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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350 $\mu$m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200 $\mu$m images will also have a factor $\sim $30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
We are finally entering an era where radial velocity and direct imaging parameter spaces are starting to overlap. Radial velocity measurements provide us with a minimum mass for an orbiting companion (the mass as a function of the inclination of the system). By following up these long period radial velocity detections with direct imaging we can determine whether a trend seen is due to an orbiting planet at low inclination or an orbiting brown dwarf at high inclination. In the event of a non-detection we are still able to put a limit on the maximum mass of the orbiting body. The Anglo-Australian Planet Search is one of the longest baseline radial velocity planet searches in existence, amongst its targets are many that show long period trends in the data. Here we present our direct imaging survey of these objects with our results to date. ADI Observations have been made using NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager) on Gemini South and analysed using an in house, LOCI-like, post processing.
The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We observed M87 with PACS and SPIRE as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We compare the new Herschel data with a synchrotron model based on infrared, submm and radio data to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. We find that both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M87.
Hallucinations have been found associated with false detection or
false recognition of acoustic/verbal material in several studies. We
investigated whether they were also linked with false recognition of
pictures. Furthermore, an association between hallucinations and deficits
in remembering temporal context was observed in previous research
on schizophrenia. We investigated whether the association extends to
deficits in remembering spatial context. Forty-one patients with
schizophrenia underwent a visual memory task. Sixteen mixed
black-and-white and colored pictures were presented at different
locations. Participants had to recognize the pictures among distractors,
then to recall the spatial context of the presentation of the target
pictures. Results showed that auditory hallucinations were associated with
poor recognition of the colored pictures. When recognition efficiency and
negative symptoms were statistically controlled, auditory hallucinations
were also associated with increased response bias toward false recognition
of nontarget pictures, and with errors in remembering the spatial context.
No associations with visual hallucinations emerged. Anhedonia was
associated with response bias, in the direction opposite to that of
hallucinations. In conclusion, the association between hallucinations and
response bias extends across modalities to picture recognition. The
association between hallucinations and temporal context impairment extends
to spatial context. (JINS, 2007, 13, 832–838.)
In November 1973 Newcastle disease suddenly appeared in Northern Ireland, where the viscerotropic disease had not been seen in 3½ years and the two Irelands had been regarded as largely disease free for 30 years. It was successfully controlled with only 36 confirmed affected layer flocks, plus 10 more slaughtered as ‘dangerous contacts’. Contemporary investigations failed to reveal the source of the Irish epidemic. Using archival virus samples from most of the affected flocks, RT–PCR was conducted with primers selected for all six NDV genes. Phylogenetic analyses of three genes, HN, M and F, confirmed vaccine as the cause of one of the outbreaks. The other six samples were identical and closely related to previous outbreaks in the United States and western Europe initiated by infected imported Latin American parrots. The probable cause of the epidemic followed from the importation from The Netherlands of bulk feed grains contaminated with infected pigeon faeces.
The emerging statistical properties from the first 50 extrasolar planets are startlingly different from the picture that was imagined prior to 1995. About 0.75% of nearby solar type stars harbor jovian planets in 3 to 5 day circular orbits. Another ∽7% of stars have jupiter–mass companions orbiting in eccentric orbits within 3.5 AU. The mass distribution of substellar companions rises abruptly near 5 MJup and continues increasing down to the detection limit near 1 MJup-Orbital eccentricities correlate positively with semimajor axes, even for planets beyond the tidal circularization zone within 0.1 AU, distinguishing planets from binary stars. The planet bearing stars are metal–rich relative to both nearby stars and to the Sun. Analogs of Solar System planets have not been detected to date as they require precision of 3 m s−1 maintained for more than a decade.
The Science Citation Index (SCI) was introduced primarily as a method of information retrieval but has also been used an objective measure of the quality of an article. Citation classics have been described as papers that have been cited 100 times or more. The aim of this study was to identify the articles published during the 20th century in otolaryngology-head and neck surgery journals that have achieved classic citation status and to present an analysis of this data. Using a database provided by the Institute of Scientific Information (Philadelphia, PA), an assessment was performed of all articles cited 100 or more times in one of the 28 clinical otolaryngology-head and neck journals indexed by the annual Journal Citation Reports. The data were based on citation counts using the 1900 through 1999 Science Citation Index. Institutions located in 10 different countries produced 80 noteworthy articles. The most-cited paper achieved a citation score of 406 and there were 11 articles cited on more than 200 occasions. All of the articles were published in eight journals. The earliest identified publication was in 1933 and the most recent was published in 1993. Twenty authors were involved in two articles and four authors were associated with three classic citations. This paper confirms that analysing citation classics reveals a partial insight into advances and historical developments in the specialty during the last century.
Bibliometric analysis is used to assess the ‘impact’ of scientific journals. The commonest method of evaluation is impact factor. The aim of this study was to analyse the citation data for otorhinolaryngology journals of the years 1994 to 1998. Data on the total number of citations and impact factor of journals was obtained from the CD-ROM editions 1994-98 of the Journal Citation Reports and ‘Web of Science’ database. The adjusted impact factor and five-year impact factor has been calculated. Fifteen otorhinolaryngology journals have been identified and ranked according to the impact factor. Head and Neck has the highest adjusted impact factor. Archives of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery has the highest five-year impact factor. There is considerable variat