To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Genes associated with educational attainment may be related to or interact with adolescent alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. Potential gene–environment interplay between educational attainment polygenic scores (EA-PGS) and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use was evaluated with a series of regression models fitted to data from a sample of 1871 adult Australian twins. All models controlled for age, age2, cohort, sex and genetic ancestry as fixed effects, and a genetic relatedness matrix was included as a random effect. Although there was no evidence that adolescent alcohol, tobacco or cannabis use interacted with EA-PGS to influence educational attainment, there was a significant, positive gene–environment correlation with adolescent alcohol use at all PGS thresholds (ps <.02). Higher EA-PGS were associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol as an adolescent (ΔR2 ranged from 0.5% to 1.1%). The positive gene–environment correlation suggests a complex relationship between educational attainment and alcohol use that is due to common genetic factors.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed significant burden on healthcare systems. We compared Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology before and during the pandemic across 71 hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Using an interrupted time series analysis, we showed that CDI rates significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Several Miscanthus species are cultivated in the U.S. Midwest and Northeast, and feral populations can displace the native plant community and potentially negatively affect ecosystem processes. The monetary cost of eradicating feral Miscanthus populations is unknown, but quantifying eradication costs will inform decisions on whether eradication is a feasible goal and should be considered when totaling the economic damage of invasive species. We managed experimental populations of eulaliagrass (Miscanthus sinensis Andersson) and the giant Miscanthus hybrid (Miscanthus × giganteus J.M. Greef & Deuter ex Hodkinson & Renvoize) in three floodplain forest and three old field sites in central Illinois with the goal of eradication. We recorded the time invested in eradication efforts and tracked survival of Miscanthus plants over a 5-yr period, then estimated the costs associated with eradicating these Miscanthus populations. Finally, we used these estimates to predict the total monetary costs of eradicating existing M. sinensis populations reported on EDDMapS. Miscanthus populations in the old field sites were harder to eradicate, resulting in an average of 290% greater estimated eradication costs compared with the floodplain forest sites. However, the cost and time needed to eradicate Miscanthus populations were similar between Miscanthus species. On-site eradication costs ranged from $390 to $3,316 per site (or $1.3 to $11 m−2) in the old field sites, compared with only $85 to $547 (or $0.92 to $1.82 m−2) to eradicate populations within the floodplain forests, with labor comprising the largest share of these costs. Using our M. sinensis eradication cost estimates in Illinois, we predict that the potential costs to eradicate populations reported on EDDMapS would range from $10 to $37 million, with a median predicted cost of $22 million. The monetary costs of eradicating feral Miscanthus populations should be weighed against the benefits of cultivating these species to provide a comprehensive picture of the relative costs and benefits of adding these species to our landscapes.
The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health is still being unravelled. It is important to identify which individuals are at greatest risk of worsening symptoms. This study aimed to examine changes in depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using prospective and retrospective symptom change assessments, and to find and examine the effect of key risk factors.
Online questionnaires were administered to 34 465 individuals (aged 16 years or above) in April/May 2020 in the UK, recruited from existing cohorts or via social media. Around one-third (n = 12 718) of included participants had prior diagnoses of depression or anxiety and had completed pre-pandemic mental health assessments (between September 2018 and February 2020), allowing prospective investigation of symptom change.
Prospective symptom analyses showed small decreases in depression (PHQ-9: −0.43 points) and anxiety [generalised anxiety disorder scale – 7 items (GAD)-7: −0.33 points] and increases in PTSD (PCL-6: 0.22 points). Conversely, retrospective symptom analyses demonstrated significant large increases (PHQ-9: 2.40; GAD-7 = 1.97), with 55% reported worsening mental health since the beginning of the pandemic on a global change rating. Across both prospective and retrospective measures of symptom change, worsening depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms were associated with prior mental health diagnoses, female gender, young age and unemployed/student status.
We highlight the effect of prior mental health diagnoses on worsening mental health during the pandemic and confirm previously reported sociodemographic risk factors. Discrepancies between prospective and retrospective measures of changes in mental health may be related to recall bias-related underestimation of prior symptom severity.
Policies that promote conversion of antibiotics from intravenous to oral route administration are considered “low hanging fruit” for hospital antimicrobial stewardship programs. We developed a simple metric based on digestive days of therapy divided by total days of therapy for targeted agents and a method for hospital comparisons. External comparisons may help identify opportunities for improving prospective implementation.
Since the advent of direct-acting antiviral therapy, the elimination of hepatitis c virus (HCV) as a public health concern is now possible. However, identification of those who remain undiagnosed, and re-engagement of those who are diagnosed but remain untreated, will be essential to achieve this. We examined the extent of HCV infection among individuals undergoing liver function tests (LFT) in primary care. Residual biochemistry samples for 6007 patients, who had venous blood collected in primary care for LFT between July 2016 and January 2017, were tested for HCV antibody. Through data linkage to national and sentinel HCV surveillance databases, we also examined the extent of diagnosed infection, attendance at specialist service and HCV treatment for those found to be HCV positive. Overall HCV antibody prevalence was 4.0% and highest for males (5.0%), those aged 37–50 years (6.2%), and with an ALT result of 70 or greater (7.1%). Of those testing positive, 68.9% had been diagnosed with HCV in the past, 84.9% before the study period. Most (92.5%) of those diagnosed with chronic infection had attended specialist liver services and while 67.7% had ever been treated only 38% had successfully cleared infection. More than half of HCV-positive people required assessment, and potentially treatment, for their HCV infection but were not engaged with services during the study period. LFT in primary care are a key opportunity to diagnose, re-diagnose and re-engage patients with HCV infection and highlight the importance of GPs in efforts to eliminate HCV as a public health concern.
Sealings recovered from the Omo M10 temple, a provincial center of the Andean Tiwanaku state (AD 500–1100), and from the Muru Ut Pata neighborhood of the Tiwanaku capital, as well as a signet ring from the Akapana East complex of Tiwanaku's highland capital, shed light on the hitherto undocumented use of seals and sealings in Central Andean complex society. The identification of Tiwanaku sealings related to the signet ring seal has implications for understanding the transmission of identity, authority, and authenticity over time and distance in early Andean states.
The year 2020 will be remembered as a moment of omni-crisis at the intersection of public health, politics, and economics. A global pandemic on a scale not seen in a century struck tens of millions and left a wake of devastation. Governments around the world responded in divergent ways, from competent and well organized to chaotic and inept, with predictable consequences for their citizens. Their economies suffered the consequences as well, with many facing skyrocketing rates of unemployment and business failure. Those at the low end of the income spectrum fared the worst: in the United States, employment in the foodservice industry dropped from 12 million to 6 million in a single month, leaving the equivalent of the population of Denmark out of work.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest or pleasure in activities – is a core self-reported symptom of depression which is poorly understood and often resistant to conventional antidepressants. This symptom may occur due to dysfunction in one or more sub-components of reward processing: motivation, consummatory experience and/or learning. However, the precise impairments remain elusive. Dissociating these components (ideally, using cross-species measures) and relating them to the subjective experience of anhedonia is critical as it may benefit fundamental biology research and novel drug development.
Using a battery of behavioural tasks based on rodent assays, we examined reward motivation (Joystick-Operated Runway Task, JORT; and Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task, EEfRT) and reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test) in a non-clinical population who scored high (N = 32) or low (N = 34) on an anhedonia questionnaire (Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale).
Compared to the low anhedonia group, the high anhedonia group displayed marginal impairments in effort-based decision-making (EEfRT) and reduced reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test). However, we found no evidence of a difference between groups in physical effort exerted for reward (JORT). Interestingly, whilst the EEfRT and Sweet Taste Test correlated with anhedonia measures, they did not correlate with each other. This poses the question of whether there are subgroups within anhedonia; however, further work is required to directly test this hypothesis.
Our findings suggest that anhedonia is a heterogeneous symptom associated with impairments in reward sensitivity and effort-based decision-making.
U.S. veterans report high rates of traumatic experiences and mental health symptomology [e.g. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)]. The stress sensitization hypothesis posits experiences of adversity sensitize individuals to stress reactions which can lead to greater psychiatric problems. We extend this hypothesis by exploring how multiple adversities such as early childhood adversity, combat-related trauma, and military sexual trauma related to heterogeneity in stress over time and, subsequently, greater risk for PTSD.
1230 veterans were recruited for an observational, longitudinal study. Veterans responded to questionnaires on PTSD, stress, and traumatic experiences five times over an 18-month study period. We used latent transition analysis to understand how heterogeneity in adverse experiences is related to transition into stress trajectory classes. We also explored how transition patterns related to PTSD symptomology.
Across all models, we found support for stress sensitization. In general, combat trauma in combinations with other types of adverse experiences, namely early childhood adversity and military sexual trauma, imposed a greater probability of transitioning into higher risk stress profiles. We also showed differential effects of early childhood and military-specific adversity on PTSD symptomology.
The present study rigorously integrates both military-specific and early life adversity into analysis on stress sensitivity, and is the first to examine how sensitivity might affect trajectories of stress over time. Our study provides a nuanced, and specific, look at who is risk for sensitization to stress based on previous traumatic experiences as well as what transition patterns are associated with greater PTSD symptomology.
We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 photometric and grism observations of the candidate ultra-high-redshift (
) radio galaxy, GLEAM J0917–0012. This radio source was selected due to the curvature in its 70–230 MHz, low-frequency Murchison Widefield Array radio spectrum and its faintness in K-band. Follow-up spectroscopic observations of this source with the Jansky Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimetre Array were inconclusive as to its redshift. Our F105W and F0986M imaging observations detect the host of GLEAM J0917–0012 and a companion galaxy,
one arcsec away. The G102 grism observations reveal a single weak line in each of the spectra of the host and the companion. To help identify these lines we utilised several photometric redshift techniques including template fitting to the grism spectra, fitting the ultraviolet (UV)-to-radio photometry with galaxy templates plus a synchrotron model, fitting of the UV-to-near-infrared photometry with EAZY, and fitting the radio data alone with RAiSERed. For the host of GLEAM J0917–0012 we find a line at
m and the UV-to-radio spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting favours solutions at
. While this fitting shows a weak preference for the lower redshift solution, the models from the higher redshift solution are more consistent with the strength of the spectral line. The redshift constraint by RAiSERed of
also supports the interpretation that this line could be Lyman
; however EAZY favours the
solution. We discuss the implications of both solutions. For the companion galaxy we find a line at
m and the SED fitting favours solutions at
implying that the line could be the [OII]
(although the EAZY solution is
$z\sim 2.6\pm 0.5$
). Further observations are still required to unambiguously determine the redshift of this intriguing candidate ultra-high-redshift radio galaxy.
This study examined struggles to establish autonomy and relatedness with peers in adolescence and early adulthood as predictors of advanced epigenetic aging assessed at age 30. Participants (N = 154; 67 male and 87 female) were observed repeatedly, along with close friends and romantic partners, from ages 13 through 29. Observed difficulty establishing close friendships characterized by mutual autonomy and relatedness from ages 13 to 18, an interview-assessed attachment state of mind lacking autonomy and valuing of attachment at 24, and self-reported difficulties in social integration across adolescence and adulthood were all linked to greater epigenetic age at 30, after accounting for chronological age, gender, race, and income. Analyses assessing the unique and combined effects of these factors, along with lifetime history of cigarette smoking, indicated that each of these factors, except for adult social integration, contributed uniquely to explaining epigenetic age acceleration. Results are interpreted as evidence that the adolescent preoccupation with peer relationships may be highly functional given the relevance of such relationships to long-term physical outcomes.
Organizations that are becoming more diverse and relying on teams to achieve performance outcomes often employ organizational interventions to deliver these outcomes. Although some negative or null side effects have been demonstrated related to these interventions, we argue that many positive side effects are often not captured or are disregarded and warrant further attention. Using examples from the training literature, we provide evidence for positive side effects of organizational interventions. We also identify lapses in the field’s approach to the measurement of the effects of organizational interventions and how this prevents our attempts to improve these interventions to create better and more holistic outcomes for employees and organizations. We suggest opportunities to improve interventions that can be applied in our diverse workplaces.
Russian thistle, also known as tumbleweed (Salsola spp.), is a problematic invasive plant found on natural and working landscapes. On a California rangeland, we tested the singular and interactive treatments of grazing, herbicide, and seeding to determine how these approaches might influence Salsola cover across a 5-yr experiment. Total Salsola cover declined by 3% annually during the study. A single spring treatment of chlorsulfuron + 2,4-D followed by glyphosate applied in the fall just before seeding, and then 2,4-D the following spring, significantly reduced Salsola cover compared with the untreated control. Seeded forage species cover increased over time and was significantly higher than seeded native species cover at 5 yr after seeding. However, the seeding treatment had no effect on Salsola cover. Although grazing did not reduce Salsola cover, due to the beneficial effects of grazing on reducing other nonnative species, this study supports the use of an integrated approach of herbicide application, grazing, and seeding to achieve management goals on an arid working landscape.
Describe nutrition and physical activity practices, nutrition self-efficacy and barriers and food programme knowledge within Family Child Care Homes (FCCH) and differences by staffing.
Baseline, cross-sectional analyses of the Happy Healthy Homes randomised trial (NCT03560050).
FCCH in Oklahoma, USA.
FCCH providers (n 49, 100 % women, 30·6 % Non-Hispanic Black, 2·0 % Hispanic, 4·1 % American Indian/Alaska Native, 51·0 % Non-Hispanic white, 44·2 ± 14·2 years of age. 53·1 % had additional staff) self-reported nutrition and physical activity practices and policies, nutrition self-efficacy and barriers and food programme knowledge. Differences between providers with and without additional staff were adjusted for multiple comparisons (P < 0·01).
The prevalence of meeting all nutrition and physical activity best practices ranged from 0·0–43·8 % to 4·1–16·7 %, respectively. Average nutrition and physical activity scores were 3·2 ± 0·3 and 3·0 ± 0·5 (max 4·0), respectively. Sum nutrition and physical activity scores were 137·5 ± 12·6 (max 172·0) and 48·4 ± 7·5 (max 64·0), respectively. Providers reported high nutrition self-efficacy and few barriers. The majority of providers (73·9–84·7 %) felt that they could meet food programme best practices; however, knowledge of food programme best practices was lower than anticipated (median 63–67 % accuracy). More providers with additional staff had higher self-efficacy in family-style meal service than did those who did not (P = 0·006).
Providers had high self-efficacy in meeting nutrition best practices and reported few barriers. While providers were successfully meeting some individual best practices, few met all. Few differences were observed between FCCH providers with and without additional staff. FCCH providers need additional nutrition training on implementation of best practices.
Sash windows, or counter-balanced vertically sliding windows, are a common feature in domestic buildings. We describe a model for the ventilation flow rate through a sash window, when the indoor temperature is warmer than outdoors. Depending on the position of the neutral pressure level relative to the sash window, we identify three flow regimes and the critical height of the lower opening for the flow to transition from one regime to another. We perform laboratory experiments in a water tank to measure the flow rate for different sash window geometries, and compare our experimental results with the model. Using our results we assess the optimal sash window arrangement for different natural ventilation strategies. Our results have implications for optimal ventilation rates and control of ventilation in smart buildings.
Herbicides that inhibit very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) have been widely used for preemergence control of annual monocot and small-seeded dicot weed species, such as waterhemp, since their discovery in the 1950s. VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides are often applied in combination with active ingredients that possess residual activity on small-seeded broadleaf weeds, which can make their contribution to preemergence waterhemp control difficult to quantify. Bare-ground field experiments were designed to investigate the efficacy of eight VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides applied at their minimum and maximum labeled rates for control of Illinois waterhemp populations. Four different locations were selected, two of which contained previously characterized VLCFA inhibitor–resistant waterhemp populations in Champaign County (CHR) and McLean County (MCR). Two locations with VLCFA inhibitor–sensitive waterhemp populations included the University of Illinois South Farm in Urbana, IL, and the Orr Research Center in Perry, IL. Soils at the CHR, MCR, and Urbana locations contained greater than 3% organic matter, but less than 3% organic matter at Perry. Non-encapsulated acetochlor and alachlor controlled CHR and MCR waterhemp populations 28 d after treatment (DAT), whereas other VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides resulted in 61% and 76% control of the CHR and MCR populations, respectively. In contrast, all VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides resulted in 81% and 88% control of the Perry and Urbana waterhemp populations, respectively, 28 DAT. Waterhemp control decreased by 42 DAT, especially for the VLCFA inhibitor–resistant CHR and MCR populations. Overall, VLCFA-inhibiting herbicides remain effective for controlling sensitive waterhemp, but most are not effective for controlling VLCFA inhibitor–resistant waterhemp populations. Proper herbicide stewardship and integrated weed management practices should be implemented to maintain VLCFA-inhibiting herbicide efficacy for waterhemp management in the future.