To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Diets varying in SFA and MUFA content can impact glycaemic control; however, whether underlying differences in genetic make-up can influence blood glucose responses to these dietary fatty acids is unknown. We examined the impact of dietary oils varying in SFA/MUFA content on changes in blood glucose levels (primary outcome) and whether these changes were modified by variants in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene (secondary outcome). Obese men and women participating in the randomised, crossover, isoenergetic, controlled-feeding Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial II consumed three dietary oils for 6 weeks, with washout periods of ˜6 weeks between each treatment. Diets studied included a high SFA/low MUFA Control oil (36·6 % SFA/28·2 % MUFA), a conventional canola oil (6·2 % SFA/63·1 % MUFA) and a high-oleic acid canola oil (5·8 % SFA/74·7 % MUFA). No differences in fasting blood glucose were observed following the consumption of the dietary oils. However, when stratified by SCD genotypes, significant SNP-by-treatment interactions on blood glucose response were found with additive models for rs1502593 (P = 0·01), rs3071 (P = 0·02) and rs522951 (P = 0·03). The interaction for rs3071 remained significant (P = 0·005) when analysed with a recessive model, where individuals carrying the CC genotype showed an increase (0·14 (sem 0·09) mmol/l) in blood glucose levels with the Control oil diet, but reductions in blood glucose with both MUFA oil diets. Individuals carrying the AA and AC genotypes experienced reductions in blood glucose in response to all three oils. These findings identify a potential new target for personalised nutrition approaches aimed at improving glycaemic control.
Interpersonal processes influence our physiological states and associated affect. Physiological arousal dysregulation, a core feature of anxiety disorders, has been identified in children of parents with elevated anxiety. However, little is understood about how parent–infant interpersonal regulatory processes differ when the dyad includes a more anxious parent.
We investigated moment-to-moment fluctuations in arousal within parent-infant dyads using miniaturised microphones and autonomic monitors. We continually recorded arousal and vocalisations in infants and parents in naturalistic home settings across day-long data segments.
Our results indicated that physiological synchrony across the day was stronger in dyads including more rather than less anxious mothers. Across the whole recording epoch, less anxious mothers showed responsivity that was limited to ‘peak’ moments in their child's arousal. In contrast, more anxious mothers showed greater reactivity to small-scale fluctuations. Less anxious mothers also showed behaviours akin to ‘stress buffering’ – downregulating their arousal when the overall arousal level of the dyad was high. These behaviours were absent in more anxious mothers.
Our findings have implications for understanding the differential processes of physiological co-regulation in partnerships where a partner is anxious, and for the use of this understanding in informing intervention strategies for dyads needing support for elevated levels of anxiety.
This is an epidemiological study of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in Veterans’ Affairs medical centers (VAMCs). In 2017, almost 75% of VAMCs had at least 1 CRE case. We observed substantial geographic variability, with more cases in urban, complex facilities. This supports the benefit of tailoring infection control strategies to facility characteristics.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
There are sparse data on the outcomes of endoscopic stapling of pharyngeal pouches. The Mersey ENT Trainee Collaborative compared regional practice against published benchmarks.
A 10-year retrospective analysis of endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery was conducted and practice was assessed against eight standards. Comparisons were made between results from the tertiary centre and other sites.
A total of 225 procedures were performed (range of 1.2–9.2 cases per centre per year). All centres achieved 90 per cent resumption of oral intake within 2 days. All centres achieved less than 2-day hospital stays. Primary success (84 per cent (i.e. abandonment of endoscopic stapling in 16 per cent)), symptom resolution (83 per cent) and recurrence rates (13 per cent) failed to meet the standard across the non-tertiary centres.
Endoscopic pharyngeal pouch stapling is a procedure with a low mortality and brief in-patient stay. There was significant variance in outcomes across the region. This raises the question of whether this service should become centralised and the preserve of either tertiary centres or sub-specialist practitioners.
A new high time resolution observing mode for the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is described, enabling full polarimetric observations with up to
MHz of bandwidth and a time resolution of
s. This mode makes use of a polyphase synthesis filter to ‘undo’ the polyphase analysis filter stage of the standard MWA’s Voltage Capture System observing mode. Sources of potential error in the reconstruction of the high time resolution data are identified and quantified, with the
loss induced by the back-to-back system not exceeding
dB for typical noise-dominated samples. The system is further verified by observing three pulsars with known structure on microsecond timescales.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The potential drug resistance necessitates the search for adjunct or alternative therapies to PZQ. Previous functional genomics has shown that RNAi inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) gene in Schistosoma adult worms significantly improved the effectiveness of PZQ. Here we tested the in vitro efficacy of 15 selective and non-selective CaMK inhibitors against Schistosoma mansoni and showed that PZQ efficacy was improved against refractory juvenile parasites when combined with these CaMK inhibitors. By measuring CaMK activity and the mobility of adult S. mansoni, we identified two non-selective CaMK inhibitors, Staurosporine (STSP) and 1Naphthyl PP1 (1NAPP1), as promising candidates for further study. The impact of STSP and 1NAPP1 was investigated in mice infected with S. mansoni in the presence or absence of a sub-lethal dose of PZQ against 2- and 7-day-old schistosomula and adults. Treatment with STSP/PZQ induced a significant (47–68%) liver egg burden reduction compared with mice treated with PZQ alone. The findings indicate that the combination of STSP and PZQ dosages significantly improved anti-schistosomal activity compared to PZQ alone, demonstrating the potential of selective and non-selective CaMK/kinase inhibitors as a combination therapy with PZQ in treating schistosomiasis.
Introduction: Medical record review (MRR) studies are commonly used in Emergency Medicine (EM) research. It is not always clear how sample size calculations are reported, or the methods by which they were derived. This scoping review sought to examine reporting and justification of MRR sample sizes from the EM literature. Methods: Using Web of Science, we identified the top ten journals, based on impact factor rating in 2018, within the field of Emergency Medicine. Journals were excluded if they were not in English or did not include sufficient articles for analysis. Within each of these ten selected journals, we searched for chart reviews and related terms: "medical record", "outpatient record", "inpatient record", "clinical record", and "nursing note". From this search subset, five articles were randomly selected from each journal. Data about sample size and sample size selection were extracted and analyzed by two reviewers independently for each article. Results: Of the 50 articles randomly selected, 48 articles were retrospective MRRs and two articles were prospective MRRs. 78% (39 articles) chose sample size based on availability, 14% (seven articles) chose sample size based on power calculations, 4% (two articles) chose sample size based on a previous study's methodology, and 4% (two articles) did not give details on sample size selection. Conclusion: While some emergency medicine MRRs based sample size selection on power or previous studies, the vast majority are based on availability with study-specific exclusion/inclusion criteria. This may indicate they are using a smaller sample size than necessary to be sufficiently powered to assess their end goal. More work is required to determine the effect of this on outcomes and interpretability of results, as well as which method is most accurate and efficient.
To investigate the feasibility, and patient/psychiatrist acceptability, of an SMS text messaging system reminding patients receiving quetiapine to take their medication.
8-12(mean:9.4) week, non-interventional, psychiatrist assessed, pilot study of 27 outpatients receiving quetiapine (mean age[range]: 35.3[19-57] years). Patients were asked to reply to SMS messages sent twice daily to their cellular phone to remind them to take their medication (morning) and enquire about their well-being (evening). Patients' response (morning-yes/no; evening-positive/negative/neutral) was monitored by psychiatrists (n=7) via a website, and subsequently used to assess technical feasibility. Psychiatrists rated acceptability and feasibility of the system by completing case report forms (CRFs). Data are from the LOCF population.
Patients responded to 77% (compliance) of the 5,000 SMS messages sent (84% correctly, 13% inaccurately, 3% responded late [eg, day after]). 7/27 patients withdrew prematurely. The most common benefits expressed by patients were that they felt cared for (n=11/21) and were reminded to take their medication (n=7/21). Psychiatrists' ratings of the system improved over time, with SMS compliance and increased patient contact seen as the most valuable aspects. At study end, CRF data showed psychiatrists felt the system was valuable to 19/22 patients, 16/24 patients remained compliant with the system and 16/22 patients felt the frequency of SMS messages was acceptable. There was a strong correlation between patients giving positive well-being responses and SMS compliance (R Pearson=0.72, p<0.001).
The high levels of SMS compliance and benefits expressed by patients and psychiatrists support a larger-scale assessment of this system.
Among the 10 categories of personality disorders (PDs), interventions for antisocial and borderline personality disorder are best studied. However, the remaining PDs also pose major problems in everyday health care settings. People affected often additionally present with Axis-I disorders such as substance-related, mood or anxiety disorders, and are among those most difficult to treat. Cluster A PDs (paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal) are of particular significance as some authors argue that they may be part of a continuum of mental disorders and be considered as sub-syndrome of schizophrenia
In the context of Cochrane Collaboration reviews for Cluster A, B and C PDs, exhaustive literature searches were completed to identify the current RCT evidence for PD treatments. Retrievals were assessed and evaluated by two reviewers independently and trials for Cluster A PD were identified.
Only very few (under five) RCTs specifically for Cluster A PDs were identified. Some studies reported on mixed PD samples but it was not always possible to extract data specifically for Cluster A disorders. Participants mostly also suffered from Axis-I disorders. Reported outcomes also focus on Axis-I disorder outcomes or general measures such as overall functioning rather than specific PD symptoms.
The current evidence for psychpathological treatment of Cluster A PD is sparse and does not allow for distinct treatment recommendations. Symptom-driven treatment regimes as suggested by several guidelines are not supported by current evidence.
Limited to no literature exists on the association among sleep quality, obesity and depression in pediatric populations. This study aims to explore this association by examining the sleep quality of children and adolescents before and after a twelve-week comprehensive multidisciplinary pediatric obesity program.
Archival data from the pediatric obesity program included 71 children ages 6-17 (M=10.24, SD=2.74 ) who had been assessed pre and post intervention using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), a Sleep Questionnaire, and physician derived Body Mass Index (BMI). On all measures, higher scores indicate presence of symptoms of depression, sleep difficulties, or obesity.
High scores on the CDI proved to predict poor sleep quality both at intake and exit. Hierarchical regression exhibited change in BMI from intake to exit and predicted sleep quality. As BMI decreased from intake to exit, sleep quality increased.
The current study suggests that sleep quality is influenced by the level of depression in children and adolescents both at pre and post intervention measures. Both depression and BMI influenced sleep quality. When the effect of BMI was accounted for, depression significantly predicted sleep quality. The more depressed children/adolescents reported to be, the lower their quality of sleep. Thus, this study suggests the importance of sleep and depression in the treatment of pediatric obesity. This research supports the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to addressing pediatric obesity.
There are limited amount of studies comparing time trends of incidence and risk factors of psychosis.
To compare time trends of incidence of psychosis in two population samples.
To study 1) onset age and cumulative incidence of psychoses in two Northern Finland Birth Cohorts (NFBC), 2) changes in type of diagnosis and risk factors.
The NFBC 1966 (N=12,058) and NFBC 1986 (N=9,432) are prospective cohorts of the two provinces of Finland with the live born children followed since pregnancy. The data for psychosis and risk factors were collected from variety of nationwide registers and earlier collected data of the NFBCs. The follow-up time was in both cohorts in average 26.5 years.
Proportion of all psychoses was higher in NFBC 1986 than in the NFBC 1966 (1.81% vs 1.0%). There were more affective psychoses in NFBC 1986 (0.5% vs 0.1%), but incidence of schizophrenia was the same (0.4%) in both cohorts. The age of onset was lower in NFBC 1986 than in NFBC 1966 and majority of this cases were females. Only parental psychosis was a significant risk factor predicting psychosis (Hazard Ratios >3.0) in both cohorts.
In conclusion, two birth cohorts within 20 years covering altogether about 40 years showed changes in terms of incidence, age of onset, and type of psychosis.
The diagnostic criteria of delayed-onset PTSD is that the onset of PTSD symptoms should occur at least 6 months after the traumatic event (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In a meta analysis across 11 countries, 25% of all PTSD cases were classified as delayed-onset PTSD (Smid et al., 2009). Existing research on delayed-onset PTSD has predominantly used US data, with a dearth of prospective research in UK military samples.
This study investigated the prevalence of delayed-onset PTSD in UK military personnel and examined the socio-demographic, military and psychological characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD.
The sample comprised 1397 participants from a two phase prospective cohort study of UK military personnel. Delayed-onset PTSD was categorised as participants who did not meet the criteria for probable PTSD (assessed by the PCL-C) at phase 1, but who met the criteria by phase 2.
3.5% of participants met the criteria for delayed-onset PTSD. Subthreshold PTSD, common mental disorder (CMD), poor/fair self-reported health and multiple physical symptoms at phase 1, and the onset of alcohol misuse or CMD between phases 1 and 2, were associated with delayed-onset PTSD.
Delayed-onset PTSD exists in this UK military sample. Military personnel who developed delayed-onset PTSD were more likely to have psychological ill-health at an earlier assessment and clinicians should be aware of potential co-morbidity in these individuals, including alcohol misuse. Leaving the military, or experiencing relationship breakdown, was not associated.
Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that carries a significant burden for families providing care.
The ADHES carers' survey canvassed opinions of families/friends of patients with schizophrenia across Europe.
To ascertain carer attitudes towards schizophrenia, its treatment and treatment adherence.
The survey was conducted from January-April 2011 in 16 European countries, comprising 10 questions relating to the respondents' understanding of schizophrenia, attitudes towards schizophrenia treatments, and perception of the family's/friend's role in supporting patients with schizophrenia.
Results were obtained from 138 respondents. 76% of carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better, improve their quality of life (77%) and relationships (74%). 67% of carers responded that they believed schizophrenia treatment damages patients' general health. Two-thirds of the carers reported that treatment adherence was a burden for the patient and over a third of carers indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. 50% of carers considered the benefits offered by long-acting injectable antipsychotics as very/quite important and thus, could provide a valuable tool in improving treatment adherence. 92% of carers agreed on the importance of family support to boost treatment adherence with education/information deemed important for families and patients alike.
Carers recognize the issues they face in caring for patients with schizophrenia and their role in improving partial/non-adherence to medication, especially to avoid suboptimal treatment outcomes. The important role of family carers should be considered by healthcare professionals when treating patients with schizophrenia.
Higher lifetime antipsychotic exposure has been associated with poorer cognition in schizophrenia. The cognitive effects of adjunctive psychiatric medications and lifetime trends of antipsychotic use remain largely unclear. We aimed to study how lifetime and current benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications, lifetime trends of antipsychotic use and antipsychotic polypharmacy are associated with cognitive performance in midlife schizophrenia.
Sixty participants with DSM-IV schizophrenia from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were examined at 43 years of age with an extensive cognitive test battery. Cumulative lifetime and current use of psychiatric medications were collected from medical records and interviews. The associations between medication and principal component analysis-based cognitive composite score were analysed using linear regression.
Lifetime cumulative DDD years of benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications were not significantly associated with global cognition. Being without antipsychotic medication (for minimum 11 months) before the cognitive examination was associated with better cognitive performance (P = 0.007) and higher lifetime cumulative DDD years of antipsychotics with poorer cognition (P = 0.020), when adjusted for gender, onset age and lifetime hospital treatment days. Other lifetime trends of antipsychotic use, such as a long antipsychotic-free period earlier in the treatment history, and antipsychotic polypharmacy, were not significantly associated with cognition.
Based on these naturalistic data, low exposure to adjunctive benzodiazepine and antidepressant medications does not seem to affect cognition nor explain the possible negative effects of high dose long-term antipsychotic medication on cognition in schizophrenia.
Optically luminous early type galaxies host X-ray luminous, hot atmospheres. These hot atmospheres, which we refer to as coronae, undergo the same cooling and feedback processes as are commonly found in their more massive cousins, the gas rich atmospheres of galaxy groups and galaxy clusters. In particular, the hot coronae around galaxies radiatively cool and show cavities in X-ray images that are filled with relativistic plasma originating from jets powered by supermassive black holes (SMBH) at the galaxy centers. We discuss the SMBH feedback using an X-ray survey of early type galaxies carried out using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. Early type galaxies with coronae very commonly have weak X-ray active nuclei and have associated radio sources. Based on the enthalpy of observed cavities in the coronae, there is sufficient energy to “balance” the observed radiative cooling. There are a very few remarkable examples of optically faint galaxies that are 1) unusually X-ray luminous, 2) have large dark matter halo masses, and 3) have large SMBHs (e.g., NGC4342 and NGC4291). These properties suggest that, in some galaxies, star formation may have been truncated at early times, breaking the simple scaling relations.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.