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Skin-based samples (leather, skin, and parchment) in archaeological, historic and museum settings are among the most challenging materials to radiocarbon (14C) date in terms of removing exogenous carbon sources—comparable to bone collagen in many respects but with much less empirical study to guide pretreatment approaches. In the case of leather, the 14C content of materials used in manufacturing the leather can vary greatly. The presence of leather manufacturing chemicals before pretreatment and their absence afterward is difficult to demonstrate, and the accuracy of dates depends upon isolating the original animal proteins and removing exogenous carbon. Parchments differ in production technique from leather but include similar unknowns. It is not clear that lessons learned in the treatment of one are always salient for treating the other. We measured the 14C content of variously pretreated leather, parchment, skin samples, and extracts, producing apparent ages that varied by hundreds or occasionally thousands of years depending upon sample pretreatment. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and C:N ratios provided insight into the chemical composition of carbon reservoirs contributing to age differences. The results of these analyses demonstrated that XAD column chromatography resulted in the most accurate 14C dates for leather and samples of unknown tannage, and FTIR allowed for the detection of contamination that might have otherwise been overlooked.
The purpose of the current study was to revisit a controversial topic: whether frequencies of phonological consonant and vowel classes differ in speech directed to children and to adults. In addition, the current study investigated whether the frequency of phonological consonant and vowel classes changes with children’s increasing chronological and/or developmental age. This study analyzed speech input from 44 adults to four different age groups of listeners (i.e., three groups of children at 6, 18, and 36 months of age and one group of adult listeners) in terms of frequency of occurrence of consonant and vowel classes. Results revealed that consonant stop, nasal, fricative and glide manner classes as well as all four consonant place classes were significantly different in speech directed to the four different age groups. A perspective is discussed to better understand the nature of frequency input of phonological sound classes.
The law concerning limitation periods has long been recognised to be unsatisfactory. One area which poses particular problems concerns whether a limitation period can apply to equitable claims “by analogy” under section 36 of the Limitation Act 1980. This article considers three relatively recent decisions of the Court of Appeal – P & O Nedlloyd BV v Arab Metals Co. (The UB Tiger)  EWCA Civ 1717,  1 W.L.R. 2288, The Commissioners for Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs v IGE USA Investments Ltd.  EWCA Civ 534,  Ch. 423 and The Claimants in the Royal Mail Group Litigation v Royal Mail Group Limited  EWCA Civ 1173 – which illustrate that very different approaches have been taken. It is argued that The UB Tiger was wrongly decided, or at least should be limited to specific performance, and revives calls for legislative reform.
In this work, we present a methodology and a corresponding code-base for constructing mock integral field spectrograph (IFS) observations of simulated galaxies in a consistent and reproducible way. Such methods are necessary to improve the collaboration and comparison of observation and theory results, and accelerate our understanding of how the kinematics of galaxies evolve over time. This code, SimSpin, is an open-source package written in R, but also with an API interface such that the code can be interacted with in any coding language. Documentation and individual examples can be found at the open-source website connected to the online repository. SimSpin is already being utilised by international IFS collaborations, including SAMI and MAGPI, for generating comparable data sets from a diverse suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations.
Palaeoenvironmental data indicate that the climate of south-western Madagascar has changed repeatedly over the past millennium. Combined with socio-political challenges such as warfare and slave raiding, communities continually had to mitigate against risk. Here, the authors apply social network analysis to pottery assemblages from sites on the Velondriake coast to identify intercommunity connectivity and changes over time. The results indicate both continuity of densely connected networks and change in their spatial extent and structure. These network shifts coincided with periods of socio-political and environmental perturbation attested in palaeoclimate data and oral histories. Communities responded to socio-political and environmental risk by reconfiguring social connections and migrating to areas of greater resource availability or political security.
Many organisms live in fragmented populations, which has profound consequences on the dynamics of associated parasites. Metapopulation theory offers a canonical framework for predicting the effects of fragmentation on spatiotemporal host–parasite dynamics. However, empirical studies of parasites in classical metapopulations remain rare, particularly for vector-borne parasites. Here, we quantify spatiotemporal patterns and possible drivers of infection probability for several ectoparasites (fleas, Ixodes trianguliceps and Ixodes ricinus) and vector-borne microparasites (Babesia microti, Bartonella spp., Hepatozoon spp.) in a classically functioning metapopulation of water vole hosts. Results suggest that the relative importance of vector or host dynamics on microparasite infection probabilities is related to parasite life-histories. Bartonella, a microparasite with a fast life-history, was positively associated with both host and vector abundances at several spatial and temporal scales. In contrast, B. microti, a tick-borne parasite with a slow life-history, was only associated with vector dynamics. Further, we provide evidence that life-history shaped parasite dynamics, including occupancy and colonization rates, in the metapopulation. Lastly, our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that landscape connectivity was determined by distance-based dispersal of the focal hosts. We provide essential empirical evidence that contributes to the development of a comprehensive theory of metapopulation processes of vector-borne parasites.
To characterize residential social vulnerability among healthcare personnel (HCP) and evaluate its association with severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
This study analyzed data collected in May–December 2020 through sentinel and population-based surveillance in healthcare facilities in Colorado, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, and Oregon.
Data from 2,168 HCP (1,571 cases and 597 controls from the same facilities) were analyzed.
HCP residential addresses were linked to the social vulnerability index (SVI) at the census tract level, which represents a ranking of community vulnerability to emergencies based on 15 US Census variables. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by positive antigen or real-time reverse-transcriptase– polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test on nasopharyngeal swab. Significant differences by SVI in participant characteristics were assessed using the Fisher exact test. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between case status and SVI, controlling for HCP role and patient care activities, were estimated using logistic regression.
Significantly higher proportions of certified nursing assistants (48.0%) and medical assistants (44.1%) resided in high SVI census tracts, compared to registered nurses (15.9%) and physicians (11.6%). HCP cases were more likely than controls to live in high SVI census tracts (aOR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.37–2.26).
These findings suggest that residing in more socially vulnerable census tracts may be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk among HCP and that residential vulnerability differs by HCP role. Efforts to safeguard the US healthcare workforce and advance health equity should address the social determinants that drive racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic health disparities.
Background: The Canadian Registry for Amyloidosis Research (CRAR) is a nationwide disease registry of transthyretin (ATTR) and light-chain (AL) amyloidosis. Recent advances in disease-modifying therapy have improved prognosis, however there is a critical need for real-world evidence to address knowledge gaps, particularly longer-term therapeutic outcomes and surveillance strategies. Methods: A multi-stakeholder process was undertaken to develop a consensus dataset for ATTR- and AL-amyloidosis. This process included surveys to rank the importance of potential data items, and a consensus meeting of the CRAR steering committee, (comprised of multidisciplinary clinical experts, and patient organization representatives). Patients and patient organizations supported the development and implementation of a patient-reported dataset. Results: Consensus data items include disease onset, progression, severity, treatments, and outcomes, as well as patient-reported outcomes. Both prospective and retrospective (including deceased) patient cohorts are included. Further baseline data will be presented on an initial cohort of patients. Conclusions: CRAR has been established to collect a longitudinal, multidisciplinary dataset that will evaluate amyloidosis care and outcomes. CRAR has launched at multiple specialty amyloidosis centers nationally and is continually expanding. The growth of this program will promote opportunities to assess real-world safety and efficacy and inform the cost-effectiveness of therapies while supporting patient recruitment for research.
We consider a slowly condensing droplet levitating near the surface of an evaporating layer, and develop a mathematical model to describe diffusion, heat transfer and fluid flow in the system. The method of separation of variables in bipolar coordinates is used to obtain the series expansions for temperature, vapour concentration and the Stokes stream function. This framework allows us to determine temperature profiles and condensation rates at the surface of the droplet, and to calculate the upward force that allows the droplet to levitate. Somewhat counter-intuitively, condensation is found to be the strongest near the bottom of the droplet, which faces the hot liquid layer. The experimentally observed deviations from the classical law predicting the square of the radius to grow linearly in time are explained by the model. A spatially non-uniform phase change rate results in a contribution to the force not considered in previous studies, and comparable to droplet weight and the upward force calculated from the Stokes drag law. The levitation conditions are formulated accordingly, resulting in the prediction of levitation height as a function of droplet size without any fitting parameters. A simple criterion is formulated to define the parameter ranges in which levitation is possible. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data except that the model tends to slightly underpredict the levitation height.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this mixed methods project was to gain a comprehensive understanding and generate data on factors, including stress and inflammatory biomarkers, that may negatively impact glycemic levels in children aged 8-12 years with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from underrepresented backgrounds. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This study employed a two-phase sequential QUAN -> qual mixed methods design. Children and their parents were recruited from a pediatric endocrinology clinic in the southeastern United States. In phase 1 (n=34), we used quantitative methods to measure perceived stress, diabetes distress, cortisol, inflammation (IL-1b, IL-2; IL-6; IL-8; TNF-a; CRP), and glycemic level (HbA1c). Both children and their parent/guardian completed surveys, and children provided salivary and blood samples to measure cortisol and inflammatory markers. Phase 2 qualitative interviews in a subset (n=20) of children and parent/guardians from phase 1 are ongoing; preliminary findings will be included in the presentation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Mean age of children was 10.47 (sd=1.44), 67.6% were male, and 41.2% were black. HbA1c ranged from 6.8%-15% and only 2 (5.8%) children met ADA recommendations for HbA1c of 7% or less. HbA1c was associated with child reports of perceived stress (r = .403, p < .05), but not parent reports of child perceived stress (r = -.011, p > .05). Parent reports of perceived stress and diabetes distress in children were not significantly associated with child self-report of perceived stress (r = .11, p > .05) or diabetes distress (r = .018, p > .05). Exploratory models with PROCESS suggest that cortisol slope and IL-8 moderate the relationship between child’s perceived stress and glycemic control. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Stressors are emerging that are unique to this population and may help highlight disparities in care. While the study is ongoing, findings may help health professionals identify and mitigate stressors in children with T1D to help maintain optimal glycemic levels.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: NSF often requires cross-disciplinary team composition to be competitive for funding. To what extent do research teams have multidisciplinary authorships after they win an award, given that awards are not contracts? We examined the quantity and quality of multidisciplinary collaboration of NSF-funded teams before and after receiving their award. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Our sample was 150 PIs and Co-PIs (67% male) from 58 NSF-funded EAGER (EArly-concept Grants for Exploratory Research) grants between 2013 and 2019. Using publicly available information, we collected the number of conference papers, publications, and grants PIs/co-PIs produced with each other (all PIs and co-PIs in a team or a partial subset). Based on Ph.D. fields, we also cataloged whether the combination of PIs/co-PI authors on outputs represented unidisciplinary or multidisciplinary collaboration after their NSF award. Multidisciplinary collaboration consisted of multidivisional (Ph.D. disciplines across NSF divisions, e.g., political science and cognitive psychology) or multidirectorate (Ph.D. disciplines across NSF directorates, e.g., psychology and engineering) authorship. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 74% of PI and co-PI teams who collaborated after their EAGER award, almost 9 out of 10 chose to work with a collaborator from a different discipline, and almost 8 out of 10 chose to work with a researcher from an extremely diverse discipline from their own (e.g., computer science and psychology). Research on interdisciplinary teams largely emphasizes the challenges and problems they face but the current research demonstrated that 90% of the sample chose to continue working together across disciplines after EAGER awards. Therefore, future research should dedicate more attention to the nontangible benefits members receive in interdisciplinary teams. Moreover, quality measures revealed higher H-indices for multidisciplinary than unidisciplinary journals and conferences. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our archival results revealed that NSF EAGER grants are having their intended effect of being a catalyst for 1) continued multidisciplinary (and especially multidirectorate) collaboration) and 2) high-quality multidisciplinary publication and conference output. These results have contributed to NSF policy changes to reinstate the EAGER grant.
This paper uses the Current Population Survey to study older workers' transitions out of employment and into retirement during the first year of the pandemic. We find that, among workers ages 55 to 79, the likelihood of leaving employment over the course of a year rose by 6.7 percentage points, a 43-percent increase over baseline. Workers without a college degree, Asian–Americans, those whose jobs were not amenable to social distancing, and part-time workers saw disproportionate impacts. In contrast, the likelihood of retiring increased by 1 percentage point, and there was no immediate retirement boom for full-time workers under 70.
Consumers now demand evidence of welfare assurance at all stages of animal production, marketing, transport and slaughter. In response, retailers have increasingly adopted preferred supply chain relationships which preclude sourcing animals via livestock auction markets. One of the criteria dictating this action is a perceived improvement in animal welfare resulting from direct transport from farm to abattoir.
A survey of complete journey structures of 18 393 slaughterweight lambs from farm to abattoir was conducted between April and July 1997. Journeys were characterized in terms of distances travelled, duration and the number of discrete components within a whole journey which comprised: transport; trans-shipping (when animals were transferred from one vehicle to another); multiple pickups from a number of farms; and holding at either assembly points, lairages or auction markets. The results identified that journeys in the livestock distribution system are diverse and range in complexity, irrespective of marketing channel. Journey complexity was found to be positively related to distance travelled.
The study demonstrates that discussions concerning welfare of livestock in transit should consider the journey structure and not just the marketing channel per se. Furthermore, it also shows that changes taking place in the infrastructure of the marketing and meat processing sectors may result in a reduction in animal welfare.
Extensive sheep farming systems make an important contribution to socio-economic well-being and the ‘ecosystem services’ that flow from large areas of the UK and elsewhere. They are therefore subject to much policy intervention. However, the animal welfare implications of such interventions and their economic drivers are rarely considered. Under Defra project AW1024 (a further study to assess the interaction between economics, husbandry and animal welfare in large, extensively managed sheep flocks) we therefore assessed the interaction between profit and animal welfare on extensive sheep farms. A detailed inventory of resources, resource deployment and technical performance was constructed for 20 commercial extensive sheep farms in Great Britain (equal numbers from the Scottish Highlands, Cumbria, Peak District and mid-Wales). Farms were drawn from focus groups in these regions where participative research with farmers added further information. These data were summarised and presented to a panel of 12 experts for welfare assessment. We used two welfare assessment methods one drawn from animal welfare science (‘needs’ based) the other from management science (Service Quality Modelling). The methods gave complementary results. The inventory data were also used to build a linear programme (LP) model of sheep, labour and feed-resource management month-by-month on each farm throughout the farming year. By setting the LP to adjust farm management to maximise gross margin under each farm's circumstances we had an objective way to explore resource allocations, their constraints and welfare implications under alternative policy response scenarios. Regression of indicators of extensification (labour per ewe, in-bye land per ewe, hill area per ewe and lambs weaned per ewe) on overall welfare score explained 0.66 of variation with labour and lambs weaned per ewe both positive coefficients. Neither gross margin nor flock size were correlated with welfare score. Gross margin was also uncorrelated with these indicators of extensification with the exception of labour/ewe, which was negatively correlated with flock size and hence with gross margin. These results suggest animal welfare is best served by reduced extensification while greater profits are found in flock expansion with reduced labour input per ewe and no increase in other inputs or in productivity. Such potential conflicts should be considered as policy adjusts to meet the requirements for sustainable land use in the hills and uplands.
While studies from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic have described initial negative effects on mental health and exacerbating mental health inequalities, longer-term studies are only now emerging.
In total, 34 465 individuals in the UK completed online questionnaires and were re-contacted over the first 12 months of the pandemic. We used growth mixture modelling to identify trajectories of depression, anxiety and anhedonia symptoms using the 12-month data. We identified sociodemographic predictors of trajectory class membership using multinomial regression models.
Most participants had consistently low symptoms of depression or anxiety over the year of assessments (60%, 69% respectively), and a minority had consistently high symptoms (10%, 15%). We also identified participants who appeared to show improvements in symptoms as the pandemic progressed, and others who showed the opposite pattern, marked symptom worsening, until the second national lockdown. Unexpectedly, most participants showed stable low positive affect, indicating anhedonia, throughout the 12-month period. From regression analyses, younger age, reporting a previous mental health diagnosis, non-binary, or self-defined gender, and an unemployed or a student status were significantly associated with membership of the stable high symptom groups for depression and anxiety.
While most participants showed little change in their depression and anxiety symptoms across the first year of the pandemic, we highlight the divergent responses of subgroups of participants, who fared both better and worse around national lockdowns. We confirm that previously identified predictors of negative outcomes in the first months of the pandemic also predict negative outcomes over a 12-month period.
As part of surveillance of snail-borne trematodiasis in Knowsley Safari (KS), Prescot, United Kingdom, a collection was made in July 2021 of various planorbid (n = 173) and lymnaeid (n = 218) snails. These were taken from 15 purposely selected freshwater habitats. In the laboratory emergent trematode cercariae, often from single snails, were identified by morphology with a sub-set, of those most accessible, later characterized by cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) DNA barcoding. Two schistosomatid cercariae were of special note in the context of human cercarial dermatitis (HCD), Bilharziella polonica emergent from Planorbarius corneus and Trichobilharzia spp. emergent from Ampullacaena balthica. The former schistosomatid was last reported in the United Kingdom over 50 years ago. From cox1 analyses, the latter likely consisted of two taxa, Trichobilharzia anseri, a first report in the United Kingdom, and a hitherto unnamed genetic lineage having some affiliation with Trichobilharzia longicauda. The chronobiology of emergent cercariae from P. corneus was assessed, with the vertical swimming rate of B. polonica measured. We provide a brief risk appraisal of HCD for public activities typically undertaken within KS educational and recreational programmes.
Genes associated with educational attainment may be related to or interact with adolescent alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. Potential gene–environment interplay between educational attainment polygenic scores (EA-PGS) and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use was evaluated with a series of regression models fitted to data from a sample of 1871 adult Australian twins. All models controlled for age, age2, cohort, sex and genetic ancestry as fixed effects, and a genetic relatedness matrix was included as a random effect. Although there was no evidence that adolescent alcohol, tobacco or cannabis use interacted with EA-PGS to influence educational attainment, there was a significant, positive gene–environment correlation with adolescent alcohol use at all PGS thresholds (ps <.02). Higher EA-PGS were associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol as an adolescent (ΔR2 ranged from 0.5% to 1.1%). The positive gene–environment correlation suggests a complex relationship between educational attainment and alcohol use that is due to common genetic factors.