To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper proposes a procedure to improve the accuracy of the light aircraft 6 DOF simulation model by implementing model tuning and aerodynamic database correction using flight test data. In this study, the full-scale flight testing of a 2-seater aircraft has been performed in specific longitudinal manoeuver for model enhancement and simulation validation purposes. The baseline simulation model database is constructed using multi-fidelity analysis methods such as wind tunnel (W/T) test, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) and empirical calculation. The enhancement process starts with identifying longitudinal equations of motion for sensitivity analysis, where the effect of crucial parameters is analysed and then adjusted using the model tuning technique. Next, the classical Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation method is applied to calculate aerodynamic derivatives from flight test data, these parameters are utilised to correct the initial aerodynamic table. A simulation validation process is introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the enhanced 6 DOF simulation model. The presented results demonstrate that the applied enhancement procedure has improved the simulation accuracy in longitudinal motion. The discrepancy between the simulation and flight test response showed significant improvement, which satisfies the regulation tolerance.
Balloon valvuloplasty and surgical aortic valvotomy have been the treatment mainstays for congenital aortic stenosis in children. Choice of intervention often differs depending upon centre bias with limited relevant, comparative literature.
This study aims to provide an unbiased, contemporary matched comparison of these balloon and surgical approaches.
Retrospective analysis of patients with congenital aortic valve stenosis who underwent balloon valvuloplasty (Queensland Children’s Hospital, Brisbane) or surgical valvotomy (Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne) between 2005 and 2016. Patients were excluded if pre-intervention assessment indicated ineligibility to either group. Propensity score matching was performed based on age, weight, and valve morphology.
Sixty-five balloon patients and seventy-seven surgical patients were included. Overall, the groups were well matched with 18 neonates/25 infants in the balloon group and 17 neonates/28 infants in the surgical group. Median age at balloon was 92 days (range 2 days – 18.8 years) compared to 167 days (range 0 days – 18.1 years) for surgery (rank-sum p = 0.08). Mean follow-up was 5.3 years. There was one late balloon death and two early surgical deaths due to left ventricular failure. There was no significant difference in freedom from reintervention at latest follow-up (69% in the balloon group and 70% in the surgical group, p = 1.0).
Contemporary analysis of balloon aortic valvuloplasty and surgical aortic valvotomy shows no difference in overall reintervention rates in the medium term. Balloon valvuloplasty performs well across all age groups, achieving delay or avoidance of surgical intervention.
This book is primarily about prevention; its emphasis is on interventions that can be done at the time of cancer diagnosis – modifications of treatment and techniques for storing gametes, tissues or embryos for future use. By contrast, this chapter explores options open to cancer survivors after treatment has been completed. If preventive treatment was successful, either through medical interventions such as using less gonadotoxic regimens, fertility-sparing surgery, oophoropexy or gonadoprotective adjuncts like GnRH agonists, normal fertility has been preserved. Other survivors may be able to conceive using the gametes, embryos or tissue that was obtained and cryopreserved before their gonadotoxic treatment(s). However, in some cases, fertility preservation may not have been possible before treatment or, alternatively, the cryopreserved gametes, embryos or tissue may not have resulted in a successful pregnancy. This chapter provides insight into the fertility management of cancer survivors with compromised or absent ovarian function, who do not have cryopreserved gametes, embryos, or ovarian tissue.
The transplantation of endocrine organs can be regarded as the oldest form of transplantation in modern medical history. By the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries, a large research focus was set on endocrine transplantations. Before the complex endocrine secretion and function was even understood, researchers attempted to cure endocrine diseases and infertility through transplantation of the endocrine glands and gonads. Hence, most endocrine organs have been transplanted in that period, including the thyroid , the adrenal gland , the testis  and the ovary . Even though the principles of transplant rejection have not been understood at that time, researchers already noticed successful transplantations almost exclusively in experiments with autografts. The first published allogeneic ovarian transplantations in animals have been performed by Paul Bert in the sixties of the nineteenth century .
According to the most recent cancer statistics, more than 870,000 new diagnosis of cancer are expected in the US female population in 2018, with the three most common cancers in women being breast, lung, and colorectal cancers .
Several improvements have been made in the early diagnosis and treatment of infant and adults cancer and these advances have resulted in greatly increased life expectancy and chances of survival. Nevertheless, some oncological treatments, although leading to cancer cure rates higher than 90%, have a detrimental effect in the reproductive potential of children and young women, resulting in a population at high-risk of developing premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and therefore infertility .
In order to prevent the risk of facing this outcome, fertility preservation options are offered to these patients in order to protect their fertility potential prior to gonadotoxic treatment. Among the available options, ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation is the only method suitable for prepubertal girls and adult women who require urgent treatment.