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A Canadian health authority implemented a multisectoral intervention designed to control severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission during long-term care facility (LTCF) outbreaks. The primary objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention 14 days after implementation.
A series of outbreak measures classified into 4 categories: case and contact management, proactive case detection, rigorous infection control practices and resource prioritization and stewardship.
A mixed-effects segmented Poisson regression model was fitted to the incidence rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), calculated every 2 days, within each facility and case type (staff vs residents). For each facility, the outbreak time period was segmented into an early outbreak period (within 14 days of the intervention) and postintervention period (beyond 14 days following the intervention). Model outputs quantified COVID-19 incidence trend and rate changes between these 2 periods. A secondary model was constructed to identify effect modification by case type.
The significant upward trend in COVID-19 incidence rate during the early outbreak period (rate ratio [RR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.11; P < .001) reversed during the postintervention period (RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.67–0.80; P < .001). The average trend did not differ by case type during the early outbreak period (P > .05) or the postintervention period (P > .05). However, staff had a 70% larger decrease in the average rate of COVID-19 during the postintervention period than residents (RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.10–0.88; P < .05).
Our study provides evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 in LTCFs. This intervention can be adapted and utilized by other jurisdictions to protect the vulnerable individuals in LTCFs.
Sensing of nutrients by chemosensory cells in the gastrointestinal tract plays a key role in transmitting food-related signals, linking information about the composition of ingested foods to digestive processes. In recent years, a number of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) responsive to a range of nutrients have been identified. Many are localised to intestinal enteroendocrine (chemosensory) cells, promoting hormonal and neuronal signalling locally, centrally and to the periphery. The field of gut sensory systems is relatively new and still evolving. Despite huge interest in these nutrient-sensing GPCR, both as sensors for nutritional status and targets for preventing the development of metabolic diseases, major challenges remain to be resolved. However, the gut expressed sweet taste receptor, resident in L-enteroendocrine cells and responsive to dietary sweetener additives, has already been successfully explored and utilised as a therapeutic target, treating weaning-related disorders in young animals. In addition to sensing nutrients, many GPCR are targets for drugs used in clinical practice. As such these receptors, in particular those expressed in L-cells, are currently being assessed as potential new pathways for treating diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, growing recognition of gut chemosensing of microbial-produced SCFA acids has led further attention to the association between nutrition and development of chronic disorders focusing on the relationship between nutrients, gut microbiota and health. The central importance of gut nutrient sensing in the control of gastrointestinal physiology, health promotion and gut–brain communication offers promise that further therapeutic successes and nutritional recommendations will arise from research in this area.
There is limited knowledge of how individuals reflect on their involuntary admission.
To investigate, at one year after an involuntary admission,
(i) peoples perception of the necessity of their involuntary admission
(ii) the enduring impact on the relationship with their family, consultant psychiatrist and employment prospects
(iii) readmission rates to hospital and risk factors for readmission.
People that were admitted involuntarily over a 15 month period were re-interviewed at one year following discharge.
Sixty eight people were re-interviewed at one year and this resulted in a follow-up rate of 84%. Prior to discharge, 72% of people reported that their involuntary admission had been necessary however this reduced to 60% after one year. Over one third of people changed their views and the majority of these patients reflected negatively towards their involuntary admission.
One quarter of people continued to experience a negative impact on the relationship with a family member and their consultant psychiatrist one year after an involuntary admission, while 13% reported a positive impact. A similar proportion perceived that it had negative consequences in their employment.
Within one year, 43% of all patients involuntarily admitted in the study period were readmitted to hospital and half of these admissions were involuntary. Involuntary readmission was associated with a sealing over recovery style.
Peoples’ perception of the necessity of their involuntary admissions changes significantly over time. Involuntary admissions can have a lasting negative impact on the relationship with family members and treating consultant psychiatrist.
To compare Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-MRS) between people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
AD is characterised by cognitive impairment. 10-15% of people with MCI progress to dementia each year. The hippocampus is involved in memory functioning and is one of the brain regions first affected by AD. MRI based hippocampal volumetric measurement enables accurate quantification of atrophy. In addition, 1H-MRS can be used to measure concentrations of brain metabolites including myoinositol (mI) and N-acetylaspartate (NAA). NAA is a proxy measure of neuronal density.
Subjects with AD (n=46), MCI (n=28) and controls (n=39) were scanned using a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Manual tracing of hippocampal volumes was undertaken using Measure software. 1H-MRS voxels of interest were defined in the left and right hippocampi. A point-resolved spectroscopy pulse sequence produced spectra from each voxel and clearly resolved NAA and mI peaks. Statistical analysis was undertaken using SPSS15.
Hippocampal volumes were significantly reduced between AD and controls (p=0.003) and between AD and MCI (p=0.001). Compared to controls, individuals with AD and MCI had a significant reduction in [NAA]. MCI showed a non-significant increase in [mI]. A positive relationship was found between hippocampal volume and [NAA] and between hippocampal volume and [mI] for MCI.
AD is associated with decreased viable neuronal density/function (as measured by NAA) and a reduction in hippocampal volume associated with impaired cognitive functioning. The elevated [mI] in MCI may be a “tipping point” into dementia.
To compare Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) in the general population with Down's syndrome dementia.
Background review: AD is characterised by cognitive dysfunction interfering with activities of daily living. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. People with Down's syndrome have an increased risk of developing AD. AD pathology initially appears in the entorhinal cortex, followed by the hippocampus and later in the temporal lobes. These areas are critical for memory functioning.
Volumetric analysis was performed on MRI brain scans using Measure software. Manual tracing was undertaken for the hippocampus, temporal lobes and lateral ventricles as well as the total brain volume of the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. Brain volumes were normalised as a percentage of traced intracranial volumes. Freesurfer software was used to obtain entorhinal cortical thickness measures. Statistical analysis was undertaken using SPSS15.
Subjects with AD (n=46), MCI (n=28) and controls (n=39) were compared with Down's syndrome demented subjects (DS+, n=20), non-demented subjects with Down's syndrome (DS-, n=45) and age-matched controls (n=43). Hippocampi, entorhinal cortex and temporal lobes were significantly reduced in AD and DS+ compared to controls. Lateral ventricles were significantly increased in AD and DS+ compared to controls. MCI and DS- produced findings between those of dementia and controls.
Critical memory regions atrophy in dementia corresponding to decreased cognitive functioning. DS+ morphology is comparable to AD in the general population but the atrophy is less pronounced.
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy involve significant interpersonal and behavioural impairments. However, little is known about white matter (WM) abnormalities in tracts linking grey matter regions. A previous diffusion tensor imaging (DT-MRI) tractography study in ASPD and psychopathy revealed abnormalities in the right uncinate fasciculus, indicating fronto-limbic disconnectivity.
It is not clear whether WM abnormalities are restricted to only this tract or are more widespread. Therefore, we planned to use whole brain DT-MRI voxel-based analyses.
To clarify if WM abnormalities extend beyond the frontal lobe.
We used whole brain DT-MRI to compare WM fractional anisotropy (FA) of 15 adults with ASPD and healthy age, handedness and IQ-matched controls. Also, within ASPD subjects, we related differences in FA to severity of psychopathy measures.
Significant WM FA reductions were found in ASPD subjects relative to controls. These were found bilaterally in the anterior corpus callosum. Right hemisphere FA reduction was found in the anterior corona radiata, uncinate fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and internal capsule. Left hemisphere, FA deficits encompassed the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and internal capsule. There was a significant negative correlation between WM FA in the right uncinate fasciculus and corpus callosum and measures of psychopathy.
We report FA reduction in the uncinate fasciculus and anterior corpus callosum which may be associated with frontal and inter-hemispheric disconnectivity in ASPD, in addition to abnormalities in other tracts which directly or indirectly connect to prefrontal regions.
To obtainconsensus from non-consultant hospital doctors and consultants indeveloping a eLearning module for teaching non-consultant hospital doctorsabout delirium
1) A questionnaire to assess knowledge regarding deliriumwas administered to Medical NCHDs and toPsychiatry NCHDs. A 50 minute teaching session was provided to the PsychiatryNCHDs, which included an existing e-learning module for undergraduateson delirium developed in University College Dublin(UCD). Followingthis feedback was obtained regarding the module and what changes would berequired for it to meet the training needs of non consultant hospital doctors.
2) In the first step of the DELPHIprocess, feedback from medical consultants was obtained in relation to thethemes and topics to be included in the delirium e-learning module.
•In the first iteration of the DELPHI process, both NCHDs and Consultants identified relevant learning outcomes for an eLearning module on delirium for postgraduate medical trainees.
The next iteration of the DELPHI process will refine the themespreviously identified in order to achieve consensus among the NCHD andconsultant groups surveyed. This will be the basis for the design of aneLearning module about delirium.
Returning genomic research results to family members raises complex questions. Genomic research on life-limiting conditions such as cancer, and research involving storage and reanalysis of data and specimens long into the future, makes these questions pressing. This author group, funded by an NIH grant, published consensus recommendations presenting a framework. This follow-up paper offers concrete guidance and tools for implementation. The group collected and analyzed relevant documents and guidance, including tools from the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) Consortium. The authors then negotiated a consensus toolkit of processes and documents. That toolkit offers sample consent and notification documents plus decision flow-charts to address return of results to family of living and deceased participants, in adult and pediatric research. Core concerns are eliciting participant preferences on sharing results with family and on choice of a representative to make decisions about sharing after participant death.
Fatigue cracking in polycrystalline NiTi was investigated using a multiscale experimental framework for average grain sizes (GS) from 10 to 1500 nm for the first time. Macroscopic fatigue crack growth rates, measured by optical digital image correlation, were connected to microscopic crack opening and closing displacements, measured by scanning electron microscope DIC (SEM-DIC) using a high-precision external SEM scan controller. Among all grain sizes, the 1500 nm GS sample exhibited the slowest crack growth rate at the macroscale, and the largest crack opening level (stress intensity at first crack opening) and minimum crack opening displacements at the microscale. Smaller GS samples (10, 18, 42, and 80 nm) exhibited nonmonotonic trends in their fatigue performance, yet the correlation was strong between macroscale and microscale behaviors for each GS. The samples that exhibited the fastest crack growth rates (42 and 80 nm GS) showed a small crack opening level and the largest crack opening displacements. The irregular trends in fatigue performance across the nanocrystalline GS samples were consistent with nonmonotonic values in the elastic modulus reported previously, both of which may be related to the presence of residual martensite only evident in the small GS samples (10 and 18 nm).
The debate about how to manage individual research results and incidental findings in genetic and genomic research has focused primarily on what information, if any, to offer back to research participants. However, increasing controversy surrounds the question of whether researchers have any responsibility to offer a participant’s results (defined here to include both individual research results and incidental findings) to the participant’s relatives, including after the participant’s death. This question arises in multiple contexts, including when researchers discover a result with potentially important health implications for genetic relatives, when a participant’s relatives ask a researcher whether any research results about the participant have implications for their own health or reproductive planning, when a participant’s relative asks whether any of the participant’s results have implications for a child’s health, and when the participant is deceased and the participant’s relatives seek information about the participant’s genetic results in order to address their own health or reproductive concerns.