMS) was observed to track the N concentration. The ZnSe:N films were highly resistive for various amounts of N incorporation, which suggests that H incorporation is an issue of primary importance in the p-type doping of ZnSe grown by GSMBE.
Host-plant resistance plays an important role in the insect-pest management either alone or in combination with other control methods. A number of sorghum genotypes showing varying levels of resistance to spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus Swinhoe have been identified using natural and artificial infestations. Major resistance mechanisms are antibiosis and tolerance, though some genotypes exhibit ovipositional non-preferences. There have been a number of factors involved in spotted stem borer resistance; a resistant genotype possesses either one or a combination of these traits. Progress has been made in developing borer resistant breeding lines with moderate yield and acceptable grain quality. Borer resistance is a quantitatively inherited trait governed by additive and non-additive genes. Epistatic gene effects are more pronounced under artificial borer infestation. Cytoplasmic effects appear to be present.
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