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To assess and compare the quality of life in HIV patients with and without depression.
100 HIV positive subjects were interviewed in a case control study. Subjects were interviewed by a psychiatrist to diagnose depression and HAM-D was used to rate the severity of depression. HAT-QOL was employed to assess Health related Quality of Life in these patients.
50 HIV patients were diagnosed to be depressed. 23% were mildly depressed, 19% were moderately depressed, 7% were severely depressed and 1% was very severely depressed. Mean QOL scores in depressed HIV patients were found to be significantly lower than that in non-depressed patients in all 9 dimensions.
HIV itself impairs QOL in HIV patients. Depression further worsens the QOL in these patients. Diagnosing depression in this set of HIV patients is the first step towards improving their Quality of Life.
A substantial number of patients suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) report a subjective distressing experience prior to the repetitive behavior, known as sensory phenomena(SP).
Need to systematically evaluate SP and the clinical correlates in OCD.
Assess prevalence of SP and clinical correlates in OCD.
Subjects (n = 71) fulfilling the criteria for DSM IV-TR OCD were recruited consecutively from a specialty OCD clinic in Southern India and were assessed using the Yale brown obsessive and compulsive scale (YBOCS), dimensional Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (D-YBOCS) and the University of São Paulo Sensory Phenomena Scale (USP-SPS).
The prevalence of the SP was found to be 50.7%. Prevalence of SP is significantly greater in the patients with early age of onset (P = 0.47). In subtypes of SP, Tactile was 12.7%, “just right” for look was 26.8%, “just right” for sound was 9.9%, “just right” for feeling was 16.9%, feeling of incompleteness leading to repetitive behavior was 22.5%, “energy release” sensation leading to repetitive behavior was 4.2% and “urge only” leading to repetitive behavior was 11.3%. SP was found to have significant correlation with symmetry/ordering/arranging/counting dimension (P = 0.003). Significant positive correlation existed between SP severity and the severity of the compulsions (P = 0.02).
Considering its high prevalence in OCD, it might be useful to incorporate SP assessment during the routine clinical assessment of OCD. It might warrant a place in the phenomenological and nosological description of OCD. Additionally, the neurobiological correlates of SP need to be explored.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Similar to omega-3 eggs, chicken meat has great potential to become a functional food for humans. In India, chicken meat is preferred due to its perceived health benefits and affordability. The balance between omega 3 and 6 fatty acids is crucial for its usefulness in animals. At present commercial chicken meat has low omega-3 fatty acid content and higher omega-6 fatty acid content. Published research shows that it is possible to modify the lipid profile of commercial chickens by manipulating the broiler diet. The modern human diet is deficient in n-3 FAs, which has been linked to the increase in several degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, cancer and mental illness. Therefore omega-3 chicken meat may be an effective means of increasing n-3 FA in the human diet. There are several problems associated with the commercial production of omega-3 chicken meat related to the choice of source of fatty acids in the feed, cost of production, consumer acceptability and stability of the chicken meat that need to be tackled. The present article briefly reviews the studies carried out in this respect, the possible impact of omega-3 chicken meat production on the poultry industry, and on human health.
This study investigated the personality traits of patients with allergic rhinitis. It also examined the association between personality type and the type of allergic rhinitis, and compared this with the general population.
A descriptive observational pilot study was carried out on 50 consecutive cases of allergic rhinitis who presented to the allergy clinic between June and October 2010. These patients were compared with a control group comprising 50 individuals from the general population that had no symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Both groups completed the International Personality Disorder Examination questionnaire for the assessment of personality traits.
Persons falling into cluster C personality type showed a positive correlation with the type and severity of allergic rhinitis. The majority of control group individuals fell into cluster A. This indicated a correlation between allergic rhinitis and a dominant anxious trait compared with the control group.
In psycho-allergological research, the potential relevance of personality factors in the maintenance and exacerbation of atopic symptoms is still a matter of debate. More attention should be paid to the psychological status of allergic rhinitis patients, and appropriate treatment should be provided to improve their symptoms and quality of life.
Polypropylene–clay (Cloisite Na+) composites with clay contents in weight percentage (wt%) ranging from 1 to 15% were characterized for crystallization mechanism and kinetics. Combination of differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and polarized light microscopy was used to investigate the crystallization behavior. Different crystallization mechanisms were observed in the matrix with 1–5 wt% nanoclay compared to the matrix with 10 and 15 wt% of nanoclay additive. TEM micrographs revealed intercalated and flocculated morphology for all the concentrates. At lower wt%, well-dispersed clay platelets acted as antinucleating agent and reduced polymer chain mobility. At high wt%, nucleation rate overcomes the slow diffusion rate. In the case of samples with higher wt% of nanoclay additives, segregation and precipitation of clay was observed in the interspherulite region. On the basis of crystallization kinetics and morphology results, a schematic model of the nanocomposite formation is proposed.
Virtual bronchoscopy is a noninvasive technique which provides an intraluminal view of the tracheobronchial tree. This study aimed to evaluate this technique in comparison with rigid bronchoscopy, in paediatric patients with tracheobronchial foreign bodies undetected by plain chest radiography.
Plain chest radiography was initially performed in 40 children with suspected foreign body aspiration. Computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy was performed in the 20 in whom chest radiography appeared normal. Virtual bronchoscopic images were obtained. All patients underwent rigid bronchoscopy performed by an otolaryngologist blinded to the computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy findings, within 24 hours. Virtual bronchoscopic findings were then compared with the results of rigid bronchoscopy.
In 12 patients, foreign bodies detected by virtual bronchoscopy were confirmed by rigid bronchoscopy. In one case, a mucous plug was perceived as a foreign body on virtual bronchoscopy. In another case, a minute foreign body was missed on virtual bronchoscopy. The following parameters were calculated: sensitivity, 92.3 per cent; specificity, 85.7 per cent; validity, 90 per cent; positive likelihood ratio, 6.45; and negative likelihood ratio, 0.089.
In the presence of a positive clinical diagnosis and negative chest radiography, computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy must be considered in all cases of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration, in order to avoid needless rigid bronchoscopy. Computed tomography virtual bronchoscopy is particularly useful in screening cases of occult foreign body aspiration, as it has high sensitivity, specificity and validity.
A theory is described for propagation of vortical waves across alternate rigid and compliant panels. The structure in the fluid side at the junction of panels is a highly vortical narrow viscous structure which is idealized as a wave driver. The wave driver is modelled as a ‘half source cum half sink’. The incoming wave terminates into this structure and the outgoing wave emanates from it. The model is described by half Fourier–Laplace transforms respectively for the upstream and downstream sides of the junction. The cases below cutoff and above cutoff frequencies are studied. The theory completely reproduces the direct numerical simulation results of Davies & Carpenter (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 335, 1997, p. 361). Particularly, the jumps across the junction in the kinetic energy integral, the vorticity integral and other related quantities as obtained in the work of Davies & Carpenter are completely reproduced. Also, some important new concepts emerge, notable amongst which is the concept of the pseudo group velocity.
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a saprophytic bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is endemic to Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. It may manifest as a pulmonary lesion, osteomyelitis, abscesses in soft tissue and various organs, or as septicaemia.
We report a case of a 40-year-old, diabetic man who presented with a neck lump resulting from super-infection of a tuberculosis cavity with B pseudomallei. The patient was successfully managed by drainage along with meticulous excision of the capsule and prolonged antibiotic and anti-tubercular treatment.
Melioidosis may be confused diagnostically with tuberculosis, as both diseases are endemic in the same regions. Our patient was unfortunate to suffer from both endemic diseases simultaneously, perhaps representing the first such case in the world literature.
Increased awareness of melioidosis is important as, although the organism is easy to culture, it may be dismissed as a contaminant.
In this paper the impact of post deposition annealing in various ambient on electrical properties of hafnium zirconate (HfxZr1-xO2) high-k dielectrics is reported. ALD HfxZr1-xO2 films are annealed in a nitrogen and/or oxygen ambient at 500°C to 1000°C. Devices annealed at 500°C in N2 has lower equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of 10Å without significant increase in gate leakage (Jg), threshold voltage (Vt) and only a slight decrease in transconductance (Gm) values compared to 500°C O2 annealed devices. Furthermore, the impact of annealing HfxZr1-xO2 films in a reducing ambient (NH3) is studied. Optimized NH3 anneal on HfxZr1-xO2 results in lower CET, improved PBTI, low sub-threshold swing values, comparable high-field Gm with only a minor degradation in peak Gm compared to control HfxZr1-xO2. Finally, the impact of laser annealing vs. RTP annealed HfxZr1-xO2 films are reported. Laser annealing helped further stabilize tetragonal phase of HfxZr1-xO2 without inducing void formation. Good devices with low leakage, low EOT and high mobility are obtained for laser annealed HfxZr1-xO2.
This study aimed to compare outcomes for mastoidotympanoplasty and for tympanoplasty alone in cases of quiescent, tubotympanic, chronic, suppurative otitis media.
Single-blinded, randomised, controlled study within a tertiary referral hospital.
Sixty-eight cases were randomly allocated into two groups. In group one, 35 ears underwent type one tympanoplasty along with cortical mastoidectomy. In group two, 33 ears underwent type one tympanoplasty alone. Outcome measures were as follows: perforation closure and graft uptake, hearing improvement, disease eradication, and post-operative complications.
There were no statistically significant differences in hearing improvement, tympanic perforation closure, graft uptake or disease eradication, comparing the two groups at three and six months post-operatively.
Mastoidotympanoplasty was not found to be superior to tympanoplasty alone over a short term follow-up period. Hence, it may not be necessary to undertake routine mastoid exploration at this stage of disease.
The assessment of the thermal stability across HfO2/Si and HfO2/SiO2 interfaces has been difficult due to lack of thermodynamic data. In this paper, we present the results of thermodynamic calculations intended to fill this gap. A thermodynamic model was developed by assuming that HfSiO4 is an ideal solution of HfO2 and SiO2 to a first order approximation. The theoretical results predict that the HfO2/Si interface is thermodynamically stable up to 1100°C, while the HfO2/SiO2 interface is thermodynamically unstable even at room temperature. Our experimental results from TEM and XPS analysis are consistent with these modeling predictions.
We present experimental results regarding the thermodynamic stability of the high-k dielectrics ZrO2 and HfO2 in contact with Si and SiO2. The HfO2/Si interface is found to be stable with respect to formation of silicides whereas the ZrO2/Si interface is not. The metal oxide/SiO2 interface is marginally unstable with respect to formation of silicates. Cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs expose formation of nodules, identified as silicides, across the polysilicon/ZrO2/Si interfaces but not for the interfaces with HfO2. For both ZrO2 and HfO2, the X-ray photoemission spectra illustrate formation of silicate-like compounds in the MO2/SiO2 interface.
The control of several infectious diseases of animals by vaccination is perhaps the most outstanding accomplishment of veterinary medicine in the last century. Even the eradication of some pathogens is in sight, at least in some parts of the world. However, infectious diseases continue to cost millions of dollars to the livestock industry. One of the reasons for the failure to control certain pathogens is the limited emphasis placed on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the design of vaccines against these pathogens. Traditionally, vaccine-induced immunity has been studied in relation to antibody-mediated protection. More recent studies, however, have focused on understanding CMI and developing means of inducing CMI. This review focuses on recent advances made in the study of CMI in general and of cytotoxic T lymphocytes in particular. Parallels from studies in human and mouse immunology are drawn in order to point out implications to bovine immunology, specifically for immunity against bovine herpesvirus 1.
In this study, we investigate the diffusion of mobile ions through thin PSG or SiN layers using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The diffusivity of Na through either layer is about 100,000X slower than through SiO2. Hence, thin layers of these materials are effective barriers for short anneals at 400°C. However, there is significant diffusion of both Na and K through these layers at 550°C. This suggests that improved cleans will be required to remove mobile ion contamination after interconnect processes.
Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) films were formed by oxidizing thin tantalum (Ta) films on bare and NO-nitrided silicon substrates. The 43-400 Å thick Ta films were deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) and oxidized using O2 for 2-60 min at 550-800 C in a furnace or single wafer tool. Uniform and stoichiometric Ta2O5 films were successfully produced as determined from XRD, AES depth profiling, XTEM, and ellipsometric analysis. The nitridation pretreatment was found to minimize the interfacial Ta-Si reactions which occur during the oxidation. Well-behaved CV and IV curves were obtained from mercury probe measurements. No CV hysteresis was observed. An equivalent oxide thickness of 38 Å and a leakage current of 7×10−9 A/cm2 at +1V were obtained for a 120 Å thick Ta2O5 film on a 15 Å interfacial SiO2 layer.
The dose loss and transient enhanced diffusion of indium in silicon were studied as a function of dose. Indium was implanted into silicon through a 90 A oxide at 50 keV for doses ranging from 3x 1012 to 2x14 cm−2. These conditions provide peak concentrations that approximately range from 1x1018-1x1020 cm−3. After an RTA anneal at 1000°C for 5s, indium exhibits substantial motion at both the tail and peak regions for high doses. The enhanced diffusion is mostly over within 5s. There was not any observable enhanced diffusion in the tail region at the lowest dose although there was significant movement at the peak region. The dose loss correlates very well with the enhancement in the diffusivity. TEM images show that the amorphization dose lies between 3x1013 and 8x1013 cm−2. In spite of the amorphization, diffusion enhancement in the tail region still keeps increasing with dose, which is contrary to a model of “+1” interstitials and complete removal of interstitials in the regrown layer. The 550°C lh anneals show that the dose loss can partially be attributed to the sweeping of the dopant by the growing a/c interface. Previously, the solubility of indium has been estimated to be around 1–2×1018 cm−3. At high doses, significant movement is observed at the peak of the indium profile although the peak concentration exceeds the solubility level by at least an order of magnitude. This shows that indium is not precipitating into an immobile phase like antimony or boron.
Nitrogen implantation can be used to control gate oxide thicknesses [1,2]. This study aims at studying the fundamental behavior of nitrogen diffusion in silicon. Nitrogen at sub-amorphizing doses has been implanted as N2+ at 40 keV and 200 keV into Czochralski silicon wafers. Furnace anneals have been performed at a range of temperatures from 650°C through 1050°C. The resulting annealed profiles show anomalous diffusion behavior. For the 40 keV implants, nitrogen diffuses very rapidly and segregates at the silicon/ silicon-oxide interface. Modeling of this behavior is based on the theory that the diffusion is limited by the time to create a mobile nitrogen interstitial.