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There are no conclusive findings about the possible protective role of religion on students’ mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, more research is needed.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of emotional distress and religiosity among students from 7 different countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data were collected by an online cross-sectional survey that was distributed amongst Polish (N = 1196), Bengali (N = 1537), Indian (N = 483), Mexican (N = 231), Egyptian (N = 565), Philippine (N = 2062), and Pakistani (N = 506) students (N = 6642) from 12th April to 1st June 2021. The respondents were asked several questions regarding their religiosity which was measured by The Duke University Religion Index (DUREL), the emotional distress was measured by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21).
Egypt with Islam as the dominant religion showed the greatest temple attendance (organizational religious activity: M=5.27±1.36) and spirituality (intrinsic religiosity: M=5.27±1.36), p<0.0001. On another hand, Egyptian students had the lowest emotional distress measured in all categories DASS-21 (depression: M=4.87±10.17, anxiety: M=4.78±10.13, stress: M=20.76±11.46). Two countries with the dominant Christian religion achieved the highest score for private religious activities (non-organizational religious activity; Mexico: M=3.94±0.94, Poland: M=3.63±1.20; p<0.0001) and experienced a moderate level of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Students from Mexico presented the lowest attendance to church (M=2.46±1,39) and spirituality (M=6.68± 3.41) and had the second highest level of depressive symptoms (M=19.13±13.03) and stress (M=20.27±1.98). Philippines students had the highest DASS-21 score (depression: M=22.77±12.58, anxiety: M=16.07±10.77, stress: M=4.87±10.08) and their level of religiosity reached average values in the whole group. The performed regression analysis confirmed the importance of the 3 dimensions (organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, intrinsic religiosity) of religiosity for the well-being of students, except for the relationship between anxiety and private religious activities. The result was as presented for depression: R2=0.0398, F(3.664)=91.764, p<0.0001, SE of E: 12.88; anxiety: R2=0.0124, F(3.664)=27.683, p<0.0001, SE of E: 10,62; stress: R2= 0.0350, F(3.664)=80.363, p<0.0001, SE of E: 12.30.
The higher commitment to organizational religious activity, non-organizational religious activity, and intrinsic religiositywas correlated with the lower level of depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety among students during the COVID-19 pandemic, but taking into account factors related to religiosity explains the level of emotional well-being to a small extent.
TDuring COVID-19 pandemic, it was noticed that it was students who were mostly affected by the changes that aroused because of the pandemic. The interesting part is whether students’ well-being could be associated with their fields of study as well as coping strategies.
In this study, we aimed to assess 1) the mental health of students from nine countries with a particular focus on depression, anxiety, and stress levels and their fields of study, 2) the major coping strategies of students after one year of the COVID-19 pandemic.
We conducted an anonymous online cross-sectional survey on 12th April – 1st June 2021 that was distributed among the students from Poland, Mexico, Egypt, India, Pakistan, China, Vietnam, Philippines, and Bangladesh. To measure the emotional distress, we used the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21), and to identify the major coping strategies of students - the Brief-COPE.
We gathered 7219 responses from students studying five major studies: medical studies (N=2821), social sciences (N=1471), technical sciences (N=891), artistic/humanistic studies (N=1094), sciences (N=942). The greatest intensity of depression (M=18.29±13.83; moderate intensity), anxiety (M=13.13±11.37; moderate intensity ), and stress (M=17.86±12.94; mild intensity) was observed among sciences students. Medical students presented the lowest intensity of all three components - depression (M=13.31±12.45; mild intensity), anxiety (M=10.37±10.57; moderate intensity), and stress (M=13.65±11.94; mild intensity). Students of all fields primarily used acceptance and self-distraction as their coping mechanisms, while the least commonly used were self-blame, denial, and substance use. The group of coping mechanisms the most frequently used was ‘emotional focus’. Medical students statistically less often used avoidant coping strategies compared to other fields of study. Substance use was only one coping mechanism that did not statistically differ between students of different fields of study. Behavioral disengagement presented the highest correlation with depression (r=0.54), anxiety (r=0.48), and stress (r=0.47) while religion presented the lowest positive correlation with depression (r=0.07), anxiety (r=0.14), and stress (r=0.11).
1) The greatest intensity of depression, anxiety, and stress was observed among sciences students, while the lowest intensity of those components was found among students studying medicine.
2) Not using avoidant coping strategies might be associated with lower intensity of all DASS components among students.
3) Behavioral disengagement might be strongly associated with greater intensity of depression, anxiety, and stress among students.
4) There was no coping mechanism that provided the alleviation of emotional distress in all the fields of studies of students.
Proliferating trichilemmal tumour (PTT) is a benign tumour originating from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. In rare instances, malignant transformation has been reported, evidenced by regional or distant metastases. Malignant transformation of PTT is often confused with squamous cell carcinoma. PTT usually occur as a solitary lesion on the scalp. It was first described as a proliferating epidermoid cyst by Wilson-Jones in 1966.
A female patient presented with a growing lesion on scalp in the right parietal region. She had already undergone excision for the same 8 months ago. The cyst was surgically removed and scalp was treated with electron therapy using a field dimension of 8×8 cm in 2011. Now, the patient is disease free with good quality of life.
Oncologists can consider electron therapy in management of PTT. This can improve cosmesis and quality of life of these patients.
Studies on schizophrenia (SZ) have documented an increased presence of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) in individuals suffering from the illness. Moreover, the presence of CSP has been cited in support of the early neurodevelopmental hypothesis in SZ. Our objective was to assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of first-episode patients and healthy controls to evaluate the frequency of CSP. The presence and the size of CSP were visually assessed on the MRI scans of 40 first-episode SZ patients, 19 nonpsychotic child and high-risk adolescent offspring of patients with SZ or schizoaffective disorder, and 59 controls. Our analysis revealed an absence of statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CSP between SZ patients, high-risk subjects, and controls. Even when the analysis was restricted to large CSP, no differences were found. Furthermore, no association between CSP and sex or handedness was observed. The absence of CSP abnormalities in first-episode SZ subjects might indicate that SZ is not characterized by developmentally mediated alterations in CSP. Also, family history of SZ might not increase likelihood for CSP.
The low-cristobalite-type modification of Al0.5Ga0.5PO4 is prepared by annealing the amorphous precipitate of stoichiometric phosphate at 1300 °C. The phase purity of the sample is ascertained by powder X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure is refined by Rietveld refinements of the neutron and X-ray diffraction data of the polycrystalline powder. This compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic lattice with unit cell parameters, a=7.0295(8), b=7.0132(8), and c=6.9187(4) Å, V=341.08(6) Å3, Z=4 (Space group C 2221, No. 20). The crystal structure analysis reveals the random distribution of the Al3+ and Ga3+ having tetrahedral coordination with typical M–O (M=Al3+:Ga3+) bond lengths as 1.74 Å. Similarly, the P5+ have tetrahedral coordination with typical P–O bond lengths 1.52–1.54 Å. The Mo4 and PO4 tetraheda are linked by common corners forming a three-dimensional framework lattice. The details of the crystal structure are presented in this paper.
La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) was prepared by a combustion method followed by heating at high temperature. Subsequently, the preformed LNMO was annealed in air, oxygen, or N2 atmosphere and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and dielectric analysis. Structural studies by XRD and neutron diffraction revealed the coexistence of partially cation disordered monoclinic (31%) and rhombohedral (69%) phases in the sample annealed in air. However, the sample annealed in oxygen shows about 50:50% of monoclinic and rhombohedral phases. Relaxor-like behavior with relative permittivity of the order of 104 was observed in the sample annealed in air, while relative permittivity decreases to about 200 in samples annealed in oxygen atmosphere. The magnetic properties indicate a well-defined ferromagnetic phase in the oxygen-annealed sample compared to a feeble ferromagnetic signature in the air-annealed one. The dielectric and ferromagnetism of LNMO samples have been related to formation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies.
I am pleased to be here today to launch the inaugural Singapore Energy Conference. This conference is a timely initiative as energy plays a key role in enabling global economic growth and development. It is useful to bring together experts from around the world to share insights into the challenges posed in the areas of energy security, sustainable development and energy efficiency.
Today's Energy Challenges: Growing Interdependence
For over two decades since the 1970s, we have been accustomed to cheap energy. Even as our consumption of energy has risen steadily with our rapidly growing economies, we have concurrently taken for granted that the supply of energy will continue to be cheap and sustainable. Recently, however, this idyllic state of affairs has been disrupted. Between January 2004 and August 2006, the price of oil increased by almost 300 per cent to more than US$75 per barrel. Strong demand growth by the surging economies of China and India; the lack of spare capacities in oil production and refining; concerns over “peak oil” ; geo-political uncertainties; as well as natural disasters, were all contributing factors. Arguably, the continued growth of the global economy will depend on a sustainable supply of oil and gas to the energy- hungry emerging economies like China and India.
At the same time, the energy supply-demand relationship has grown in complexity over the years. First, the scale of global oil trade has doubled in the past two decades. Instead of declining, U.S. dependency on oil imports has climbed from 32 per cent in 1985 to 65 per cent in 2005. A fast developing Asia now accounts for a much bigger share of Middle East oil and gas exports, and it is looking into new supplies from Africa, Latin America and Central Asia. As such, energy security cannot be divorced from the strategic interests of the major powers. With greater inter-dependency due to globalization, the need for stable oil markets and reduced price volatilities will expand the scope for cooperation over time.
In this study, we investigated the frequency of co-existence of
cysticercosis (CC) in
Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases with special emphasis on its role in predicting
the final clinical
outcome. Amongst the 163 confirmed cases of JE, 37·42% (61/163)
co-existent CC. This
was confirmed by antibody detection in the CSF of 45 cases, CT scan of
in 6 cases
and at autopsy in 3 cases. In 2 cases confirmation was possible by CT scan
well as at
autopsy, in 4, CSF antibody levels and CT scan were suggestive of CC while
CSF antibodies and autopsy were suggestive of CC. The co-occurrence of
Cysticercus cellulosae in
the brain emerged as a prognosticator of poor outcome in JE cases
Recent reports have dispelled the previously held concept that head and neck cancer rarely metastases beyond the cervical lymph nodes. Nasopharyngeal cancer has been reported to have a higher incidence of distant metastases compared to other head and neck cancers, the common sites being bone, lung and liver. A case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice because of secondaries at the porta hepatis is presented here.
We report fast photometric observations on AM CANUM VENATICORUM (AM CVn) the ultra short period, hydrogen deficient variable. We have detected on 24th February, 1985 an intense flare of (Δm)peak≈0.34 in white light lasting over 200s. Following this flare we observe an enhanced double humped structure lasting for 1051s which is the dominant periodicity exhibited by AM CVn. We have also detected the 525s and 1051s periods. In addition, we report flickerings, lasting typically 1-2 minutes, that are characteristic of cataclysmic variables.