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To characterise the prevalence and persistence of anaemia among Samoan children over a 2–3-year period.
Data were from two consecutive waves (2015 and 2017–2018) of the Ola Tuputupua’e ‘Growing up’ study. Anaemia (Hb < 11·0 or 11·5 g/dl for 2–4 and ≥ 5 years old, respectively) was considered ‘transient’ when it occurred at only one wave or ‘persistent’ if it was present at two consecutive waves. Child, maternal and household correlates of anaemia were examined using log-binomial and modified Poisson regressions.
Eleven Samoan villages.
Mother–child pairs (n 257) recruited in 2015 and reassessed in 2017–2018.
Anaemia prevalence was 33·9 % in 2015 and 28·0 % in 2017–2018; 35·6 % of cases identified in 2015 were persistent. Risk of anaemia at only one wave was lower among children who were older in 2015 (age 4 v. 2 years, adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 0·54, (95 % CI 0·35, 0·84), P = 0·007), had older mothers (≥ 40 v. 18–29 years, aRR = 0·61, (95 % CI 0·39, 0·95), P = 0·029) and had higher daily sodium intake (for every 100 mg/d, aRR = 0·97, (95 % CI 0·95, 0·99), P = 0·003) than children with no anaemia. Children whose anaemia persisted were more likely to have had a mother with anaemia (aRR = 2·13, (95 % CI 1·17, 3·89), P = 0·013) and had higher daily dietary iron intake (for every 10 mg/d, aRR = 4·69, (95 % CI 1·33, 16·49), P = 0·016) than those with no anaemia.
Alongside broadly targeted prevention efforts, which are warranted given the moderate-high anaemia prevalence observed, specific attention should be paid to children with risk factors for persistent anaemia. Routine screening of children whose mothers have anaemia should be encouraged.
Opium tincture (OT) is widely used for opioid substitution treatment (OST) in Iran.
To determine if OT is a safe and effective medication for OST.
Opium Trial was a multicenter, double‐blind, noninferiority randomized controlled trial, with 204 participants with opioid dependence in Iran. Participants were then randomized to OT or methadone arms with an allocation ratio of 1:1 and were followed for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was retention in treatment, compared between the two groups using both intention-To-Treat (ITT) and Per-Protocol (PP) analyses.
A total of 70 participants (IT: 68.6%, PP: 69.3%) in methadone arm and 61 participants (ITT: 59.8%, PP: 60.4%) in OT arm remained in the treatment. The relative retention rate was 1.15 (0.97, 1.36) in both analyses in favour of methadone. A total of 46 out of 152 (30.3%) participants in OT arm and 83 out of 168 (49.4%) participants in methadone arm reported opioid use outside the treatment. The difference in these two proportions (OT - methadone) was 19%: (10%, 28%) in favour of OT. The proportion of patients with adverse events were not different between the two arms (P = 0.06). There was no serious AE in OT arm.
Opium tincture is a clinically effective and safe medication, but this study could not conclude if it was as equally effective as methadone in retaining participants in treatment, but it showed that OT was superior to methadone in reducing opioid use outside the treatment.
Hwa-Byung is a unique syndrome based on social-cultural background of South Korea. However, the definition of Hwa-Byung has not been established. For example, Hwa-Byung Diagnostic Interview Schedule(Kim, Kwon, Lee & Park, 2004) and Hwa-Byung Scale(Kwon et al., 2008) that are generally used in clinical practices defined Hwa-Byung differently. According to this, there is a slight difference in the symptoms that are measured.
The purpose of our study is to establish the concept and symptoms of Hwa-Byung.
First, we review DSM-4, previous literatures and concept of Hwa-Byung in assessment tools. Through this, core features and characteristic symptoms are consisted. Second, a concept of Hwa-Byung that this study constructed is reviewed by clinical psychologists and Korean oriental psychiatrists. Finally, concepts and symptoms are defined.
Comprehensive definition of Hwa-Byung is established. Hwa-Byung was identified as a syndrome with symptoms that exploded in the form of anger because emotions such as anger could not be resolved. psychological symptoms include resentment, the baggage of mind, or a representative symptom of han. And physical symptoms include feeling heavy, heat, rush, lumps in the neck or chest. Finally, these physical and psychological symptoms are associated with distinct stressful events.
Our study defined the concept and categorized for physical and emotional symptoms of Hwa-Byung. This result suggests that it can contribute to the development and revision of the Hwa-Byung assessment tools.
At the turn of the twenty-first century, our understanding of personality disorders radically evolved as research on their biological characteristics and effective evidence-based treatments (EBTs) emerged to challenge preexisting notions of these syndromes as defensive, psychologically determined, and untreatable. Reflecting the turmoil of a paradigm shift, intense controversy raged in attempts to revise the diagnostic system for personality disorders in the transition from the DSM-IV to the DSM-V. Proposed changes included both the elimination of five of the ten existing DSM personality disorders (narcissistic, histrionic, schizoid, paranoid, and dependent) and the implementation of a complex diagnostic system involving the evaluation of both categorical prototypes and dimensional traits of personality. The extremity of these proposed changes in the diagnostic system provoked major opposition among prominent experts, ultimately leading to the retention of the existing set of personality disorder criteria and relegation of the proposed alternative model to a section calling for further research. One prominent change in the transition to the fifth edition of DSM was the elimination of the multi-axial system, ending the segregation of Axis II disorders from Axis I disorders.
This study aimed to analyse if there were any associations between patulous Eustachian tube occurrence and climatic factors and seasonality.
The correlation between the monthly average number of patients diagnosed with patulous Eustachian tube and climatic factors in Seoul, Korea, from January 2010 to December 2016, was statistically analysed using national data sets.
The relative risk for patulous Eustachian tube occurrence according to season was significantly higher in summer and autumn, and lower in winter than in spring (relative risk (95 per cent confidence interval): 1.334 (1.267–1.404), 1.219 (1.157–1.285) and 0.889 (0.840–0.941) for summer, autumn and winter, respectively). Temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity had a moderate positive (r = 0.648), negative (r = –0.601) and positive (r = 0.492) correlation with the number of patulous Eustachian tube cases, respectively.
The number of patulous Eustachian tube cases was highest in summer and increased in proportion to changes in temperature and humidity, which could be due to physiological changes caused by climatic factors or diet trends.
An experimental investigation was carried out in a low-turbulence wind tunnel to study the early development of artificially initiated turbulent spots in a laminar boundary layer over a flat plate. The reproducibility of the experiments allowed us to observe fine structural details that have not been observed previously. Initial velocity disturbances quickly developed into hairpin-like structures that multiplied downstream, which increased the width, length and height of the incipient turbulent spots. Only those disturbances that were greater than a threshold value developed into turbulent spots while the others decayed. The rate of development was also affected by the duration of the initial disturbances. We found that the behaviour of turbulence generation within a turbulent spot is similar to the burst events in the turbulent boundary layer, where ejection events are followed by sweep events.
No-touch disinfection systems like xenon- or mercury-based ultraviolet (UV) are now commonly being used for hospital room disinfection. However, serial exposure to UV light can potentially lead to the development of bacterial resistance. We sought to determine whether UV resistance develops due to serial exposure to UV light using 3 epidemiologically important multidrug-resistant microbial strains.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenemase–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) and metallo-β-lactamase–producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (MBL) were serially exposed to 25 growth-irradiation cycles of UV produced by a xenon-based UV (Xe-UV) lamp for 5 minutes or a mercury-based UV (Hg-UV) lamp for 10 minutes. After each UV exposure cycle, the surviving colony-forming units (CFUs) were measured and compared with the initial inoculum of each cycle for each strain, respectively.
In each cycle, ˜1–10 million of MRSA, KPC, and MBL were used to test the effect of UV irradiation. Postexposure colony counts remained low (3–100 colonies) throughout the 25 serial exposures to both xenon- and mercury-based UV. The log-kill rate after each exposure showed no changes following UV disinfection by Xe-UV. The MRSA log-kill rate increased after repeated exposure to Hg-UV unlike KPC and MBL K. pneumoniae, which did not change. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses performed on these 3 strains demonstrated no significant genetic changes after multiple UV irradiation cycles.
Exposure of multidrug-resistant bacteria to UV produced from 2 different UV sources did not engender UV resistance after 25 serial exposures, as demonstrated by WGS analysis; thus, UV disinfection is unlikely to generate UV-resistant hospital flora.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) causes significant morbidity and mortality; however, the diagnosis of CDI remains controversial. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the association of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values with CDI disease severity, recurrence, and mortality among adult patients with CDI.
Retrospective cohort study.
Single tertiary-care hospital.
Adult patients diagnosed with hospital-onset, healthcare facility–associated CDI from June 2014 to September 2015.
We performed a retrospective chart review of included patients. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to evaluate the association between Ct values and CDI severity, 8-week recurrence, and 30-day mortality.
Among 318 included patients, 51% were male and the mean age was 62 years; ~32% of the patients developed severe CDI and 11% developed severe–complicated CDI. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 11% and the 8-week recurrence rate was 9.5%. The overall mean Ct value was 32.9 (range, 23–40). Multivariable analyses showed that lower values of PCR Ct were associated with increased odds of 30-day morality (odds ratio [OR] 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72–0.96) but were not independently associated with CDI severity (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.90–1.09) or recurrence (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77–1.00).
Our findings suggest that PCR Ct values at the time of diagnosis may have a limited predictive value and utility in clinical decision making for inpatients with CDI. Larger, prospective studies across different patient populations are needed to confirm our findings.
Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
Background: Healthcare services are increasingly shifting from inpatient to outpatient settings. Outpatient settings such as emergency departments (EDs), oncology clinics, dialysis clinics, and day surgery often involve invasive procedures with the risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). As a leading cause of HAI, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in outpatient settings has not been sufficiently described in Canada. The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) aims to describe the epidemiology, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of outpatient CDI across Canada. Methods: Epidemiologic data were collected from patients diagnosed with CDI from a network of 47 adult and pediatric CNISP hospitals. Patients presenting to an outpatient setting such as the ED or outpatient clinics were considered as outpatient CDI. Cases were considered HAIs if the patient had had a healthcare intervention within the previous 4 weeks, and they were considered community-associated if there was no history of hospitalization within the previous 12 weeks. Clostridioides difficile isolates were submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory for testing during an annual 2-month targeted surveillance period. National and regional rates of CDI were stratified by outpatient location. Results: Between January 1, 2015, and June 30, 2019, 2,691 cases of outpatient-CDI were reported, and 348 isolates were available for testing. Most cases (1,475 of 2,691, 54.8%) were identified in outpatient clinics, and 72.8% (1,960 of 2,691) were classified as community associated. CDI cases per 100,000 ED visits were highest in 2015, at 10.3, and decreased to 8.1 in 2018. Rates from outpatient clinics decreased from 3.5 in 2016 to 2.7 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Regionally, CDI rates in the ED declined in Central Canada and increased in the West after 2016. Rates in outpatient clinics were >2 times higher in the West compared to other regions. RT027 associated with NAP1 was most common among ED patients (26 of 195, 13.3%), whereas RT106 associated with NAP11 was predominant in outpatient clinics (22 of 189, 11.6%). Overall, 10.4% of isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, 0.5% were resistant to rifampin, and 24.2% were resistant to clindamycin. No resistance was observed for metronidazole, vancomycin, or tigecycline. Compared to CNISP inpatient CDI data, outpatients with CDI were younger (51.8 ± 23.3 vs 64.2 ± 21.6; P < .001), included more females (56.4% vs 50.9%; P < .001), and were more often treated with metronidazole (63.0% vs 56.1%; P < .001). Conclusions: For the first time, CDI cases identified in outpatient settings were characterized in a Canadian context. Outpatient CDI rates are decreasing overall, but they vary by region. Predominant ribotypes vary based on outpatient location. Outpatients with CDI are younger and are more likely female than inpatients with CDI.
Disclosures: Susy Hota reports contract research for Finch Therapeutics.
A diagnosis of Brugada pattern in paediatric or adolescent patients is rare. COVID-19 is characterised by fevers and a pro-inflammatory state, which may serve as inciting factors for Brugada pattern. Recently described in two adult patients, we report the first case of Brugada pattern in an adolescent with COVID-19.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought to examine: 1) variability in center acceptance patterns for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates, 2) impact of this acceptance behavior on candidate survival, and 3) post-transplantation outcomes in candidates who accepted first rank offer vs. previously declined offer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this retrospective cohort study, the US national transplant registry was queried for all match runs of adult candidates listed for isolated heart transplantation between 2007-2017. We examined center acceptance rates for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates and accounted for covariates in multivariable logistic regression. Competing risks analysis was performed to assess the relationship between center acceptance rate and waitlist mortality. Post-transplantation outcomes (patient survival and graft failure) between candidates who accepted their first-rank offers vs those who accepted previously declined offers were compared using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 19,703 unique organ offers, 6,302 (32%) were accepted for first-ranked candidates. After adjustment for donor, recipient, and geographic covariates, transplant centers varied markedly in acceptance rates (12%-62%) of offers made to first-ranked candidates. Lowest acceptance rate centers (<25%) associated with highest cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality. For every 10% increase in adjusted center acceptance rate, waitlist mortality risk decreased by 27% (SHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80). No significant difference was observed in 5-year adjusted post-Tx survival and graft failure between hearts accepted at the first-rank vs lower-rank positions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wide variability in heart acceptance rates exists among centers, with candidates listed at low acceptance rate centers more likely to die waiting. Similar post-Tx survival suggests previously declined allografts function as well as those accepted at first offer. Center-level decision is a modifiable behavior associated with waitlist mortality.
Patulous Eustachian tube appears to be caused by a concave defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve of the Eustachian tube. This study aimed to compare the clinical features of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve.
Sixty-six patients with a patulous Eustachian tube completed a questionnaire, which was evaluated alongside endoscopic findings of the tympanic membrane, nasal cavity and Eustachian tube orifice.
Females were more frequently diagnosed with a patulous Eustachian tube, but the valve defect was more common in males (p = 0.007). The ratio of patulous Eustachian tube patients with or without defects in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve was 1.6:1. Weight loss in the previous six months and being refractory to conservative management were significantly associated with the defect (p = 0.035 and 0.037, respectively). Symptom severity was significantly higher in patients with the defect.
Patulous Eustachian tube patients without a defect in the anterolateral wall of the tubal valve can be non-surgically treated more often than those with the defect. Identification of the defect could assist in making treatment decisions for patulous Eustachian tube patients.
The extent of intertidal flats in the Yellow Sea region has declined significantly in the past few decades, resulting in severe population declines in several waterbird species. The Yellow Sea region holds the primary stopover sites for many shorebirds during their migration to and from northern breeding grounds. However, the functional roles of these sites in shorebirds’ stopover ecology remain poorly understood. Through field surveys between July and November 2015, we investigated the stopover and moult schedules of migratory shorebirds along the southern Jiangsu coast, eastern China during their southbound migration, with a focus on the ‘Critically Endangered’ Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea and ‘Endangered’ Nordmann’s Greenshank Tringa guttifer. Long-term count data indicate that both species regularly occur in globally important number in southern Jiangsu coast, constituting 16.67–49.34% and 64.0–80.67% of their global population estimates respectively, and it is highly likely that most adults undergo their primary moult during this southbound migration stopover. Our results show that Spoon-billed Sandpiper and Nordmann’s Greenshank staged for an extended period of time (66 and 84 days, respectively) to complete their primary moult. On average, Spoon-billed Sandpipers and Nordmann’s Greenshanks started moulting primary feathers on 8 August ± 4.52 and 27 July ± 1.56 days respectively, and their moult durations were 72.58 ± 9.08 and 65.09 ± 2.40 days. In addition, some individuals of several other shorebird species including the ‘Endangered’ Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris, ‘Near Threatened’ Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, ‘Near Threatened’ Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata and Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii also underwent primary moult. Our work highlights the importance of the southern Jiangsu region as the primary moulting ground for these species, reinforcing that conservation of shorebird habitat including both intertidal flats and supratidal roosting sites in this region is critical to safeguard the future of some highly threatened shorebird species.
To assess the Framingham risk score as a prognostic tool for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients.
Medical records were reviewed for unilateral idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients between January 2010 and October 2017. The 10-year risk of developing cardiovascular disease was calculated. Patients were subdivided into groups: group 1 – Framingham risk score of less than 10 per cent (n = 28); group 2 – score of 10 to less than 20 per cent (n = 6); and group 3 – score of 20 per cent or higher (n = 5).
Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were not significantly associated (p = 0.32). Thirteen patients in group 1 recovered completely (46.4 per cent), but none in groups 2 and 3 showed complete recovery. Initial pure tone average and Framingham risk score were significantly associated in multivariable linear regression analysis (R2 = 0.36). The regression coefficient was 0.33 (p = 0.003) for initial pure tone average and −0.67 (p = 0.005) for Framingham risk score.
Framingham risk score may be useful in predicting outcomes for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss patients, as those with a higher score showed poorer hearing recovery.
The prevalence of internet game use among children and adolescents has been increased in the recent years.
Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems. Internet addiction has been found to cause various psychiatric symptoms and psychological problems.
The aim of this study was to examine the association between problematic internet game use and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic, Ulsan University Hospital.
We analyzed data from 447 subjects who first visit the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital. The level of Internet addiction was categorized as either high-risk (≥108; group 3), potential risk (95 to 107; group 2), or no risk (≤94, group 1) based on the total score. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and one-way ANOVA and multiple logistic regression method were used.
Thirteen adolescents met the criteria for high risk group of internet game addiction. in the high risk group, 10 were male and 3 were female adolescents. There was an mean difference among group 3 (high risk)< 1 (no risk),2 (potential risk) in AHI ; whereas group 3 (high risk)>1 (no risk), 2 (potential risk) in BDI, BAI, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and K-ARS score. with multiple logistic regression analysis, K-scale was significantly related with male sex, BDI, ARShyperactivity/ impulsivity score.
We conclude that having male sex, happiness and depressive symptoms is associated with the risk of developing internet use disorders.
Mood and anxiety disorders are common in youth and are associated with reduced quality of life and high costs. Access to effective treatment is limited due to long waitlists, high costs and perceived social stigma. Given the high prevalence and treatment barriers, there is a need for brief, inexpensive and effective interventions.
Psychoeducational interventions are inexpensive, easily administered and more accessible than conventional interventions. There is some evidence that these are effective in treating or preventing mental disorders.
To compare knowledge acquired by participants via email or live psychoeducation groups, to measure symptom change and to compare effectiveness of each modality.
Psychoeducation (live or via email) in multifamily groups will be offered. Forty participants in each group will be enrolled. There will be six 40-minute sessions. Primary outcome measures are: change in parental knowledge about the child's disorder and level of expressed emotion in the parent-child relationship. Measures are Understanding of Mood Disorders Questionnaire and Expressed Emotion Adjective Checklist. To measure changes in symptoms the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children will be used. Questionnaires will be administered before, after and at 4 months.
Data entered in Excel format. ANOVA used to compare effectiveness of group versus email psychoeducation. Both methods equally effective in delivering psychoeducation.
Ontario has long waitlists for youth with mood and anxiety disorders. Psychoeducation is effective in increasing understanding of illness, improving symptoms and problem-solving skills of the family. Multifamily group versus email psychoeducation will facilitate access.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the mental health improvement programs in Korean firefighters through cooperation with the urban fire station. And we assessed the firefighter's degree of traumatic events and psychopathologies including depression, anxiety, suicidal ideation and insomnia.
A mental health improvement program was provided to 502 firefighters working at Daegu, Gumi and Ulsan during 8-week period. The program included not only an evaluation and treatment of psychiatric symptoms through counseling but also a psychoeducation for mental health awareness. The validated Questionnaires to measure psychiatric symptoms were used; symptoms included depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts and insomnia. Subjects were divided to two groups; PTSD high-risk group and non-high risk group. Psychopathological levels were compared before and after the program.
PTSD high-risk group included 57 subjects (11.35%) and non-high risk group included 445 subjects (88.65%). Before the program, PTSD high-risk group showed higher depression, anxiety, insomnia scores statistically significant. Multiple logistic regression analysis with PTSD high-risk group as a dependent variable showed depression as a factor for firefighters to become PTSD high-risk group compared to those not depressed. Insomnia turned out to be another variant. The program resulted in significant decrease total scores of BDI and ISI for PTSD high-risk group.
The results on this study showed that higher levels of depression and insomnia especially influenced the manifestation of PTSD in firefighters. The evaluation and management of psychopathologies including depression, insomnia with traumatic events for firefighters can be helpful.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Cancer patients may encounter psychological distress, change of emotional status, and lowered quality of life. It is predicted that similar changes will be shown during the Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection (ESD) of early stomach cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate changes of emotional status and quality of life over time depending on baseline level of psychological distress.
Ninety-seven patients indicated with ESD who visited National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea between May 2015 and June 2016 were evaluated. Psychological distress, emotional status, and quality of life were evaluated at the day before ESD. Follow-up evaluations of them were done at the day after ESD, 2 and 10 weeks later.
The group with high psychological distress showed higher female ratio, more depressive and anxiety symptoms than those of the group with low psychological distress. Psychological distress was related to stress level and lowered quality of life. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed that significant differences of depression (MADRS), anxiety (HAM-A), level of stress (GARS), and quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) were sustained over time, but the decreasing tendency of the differences between the groups was also noticed.
The study revealed that patients who feel more psychological distress may experience more depressive and anxiety symptoms, increased level of stress, and lowered quality of life. We recommend screening of patients with early stomach cancer for psychological distress before ESD, which may improve subjective life satisfaction of patients during ESD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.