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Developmental programming studies using mouse models have housed the animals at human thermoneutral temperatures (22°C) which imposes constant cold stress. As this impacts energy homeostasis, we investigated the effects of two housing temperatures (22°C and 30°C) on obesity development in male and female offspring of Control and FR dams. Pregnant mice were housed at 22°C (cold-exposed, CE) or 30°C (thermoneutrality, TN) room temperature. At gestational age e10, mice were fed either an ad libitum diet (Control) or were 30% food-restricted (FR) to produce low birth weight newborns. Following delivery, all dams were fed an ad libitum diet and maternal mice continued to nurse their own pups. At 3 weeks of age, offspring were weaned to an ad libitum diet and housed at similar temperatures as their mothers. Body weights and food intake were monitored. At 6 months of age, body composition and glucose tolerance test were determined, after which, brain and adipose tissue were collected for analysis. FR/CE and FR/TN offspring exhibited hyperphagia and were significantly heavier with increased adiposity as compared to their respective Controls. There was sex-specific effects of temperature in both groups. Male offspring at TN were heavier with increased body fat, though the food intake was decreased as compared to CE males. This was reflected by hypertrophic adipocytes and increased arcuate nucleus satiety/appetite ratio. In contrast, female offspring were not impacted by housing temperature. Thus, unlike female offspring, there was a significant interaction of diet and temperature evident in the male offspring with accentuated adverse effects evident in FR/TN males.
We surveyed healthcare workers within the Duke Antimicrobial Stewardship Outreach Network (DASON) to describe beliefs regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and their decision-making process behind vaccination recommendations. In contrast to the type of messaging that appealed most on a personal level to the healthcare workers, they preferred a more generic message emphasizing safety and efficacy when making vaccination recommendations.
To determine the demographic pattern of juvenile-onset parkinsonism (JP, <20 years), young-onset (YOPD, 20–40 years), and early onset (EOPD, 40–50 years) Parkinson’s disease (PD) in India.
Materials and Methods:
We conducted a 2-year, pan-India, multicenter collaborative study to analyze clinical patterns of JP, YOPD, and EOPD. All patients under follow-up of movement disorders specialists and meeting United Kingdom (UK) Brain Bank criteria for PD were included.
A total of 668 subjects (M:F 455:213) were recruited with a mean age at onset of 38.7 ± 8.1 years. The mean duration of symptoms at the time of study was 8 ± 6 years. Fifteen percent had a family history of PD and 13% had consanguinity. JP had the highest consanguinity rate (53%). YOPD and JP cases had a higher prevalence of consanguinity, dystonia, and gait and balance issues compared to those with EOPD. In relation to nonmotor symptoms, panic attacks and depression were more common in YOPD and sleep-related issues more common in EOPD subjects. Overall, dyskinesias were documented in 32.8%. YOPD subjects had a higher frequency of dyskinesia than EOPD subjects (39.9% vs. 25.5%), but they were first noted later in the disease course (5.7 vs. 4.4 years).
This large cohort shows differing clinical patterns in JP, YOPD, and EOPD cases. We propose that cutoffs of <20, <40, and <50 years should preferably be used to define JP, YOPD, and EOPD.
Diabetes mellitus (DM-II) and hyperglycemia are of concern in persons with chronic psychiatric disorders. At our 485 patient state hospital, DM has increased over tenfold in recent years. Our routine “finger sticks” for glucose monitoring are commonly elevated and these tend to be treated aggressively. We observed that many patients with high routine glucose values seemed to display no clinical symptoms of hyperglycemia. Of 74 patients with >1fingerstick glucose levels >350 mg/dl during an 18 month period (1/08-6/09), complete charts were available for 25 of the 32 with the highest values (all >420). None of these records showed untoward medical or behavioral incidents on the day of the highest value for each patient. For the 17 with complete medication information for those dates, 13 were prescribed atypical antipsychotics. To explore hyperglycemia, demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of the 32 patients with the highest glucose values were compared with 32 patients with the lowest peak values, and 32 with peak values closest to the overall median of 183 mg/dl. The high glucose group were similar to the others except for the prevalence of schizophrenia (87% vs 66% for the remainder) and less frequent required observation (t = 2.0, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in behavioral or medical incident reports for the high glucose patients compared with the other groups. The findings suggest that many patients with hyperglycemia in psychiatric hospitals are at lesser risk for medical consequences than traditionally assumed. Less aggressive management of elevated fingerstick values may be indicated.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) who undergo a second surgery following standard chemoradiotherapy, histopathologic examination of the resected tissue often reveals a combination of viable tumor and treatment-related inflammatory changes. However, it remains unclear whether the degree of viable tumor Versus “treatment effect” in these specimens impacts prognosis. We sought to determine whether the percentage of viable tumor Versus “treatment effect” in recurrent GBM surgical samples, as assessed by a trained neuropathologist and quantified on a continuous scale, is associated with overall survival. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We reviewed the records of 47 patients with histopathologically confirmed GBM who underwent surgical resection as the first therapeutic modality for suspected radiographic progression following standard radiation therapy and temozolomide. The percentage of viable tumor Versus “treatment effect” in each specimen was estimated by one neuropathologist who was blinded to patient outcomes. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After adjusting for other known prognostic factors in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, there was no association between the degree of viable tumor and overall survival (HR 0.83; 95% CI, 0.20–3.4; p=0.20). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results suggest that, in patients who undergo resection for recurrent GBM following standard first-line chemoradiotherapy, histopathologic quantification of the degree of viable tumor Versus “treatment effect” present in the surgical specimen has limited prognostic influence and clinical utility.
High frequency of low birth weight (LBW) is observed in rural compared with urban Indian women. Since maternal BMI is known to be associated with pregnancy outcomes, the present study aimed to investigate factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy of urban and rural South Indian women.
Prospective observational cohort.
A hospital-based study conducted at an urban and a rural health centre in Karnataka State.
Pregnant women (n 843) aged 18–40 years recruited in early pregnancy from whom detailed sociodemographic, environmental, anthropometric and dietary intake information was collected.
A high proportion of low BMI (32 v. 26 %, P<0·000) and anaemia (48 v. 23 %, P<0·000) was observed in the rural v. the urban cohort. Rural women were younger, had lower body weight, tended to be shorter and less educated. They lived in poor housing conditions, had less access to piped water and good sanitation, used unrefined fuel for cooking and had lower standard of living score. The age (β=0·21, 95 % CI 0·14, 0·29), education level of their spouse (β=1·36, 95 % CI 0·71, 2·71) and fat intake (β=1·24, 95 % CI 0·20, 2·28) were positively associated with BMI in urban women.
Our findings indicate that risk factors associated with BMI in early pregnancy are different in rural and urban settings. It is important to study population-specific risk factors in relation to perinatal health.
Introduction: Unnecessary imaging of adult cervical spine (C-spine) injury patients in the Emergency Department (ED) is a concern. Guidance for C-spine image ordering exists; however, the effectiveness and safety of their implementation in the ED is not well studied. This review examines their implementation and effectiveness at reducing C-spine imaging in adults presenting to the ED with stable neck trauma. Methods: Six electronic databases and the grey literature were searched. Comparative studies examining interventions to reduce C-spine imaging were eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers screened for study eligibility, assessed study quality, and extracted data. Data were analyzed using RevMan (Version 5.3) to explore the effectiveness of these interventions in safely reducing C-Spine radiography. Results: A total of 848 unique citations were screened of which six before-after studies and one randomized controlled trial were included. The study population varied with respect to injury severity (i.e., stability status). None of the studies were assessed as high quality. The interventions employed included locally developed guidelines and clinical decision rules, specifically the National X-radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) criteria and the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR). Various implementation strategies, such as teaching sessions, pocket reminder cards, posters and computerized decision support were used. Several studies used multi-faceted interventions. Overall, of the five study groups that examined change in x-ray ordering, three groups reported a significant reduction in c-spine radiography. The remaining two showed no change in imaging. A pooled estimate of the effectiveness of the interventions was prohibited by significant heterogeneity. Conclusion: The evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions to reduce C-spine imaging in adult ED patients with stable neck trauma is inconclusive. Given the national and international focus on improving appropriateness and reducing unnecessary imaging through campaigns such as Choosing Wisely®, additional interventional research in this field is warranted.
Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is an extremely frequent emergency department (ED) presentation. Although LBP imaging often results in no change to the ED management, does not identify abnormalities, and has documented risks (e.g., radiation exposure), advanced imaging (i.e., computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) for patients with LBP has become increasingly frequent in the ED. The objective of this review was to identify and examine the effectiveness and safety of interventions aimed at reducing imaging in the ED for LBP patients. Methods: Six bibliographic databases and grey literature were searched. Comparative studies assessing interventions aimed at reducing ED imaging for adult patients with LBP were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened study eligibility, completed data extraction, and assessed the quality of included studies. Due to a limited number of studies and significant heterogeneity, a descriptive analysis was performed. Results: The search yielded 510 unique citations of which three before-after studies were included. Quality assessment identified potential biases relating to comparability between the pre- and post-intervention groups, reliable assessment of outcomes, and an overall lack of information on the intervention (i.e., time point, description, intervention data collection). The interventions to reduce lumbar spine imaging varied considerably. Study interventions included: 1) clinical decision support (i.e., a specialized X-ray requisition form), which reported a 47.4% relative reduction of lumbar spine radiography referrals; 2) clinical decision guidelines, which reduced referrals by 43.8%; and 3) multidisciplinary protocols, which reported a reduction in the MRI referral rate by 26.1%. Despite reductions in simple imaging, CT use increased in two of the three studies. Conclusion: LBP has been identified as a key area of imaging overuse (e.g., Choosing Wisely recommendation). Yet, evidence of interventions’ effectiveness in reducing imaging for ED patients with LBP is sparse. While there is some evidence to suggest that interventions can reduce the use of simple imaging in LBP in the ED, unintended consequences have been reported and additional studies employing higher quality methods are strongly recommended.
Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24–59 months.
A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score <−2) and overweight/obesity (BMI-for-age Z-score >+2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l).
Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu.
Mother–child pairs (n 305) recruited using convenience sampling.
Moderate or severe stunting was apparent in 20·3 % of children, 16·1 % were overweight/obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, P<0·01) than boys. Overweight/obesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group.
The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.
A pilot study by 6 Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) explored how bibliometrics can be used to assess research influence.
Evaluators from 6 institutions shared data on publications (4202 total) they supported, and conducted a combined analysis with state-of-the-art tools. This paper presents selected results based on the tools from 2 widely used vendors for bibliometrics: Thomson Reuters and Elsevier.
Both vendors located a high percentage of publications within their proprietary databases (>90%) and provided similar but not equivalent bibliometrics for estimating productivity (number of publications) and influence (citation rates, percentage of papers in the top 10% of citations, observed citations relative to expected citations). A recently available bibliometric from the National Institutes of Health Office of Portfolio Analysis, examined after the initial analysis, showed tremendous potential for use in the CTSA context.
Despite challenges in making cross-CTSA comparisons, bibliometrics can enhance our understanding of the value of CTSA-supported clinical and translational research.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Background: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is notifiable in Canada with a differential diagnosis that includes a number of conditions. This analysis describes the epidemiology of AFP in Canadian youth less than 15 years old. Methods: Monthly active surveillance for AFP was conducted as part of the Canadian AFP Surveillance System. Results: From 1996 to 2014, 850 cases of AFP were reported, representing an average annual crude incidence rate of 0.77 cases per 100,000 youth less than 15 years old. The mean age of cases was 6.8 years (median 5.9 years). Nine percent had an abnormal neurological history and 53% had an acute respiratory illness within 30 days of onset. Fever occurred in 23% of cases, 96% experienced bilateral weakness, 21% had respiratory muscle involvement, and 26% had cranial nerve involvement. The average hospital length of stay was 13.5 days. The most common diagnoses were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) or a variant (70%), and transverse myelitis (TM, 14%). At the time of the initial report, 14% had fully recovered. Conclusions: Our AFP surveillance system provides a baseline for AFP and its causes in the Canadian paediatric population. While rare, AFP is associated with severe morbidity in youth. GBS and TM were the most common diagnoses.
Following implementation of automatic end dates for antimicrobial orders to facilitate antimicrobial stewardship at a large, academic children’s hospital, no differences were observed in patient mortality, length of stay, or readmission rates, even among patients with documented bacteremia.
The aim of this study was to compare sensory processing in typically developing children (TDC), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and those with sensory processing dysfunction (SPD) in the absence of an ASD. Performance-based measures of auditory and tactile processing were compared between male children ages 8–12 years assigned to an ASD (N=20), SPD (N=15), or TDC group (N=19). Both the SPD and ASD groups were impaired relative to the TDC group on a performance-based measure of tactile processing (right-handed graphesthesia). In contrast, only the ASD group showed significant impairment on an auditory processing index assessing dichotic listening, temporal patterning, and auditory discrimination. Furthermore, this impaired auditory processing was associated with parent-rated communication skills for both the ASD group and the combined study sample. No significant group differences were detected on measures of left-handed graphesthesia, tactile sensitivity, or form discrimination; however, more participants in the SPD group demonstrated a higher tactile detection threshold (60%) compared to the TDC (26.7%) and ASD groups (35%). This study provides support for use of performance-based measures in the assessment of children with ASD and SPD and highlights the need to better understand how sensory processing affects the higher order cognitive abilities associated with ASD, such as verbal and non-verbal communication, regardless of diagnostic classification. (JINS, 2015, 21, 444–454)
Benthic communities form an important component of the marine food chain. Their occurrence also provides information on the health of the ecosystem. A study was carried out to understand the distribution and abundance of macrobenthos along with sediment characteristics and physicochemical parameters in Visakhapatnam Harbour, a major port along the east coast of India. In all 84 macrobenthic taxa were reported from the port area of which 60 were polychaetes and 24 were other invertebrate taxa. Our observations revealed an increase in the number of polychaete species observed over the last 20 years from this region. An earlier study reported 38 polychaete species in 1975 and a year later the number of polychaete species reported was 12, indicating an increase in the number of polychaete species in the present study by about 150%. The macrobenthic abundance and dominance of species varied with the seasons. Pre-monsoon was dominated by Cirratulus sp., during monsoon tanaids were dominant indicating a seasonal shift in the occurrence and dominance of macrobenthos. During post-monsoon, Cossura coasta was dominant followed by Nephtys dibranchis and amphipods. Sediment characteristics (sand, silt and clay), organic carbon and dissolved oxygen were the important factors influencing the abundance and species diversity. The abundance of macrobenthic forms also varied with inner and outer harbour region. Higher species diversity was observed in the outer harbour suggesting the outer harbour has semi-polluted conditions such as higher dissolved oxygen (DO) and salinity, low nutrients (nitrite, nitrate and silicate) and low organic carbon in the sediment.
Wound closure with 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (Dermabond; Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey USA) has recently increased in popularity across a wide spectrum of physicians ranging from surgeons to emergency medicine practitioners. Generally, very few complications are associated with Dermabond and are usually related to application techniques. Uncommonly, patients present with allergic reactions to the adhesive compounds; these allergies are often misdiagnosed as cellulitis or another infectious process, and are incorrectly treated. This report describes a rare case of a diffuse cutaneous allergic reaction to Dermabond following its use to close a surgical incision, its prompt identification, and treatment after presentation to an emergency department.