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Increasing numbers of children with perinatally acquired HIV (PaHIV) are transitioning into adult care. People living with behaviourally acquired HIV are known to be at more risk of psychosis than uninfected peers. Young adults living with PaHIV face numerous risk factors; biological: lifelong exposure to a neurotrophic virus, antiretroviral medication and immune dysfunction during brain development, and environmental; social deprivation, ethnicity-related discrimination, and migration-related issues. To date, there is little published data on the prevalence of psychotic illness in young people growing up with PaHIV.
We conducted a retrospective case note review of all individuals with PaHIV aged over 18 years registered for follow up at a dedicated clinic in the UK (n = 184).
In total, 12/184 (6.5%), median age 23 years (interquartile range 21–26), had experienced at least one psychotic episode. The presentation and course of the psychotic episodes experienced by our cohort varied from short-lived symptoms to long term illness and nine (75%) appear to have developed a severe and enduring mental illness requiring long term care.
The prevalence of psychosis in our cohort was clearly above the lifetime prevalence of psychosis in UK individuals aged 16–34 years, which has been reported to be 0.5–1.0%. This highlights the importance of clinical vigilance regarding the mental health of young people growing up with PaHIV and the need to integrate direct access to mental health services within the HIV centres providing medical care.
To determine the association between food insecurity and HIV infection with depression and anxiety among new tuberculosis (TB) patients.
Our cross-sectional study assessed depression, anxiety and food insecurity with Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Zung Anxiety Self-Assessment Scale (ZUNG) and Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, respectively. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to examine correlates of depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and anxiety (ZUNG ≥ 36).
Patients who were newly diagnosed with TB.
Between January and December 2019, we enrolled 180 TB patients from primary health clinics in Botswana. Overall, 99 (55·0 %) were HIV positive, 47 (26·1 %), 85 (47·2 %) and 69 (38·5 %) indicated depression, anxiety and moderate to severe food insecurity, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, food insecurity was associated with a higher prevalence of depression (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2·30; 95 % CI 1·40, 3·78) and anxiety (aPR = 1·41; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·91). Prevalence of depression and anxiety was similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants. Estimates remained comparable when restricted to HIV-infected participants.
Mental disorders may be affected by food insecurity among new TB patients, regardless of HIV status.
We report key learning from the public health management of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 identified in the UK. The first case imported, and the second associated with probable person-to-person transmission within the UK. Contact tracing was complex and fast-moving. Potential exposures for both cases were reviewed, and 52 contacts were identified. No further confirmed COVID-19 cases have been linked epidemiologically to these two cases. As steps are made to enhance contact tracing across the UK, the lessons learned from earlier contact tracing during the country's containment phase are particularly important and timely.
Introduction: The Maximizing Aging Using Volunteer Engagement in the ED (MAUVE + ED) program connects specially trained volunteers with older patients whose personal and social needs are not always met within the busy ED environment. The objective of this study was to describe the development and implementation of the MAUVE + ED program and the activities performed with older patients by its volunteers. Methods: The MAUVE + ED program was implemented in the ED (annual census 65,000) of a large academic tertiary hospital in Toronto, Ontario. Volunteers were trained to identify and approach older patients and others at greater risk for adverse outcomes, including poor patient experience, in the ED and invite such patients to participate in the program. The program is available to all patients >65 years, and those with confusion, patients who were alone, those with mobility issues, and patients with increased length of stay in the ED. Volunteers documented their activities after each patient encounter using a standardized paper-based data collection form. Results: Over the program's initial 6-month period, the MAUVE + ED volunteers reported a total of 896 encounters with 718 unique patients. The median (IQR) time a MAUVE volunteer spent with a patient was 10 (5, 20) minutes, with a range of 1 to 130 minutes. The median (IQR) number of patients seen per shift was 7 (6, 9), with a range of 1 to 16 patients per shift. The most common activities the volunteer assisted with were therapeutic activities/social visits (n = 859; 95.9%), orientation activities (n = 501; 55.9%), and hydration assistance (n = 231; 25.8%). The least common were mobility assistance (n = 36; 4.0%), and vision/hearing assistance (n = 13; 1.5%). Conclusion: Preliminary data suggest the MAUVE + ED volunteers were able to enrich the experience of older adults and their families/carers in the ED.
Studies conducted in Pakistan reveal a high prevalence of depression, particularly in women. Evidence based and effective treatments are available, yet there is a significant gap between the numbers of women in need of treatment and those who receive services. This qualitative study identifies the barriers in access to mental health services for women screened for depression from primary care clinics in Karachi.
In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women screened for depression from three purpose fully selected primary care sites in Karachi.
Interviewees reported that they mostly did not share their depressive symptoms and suicidal attempts with health care providers due to perception of these being their personal problems and health care providers also not asking about it. Interviewees perceived health care providers too busy, overburdened and not interested in their emotional problems. Those who shared their symptoms also did not receive proper diagnoses, treatment or referral from their health care providers.
The study highlights the need to increase mental health literacy about depression through mass media, community engagement, and educational institutions so that women can recognize the depression in themselves and other women around them and be able to share their symptoms with their health care providers. Religious scholars needs to be involved in raising awareness on depression as an illness for which women should seek medical treatment besides taking support from religion. It also indicates the need for a referral system to help women reach to the required mental health services.
Previous research failed to uncover a replicable structure of dimensions or subtypes underlying the symptoms of depression. One reason might be that research failed to separate co-variation between symptoms due to overall depression severity vs. due to specific symptom profiles.
Objectives and Aims
The study tested the hypothesis that a replicable dimensional structure of depression would be uncovered when depression severity is eliminated from symptom scores. Additionally, the study explored differences in the dimensional structure in general population vs. depressed people-only samples.
The cohort study on substance use risk factors (C-SURF), a large cohort of young Swiss men, and young men from the national health and nutrition survey in the US (NHANES 2009-2012) were analyzed. DSM-IV symptoms of depression were assessed via the Major Depressive Inventory (WHO-MDI) in C-SURF and via the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) in NHANES. Dimensionality was examined using principal component analysis in full samples vs. samples of participants with a current depressive episode for raw vs. severity-adjusted symptom scores.
When using severity-adjusted symptom scores, correlations between depressive symptoms largely disappeared and there were no replicable dimensions. When using raw scores in the full samples, one single dimension of depression consistently emerged. When using raw scores in depressed participants, only rudiments of dimensions were found across samples.
It is unlikely that there are stable dimensions underlying the DSM-IV symptoms of depression. The set of symptoms capture the disorder in the general population, but the disorder's manifestation is highly individual.
Before October 2012 there was no service level agreement for psychiatry cover in Whiston Hospital, an acute trust in the UK. The Crisis team would visit on goodwill to assess patients. This changed when a Liaison Psychiatry (LP) service was commissioned to provide 24 hour cover, Monday to Sunday for the Emergency Department (ED) for adults.
To quantify waiting times to be assessed by psychiatry, comparing the new LP Service (intervention group) to its predecessor (control). The null hypothesis being that the waiting time for the control and intervention group are the same.
The authors prospectively collected data on all referrals received by the LP service in the first three months of operation n=305 and retrospectively collected data on a random sample of 50 patients referred from ED in the same months 2011 (control).
The median time from referral to the time of psychiatric assessment in the control group was 162.5 minutes [IQR 130–330], the mean time was 246.16 [95% CI 180 to 312]. The median time from referral to the time of psychiatric assessment following the introduction of the LP service was 30 minutes [IQR 15-90], the mean time was 79.63 [95% CI 65 to 93]. When the two samples were compared using an independent t test they were significantly different p<0.002.
The new LP service has decreased the median wait for a psychiatry assessment by 132 minutes. The team currently seeS 82% of referrals within 60 minutes. This improves patient safety and encourages appropriate and timely discharge.
Studies from Pakistan reveal a high prevalence of depression in women. Evidence based and effective treatments are available, yet there is a significant gap between the number of women in need of treatment for depression and those who receive the services. This qualitative study identifies the barriers in access to mental health services for women with depression in Karachi from key informants' perspectives.
19 key-informant interviews were conducted with psychiatrists, psychologists, general health practitioners, pharmaceutical representatives, a government health department official and NGO workers working on women health issues.
Key-informants reported lack of awareness, misconceptions, self-medication, being young and unmarried and financial status as barriers for women in accessing mental health services. In addition, provider's lack of medical education about depression, mismanagement of cases by GPs, opposing mental health care and lack of referral system are also considered barriers to mental health services. Larger societal issues are stigma, gender bias, as well as poor resource allocation and management.
Key-informants considered women's education, mental health literacy and referrals as facilitators for women.
The study highlights the need for multipronged and multi-sector approach for increasing the access to mental health services for women in an urban context of developing country where mental health services are present but not accessed by women.
The Department of Health in the UK wants the National Health Service to make £20 Billion worth of efficiency savings by 2015 to reinvest.
In the UK the General Hospitals use paper records which are then scanned to create electronic records while Psychiatric Hospitals require that information to be typed on to their electronic records and these electronic records are not available to each other.
Therefore liaison psychiatry assessments require a written entry to be made in the Medical notes and a second entry typed on to the psychiatric electronic patient record which requires a full psychiatric history.
This duplication in typing information was consuming a considerable amount of this Teams time and resources which could have instead been spent with patients.
To identify how much time is spent by Staff typing information on to the psychiatric electronic patient records.
We electronically checked for the preceding three months the amount of time spent typing information on to the electronic records after every liaison psychiatry assessment.
We were then able to obtain the average for every week.
On average about 36 to 40 hours were spent every week typing information on to the electronic records.
Liaison Psychiatry should dispense with the requirement for information to be duplicated on to the electronic patient records and should instead scan the written entry made in the Medical notes.
This should lead to a saving of about £50,000, enough to employ an additional member of Staff every week.
Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness, requiring antipsychotic treatment. Relapses are associated with poor prognosis and treatment adherence is a major factor in relapse. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics increase adherence, can reduce relapse and improve long-term outcomes.
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate (PP) in terms of hospital admissions.
Patients were included in the study if they had been treated with PP for at least one year. The number of days during hospital admissions before and after initiation of PP was assessed in a mirror image design.
61 patients in the study had been treated for at least 1 year. The mean age of patients was 44 years old and 61% were male (n=37). The commonest diagnosis was schizophrenia (n=51).
In the year before initiation of PP, there were 64 admissions totalling 6089 days for all the patients, with an average of 99.8 days per patient in hospital. During the first year of treatment with PP, there were 22 admissions totalling 1412 days, with an average of 23 days per patient in hospital. 69% of patients had no admissions on PP.
In this naturalistic audit looking at admission data, treatment with PP resulted in a reduction in the number of hospital days by 76.8%. More than two-thirds of patients experienced no admissions during treatment with PP. This suggests that Paliperidone Palmitate can be effective in treating Schizophrenia as well as cost-effective treatment by reducing hospital admissions.
Reconstructions of prehistoric vegetation composition help establish natural baselines, variability, and trajectories of forest dynamics before and during the emergence of intensive anthropogenic land use. Pollen–vegetation models (PVMs) enable such reconstructions from fossil pollen assemblages using process-based representations of taxon-specific pollen production and dispersal. However, several PVMs and variants now exist, and the sensitivity of vegetation inferences to PVM selection, variant, and calibration domain is poorly understood. Here, we compare the reconstructions, parameter estimates, and structure of a Bayesian hierarchical PVM, STEPPS, both to observations and to REVEALS, a widely used PVM, for the pre–Euro-American settlement-era vegetation in the northeastern United States (NEUS). We also compare NEUS-based STEPPS parameter estimates to those for the upper midwestern United States (UMW). Both PVMs predict the observed macroscale patterns of vegetation composition in the NEUS; however, reconstructions of minor taxa are less accurate and predictions for some taxa differ between PVMs. These differences can be attributed to intermodel differences in structure and parameter estimates. Estimates of pollen productivity from STEPPS broadly agree with estimates produced for use in REVEALS, while comparison between pollen dispersal parameter estimates shows no significant relationship. STEPPS parameter estimates are similar between the UMW and NEUS, suggesting that STEPPS parameter estimates are transferable between floristically similar regions and scales.
In the United Kingdom, compliance with guidelines on physical health monitoring of patients prescribed clozapine is poor. Our community team established a ‘clozapine clinic’, led by junior doctors, to monitor the physical health of this population.
The aims of this audit were:
– to ascertain levels of compliance with guidelines on the physical health monitoring of patients taking clozapine;
– to compare the current level of compliance with that prior to the establishment of the clinic.
Eleven standards were drawn from National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines and the Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines in Psychiatry.
Three audit cycles were conducted: two prior to the establishment of the clinic and one after. In each cycle, searches of patient records were conducted and blood results were reviewed. This was supplemented by telephone calls to general practitioners to ensure a complete data set.
Analysis was conducted in Microsoft Excel™ and changes between the cycles were analysed using a two-tailed Z-score.
Each audit cycle included 28–30 patients. In the current cycle compliance levels varied between 66% (annual ECG recording) and 100% (monthly full blood count). The average compliance level was 73% across all standards. This represents an overall improvement on previous audit cycles. Since the clinic was established there has been a statistically significant improvement in compliance with annual monitoring of weight (P = 0.147), body mass index (P = 0.0178), and ECG monitoring (P = 0.0244).
Improvements in the care of a vulnerable population may be achieved through setting clear standards, regular audit, and harnessing the leadership and enthusiasm of junior doctors.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Hypoxemic patients often desaturate further with movement and transport. While inhaled epoprostenol does not improve mortality, improving oxygenation allows for transport of severely hypoxemic patients to tertiary care centers with a related improvement in mortality rates. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use is increasing in frequency for patients with refractory hypoxemia, and with increasing regionalization of care, safe transport of hypoxemic patients only becomes more important. In this series, four cases are presented of young patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure from Legionnaires’ disease transported on inhaled epoprostenol to ECMO centers for consideration of cannulation. With continued climate changes, Legionella and other pathogens are likely to be a continued threat. As such, optimizing oxygenation to allow for transport should continue to be a priority for critical care transport (CCT) services.
Diaphragm dysfunction following surgery for congenital heart disease is a known complication leading to delays in recovery and increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. We aimed to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with diaphragm plication in children undergoing cardiac surgery and evaluate timing to repair and effects on hospital cost and length of stay.
We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective observational cohort study. Forty-three hospitals from the Pediatric Health Information System database were included, and a total of 112,110 patients admitted between January 2004 and December 2014 were analysed.
Patients less than 18 years of age who underwent cardiac surgery were included. Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery was utilized to determine procedure complexity. The overall incidence of diaphragm dysfunction was 2.2% (n = 2513 out of 112,110). Of these, 24.0% (603 patients) underwent diaphragm plication. Higher complexity cardiac surgery (Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery 5–6) and age less than 4 weeks were associated with a higher likelihood of diaphragm plication (p-value < 0.01). Diaphragmatic plication was associated with increased hospital length of stay (p-value < 0.01) and increased medical cost.
Diaphragm plication after surgery for congenital heart disease is associated with longer hospital length of stay and increased cost. There is a strong correlation of prolonged time to plication with increased length of stay and medical cost. The likelihood of plication increases with younger age and higher procedure complexity. Methods to improve early recognition and treatment of diaphragm dysfunction should be developed.
Recent studies illustrate how machine learning (ML) can be used to bypass a core challenge of molecular modeling: the trade-off between accuracy and computational cost. Here, we assess multiple ML approaches for predicting the atomization energy of organic molecules. Our resulting models learn the difference between low-fidelity, B3LYP, and high-accuracy, G4MP2, atomization energies and predict the G4MP2 atomization energy to 0.005 eV (mean absolute error) for molecules with less than nine heavy atoms (training set of 117,232 entries, test set 13,026) and 0.012 eV for a small set of 66 molecules with between 10 and 14 heavy atoms. Our two best models, which have different accuracy/speed trade-offs, enable the efficient prediction of G4MP2-level energies for large molecules and are available through a simple web interface.
We describe the design and deployment of GREENBURST, a commensal Fast Radio Burst (FRB) search system at the Green Bank Telescope. GREENBURST uses the dedicated L-band receiver tap to search over the 960–1 920 MHz frequency range for pulses with dispersion measures out to
. Due to its unique design, GREENBURST is capable of conducting searches for FRBs when the L-band receiver is not being used for scheduled observing. This makes it a sensitive single pixel detector capable of reaching deeper in the radio sky. While single pulses from Galactic pulsars and rotating radio transients will be detectable in our observations, and will form part of the database we archive, the primary goal is to detect and study FRBs. Based on recent determinations of the all-sky rate, we predict that the system will detect approximately one FRB for every 2–3 months of continuous operation. The high sensitivity of GREENBURST means that it will also be able to probe the slope of the FRB fluence distribution, which is currently uncertain in this observing band.
Following publication, errors were discovered in the y-axis labels of the electron and hole concentration plots in the following figure panels: figure 4c, figure 4d, figure 5c, figure 5d, figure 6c, figure 6d, figure 8c and figure 8d. The error does not affect the description, analysis or conclusions. The correct representation of the figure panels are shown here.
Mini-sabbaticals are formal short-term training and educational experiences away from an investigator’s home research unit. These may include rotations with other research units and externships at government research or regulatory agencies, industry and non-profit programs, and training and/or intensive educational programs. The National Institutes of Health have been encouraging training institutions to consider offering mini-sabbaticals, but given the newness of the concept, limited data are available to guide the implementation of mini-sabbatical programs. In this paper, we review the history of sabbaticals and mini-sabbaticals, report the results of surveys we performed to ascertain the use of mini-sabbaticals at Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs, and consider best practice recommendations for institutions seeking to establish formal mini-sabbatical programs.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
During the summer of 2016, the Hawaii Department of Health responded to the second-largest domestic foodborne hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in the post-vaccine era. The epidemiological investigation included case finding and investigation, sequencing of RNA positive clinical specimens, product trace-back and virologic testing and sequencing of HAV RNA from the product. Additionally, an online survey open to all Hawaii residents was conducted to estimate baseline commercial food consumption. We identified 292 confirmed HAV cases, of whom 11 (4%) were possible secondary cases. Seventy-four (25%) were hospitalised and there were two deaths. Among all cases, 94% reported eating at Oahu or Kauai Island branches of Restaurant Chain A, with 86% of those cases reporting raw scallop consumption. In contrast, a food consumption survey conducted during the outbreak indicated 25% of Oahu residents patronised Restaurant Chain A in the 7 weeks before the survey. Product trace-back revealed a single distributor that supplied scallops imported from the Philippines to Restaurant Chain A. Recovery, amplification and sequence comparison of HAV recovered from scallops revealed viral sequences matching those from case-patients. Removal of product from implicated restaurants and vaccination of those potentially exposed led to the cessation of the outbreak. This outbreak further highlights the need for improved imported food safety.