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The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the viable gestation is termed miscarriage. Miscarriage therefore includes all pregnancy losses from conception until 23 completed weeks of pregnancy. It remains the commonest adverse outcome of pregnancy and can either be sporadic or recurrent (RM). Currently, no consensus exists on the definition of RM. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) guideline defines RM as the loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies . However, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) has adopted the definition of consecutive loss of two or more clinical pregnancies, documented either by ultrasonography or histopathological examination . RM can be either ‘primary’ (no previous live birth) or ‘secondary’ (following a live birth).
The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820–851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.
The class of radio transients called Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) encompasses enigmatic single pulses, each unique in its own way, hindering a consensus for their origin. The key to demystifying FRBs lies in discovering many of them in order to identity commonalities – and in real time, in order to find potential counterparts at other wavelengths. The recently upgraded UTMOST in Australia, is undergoing a backend transformation to rise as a fast transient detection machine. The first interferometric detections of FRBs with UTMOST, place their origin beyond the near-field region of the telescope thus ruling out local sources of interference as a possible origin. We have localised these bursts to much better than the ones discovered at the Parkes radio telescope and have plans to upgrade UTMOST to be capable of much better localisation still.
Introduction: Emergency medicine physicians in our urban/suburban area have a range of training in medical education; some have no formal training in medical education, whereas others have completed Master’s level training in adult education. Not all staff have a university appointment; of those who are affiliated with our university, 87 have appointments through the Department of Medicine, 21 through the Department of Pediatrics, and 117 through the Department of Family Medicine. Emergency physicians in our area are a diverse group of physicians in terms of both formal training in adult education and in the variety of settings in which we work. The purpose of this study was to gauge interest in formal training in adult education among emergency medicine physicians. Methods: With research ethics board approval, we created and sent a 10-item electronic questionnaire to emergency medicine staff in our area. The questionnaire included items on demographics, experience in emergency medicine, additional post-graduate training, current teaching activities and interest in short (30-60 minute) adult education sessions. Results: Of a potential 360 active emergency physicians in our area, 120 responded to the questionnaire (33.3%), representing 12 area hospitals. Nearly half of respondents had been in practice over 10 years (48.44%). Respondents were mainly FRCP (50%) or CCFP-EM (47.50%) trained. 33.3% of respondents had masters degrees, of which 15% were MEd. Most physicians were involved in teaching medical students (98.33%), FRCP residents (80%) and family medicine residents (88.3%), though many were also teaching off-service residents, and allied health professionals. More than half of respondents (60%) were interested in attending short sessions to improve their skills as adult educators. The topics of most interest were feedback and evaluation, time-efficient teaching, the learner in difficulty, case-based teaching and bedside teaching. Conclusion: Emergency physicians in our area have a wide variety of experience and training in medical education. They are involved in teaching learners from a range of training levels and backgrounds. Physicians who responded to our survey expressed an interest in additional formal teaching on adult education topics geared toward emergency medicine.
A comprehensive study based on U–Pb and Hf isotope analyses of zircons from gneisses has been conducted along the western part (Babina area) of the E–W-trending Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone in the central part of the Archaean Bundelkhand Craton. 207Pb–206Pb zircon ages and Hf isotopic data indicate the existence of a felsic crust at ~ 3.59 Ga, followed by a second tectonothermal event at ~ 3.44 Ga, leading to calc-alkaline magmatism and subsequent crustal growth. The study hence suggests that crust formation in the Bundelkhand Craton occurred in a similar time-frame to that recorded from the Singhbhum and Bastar cratons of the North Indian Shield.
The landing approach for fixed-wing small unmanned air vehicles (SUAVs) in complex environments such as urban canyons, wooded areas, or any other obscured terrain is challenging due to the limited distance available for conventional glide slope descents. Alternative approach methods, such as deep stall and spin techniques, are beneficial for such environments but are less conventional and would benefit from further qualitative and quantitative understanding to improve their implementation. Flight tests of such techniques, with a representative remotely piloted vehicle, have been carried out for this purpose and the results are presented in this paper. Trajectories and flight data for a range of approach techniques are presented and conclusions are drawn as to the potential benefits and issues of using such techniques for SUAV landings. In particular, the stability of the vehicle on entry to a deep stall was noticeably improved through the use of symmetric inboard flaps (crow brakes). Spiral descent profiles investigated, including spin descents, produced faster descent rates and further reduced landing space requirements. However, sufficient control authority was maintainable in a spiral stall descent, whereas it was compromised in a full spin.
Ultrathin colloidal PbS nanosheets are synthesized using organometallic precursors with chloroalkane cosolvents, resulting in tunable thicknesses ranging from 1.2 nm to 4.6 nm. We report the first thickness-dependent photoluminescence spectra from lead-salt nanosheets. The one-dimensional confinement energy of these quasi-two-dimensional nanosheets is found to be proportional to 1/L instead of 1/L2 (L is the thickness of the nanosheet), which is consistent with results calculated using density functional theory as well as tight-binding theory.
Nagaland is one of the eight states in the north-eastern region of India, where a considerable diversity exists in cultivated rice. Recent exploration in this tribal-dominated state has resulted in a collection of 130 rice accessions growing under diverse agroecological conditions. The agromorphological characterization data of 124 rice landraces revealed a significant variability in plant architecture and grain morphological and quality traits. Multivariate analyses including principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were performed to assess the patterns of morphological variation. The PCA extracted 12 components, which explained 75.4% of the total variation for 38 quantitative and qualitative traits. The cluster analysis grouped 124 rice landraces into five clusters, and the number of landraces in each cluster ranged from 1 to 59. The correlations among the traits are discussed, which will be useful in considering traits for genetic improvement in grain yield and quality. The landraces have been conserved in the national genebank for further utilization.
In India, rotavirus infections cause the death of 98621 children each year. In urban neighbourhoods in Delhi, children were followed up for 1 year to estimate the incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis and common genotypes. Infants aged ⩽1 week were enrolled in cohort 1 and infants aged 12 months (up to +14 days) in cohort 2. Fourteen percent (30/210) gastroenteritis episodes were positive for rotavirus. Incidence rates of rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in the first and second year were 0·18 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·10–0·27] and 0·14 (95% CI 0·07–0·21) episodes/child-year, respectively. The incidence rate of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in the first year of life was 0·05 (95% CI 0·01–0·10) episodes/child-year. There were no cases in the second year. The common genotypes detected were G1P (27%) and G9P (23%). That severe rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in the first year of life is relevant for planning efficacy trials.
Hafnium oxide ultra thin films on Si (100) are being developed to replace thermally grown SiO2 gates in CMOS devices. In this work, a specially designed Attenuated Total Reflectance - Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) reaction cell has been developed to observe chemisorption of hafnium (IV) t-butoxide onto a Si and Ge ATR crystal heated up to 250°C and under 1 torr of vacuum to observe the initial reaction pathways and species on the substrate surface in real time and under typical process conditions. Chemisorption spectra were compared to spectra of the liquid precursor and to spectra generated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations of liquid, monodentate and bidentate absorbed precursor. An asymmetric stretching mode located at ~1017 cm-1 present in the chemisorbed spectra but not in the liquid spectra indicates that the adsorbed hafnium containing group is prevalent as a bidentate ligand according to calculations. Surface concentration of the chemisorbed species was dependant on the substrate temperature and precursor partial pressure allowing for determination of heats of adsorption which was 26.5 kJ/mol on Si.
A 175 kDa antigen fraction with collagenase activity was isolated and purified from somatic extracts of adult Setaria cervi females using column chromatography involving consecutive steps of DEAE-Sepharose CL6B and Sephadex G-100. The optimum pH for 175 kDa collagenase was found to be pH 7.0. Sensitivities to a variety of inhibitors and activators indicated that the 175 kDa coIlagenolytic enzyme was metalloserine in nature. The enzyme hydrolysed a variety of protein substrates such as haemoglobin, casein, azocasein (general substrates) and collagen, FALGPA (furanoyl-acryloyl-leu-gly-pro-ala), the specific substrate of collagenase. The enzyme showed 57% inhibition by jird anti-somatic collagenase antibodies and reacted insignificantly with normal jird sera. Further analysis was undertaken on the immunoprophylactic potential of 175 kDa collagenase in inducing immunity against Brugia malayi (a human filarial parasite) in jirds (Meriones unguiculatus) in vitro and in situ. Immune sera of jirds raised against this antigen promoted partial adherence of peritoneal exudate cells to B. malayi microfilariae (mf) and infective larvae (L3) in vitro and induced partial cytotoxicity to the parasites within 48 h. The anti-S. cervi 175 kDa antigen serum was more effective in inducing cytotoxicity to B. malayi L3, than mf. In the microchambers implanted inside immune jirds, host cells could migrate and adhere to the mf and infective larvae thereby killing them partially within 48 h.
Hafnium oxide (HfO2) and silicon containing hafnium oxide (HfSixOy) thin films were deposited by thermal and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using Hf (IV) t-butoxide and either O2, N2O, H2O, O2 plasma or N2O plasma as an oxygen source. Silane, 2% in He, was added to the reactant gas mixture to incorporate Si. Deposition rate and composition dependence on substrate temperature was studied and the deposited films were annealed in air for 30 min at 1100°C to observe changes in crystallinity and composition. Silicon incorporation was higher for H2O deposited HfSixOy films (5 at.%) than O2 and N2O deposited films (2 at.%) and had a lower deposition rate. Arrhenius plots reveal a non-simplistic reaction scheme since higher temperatures result in lower deposition rates due to precursor desorption. XRD indicate that as-deposited films using H2O are amorphous while O2 and N2O deposited films are microcrystalline with a monoclinic phase.
The chapters in this book are the result of a project designed to explore opportunities for interdisciplinary research in international and comparative law, particularly research employing theoretical or empirical economics. The project reflects our conviction that economic analysis of law has much to contribute to the study of international matters, but that to date mainstream international legal scholars and scholars interested in economic methods have had lamentably little interaction.
The chapters address a range of issues, including international trade, trade and the environment, law and development, the political economy of privatization and exchange rate policies, economic theories of international institutional design, immigration policy, comparative bankruptcy, international antitrust, and extraterritorial jurisdiction. Dean Ronald Cass of Boston University Law School has generously contributed an overview discussing the broader interaction between economics and international law. He also discusses in detail a number of the chapters in this volume.
Each of the chapters was presented at a conference in the spring of 1995, sponsored by Duquesne University and George Mason University. Accordingly, some of the chapters are followed by comments and criticisms from conference participants.
This project would not have been possible without the support of Duquesne University and George Mason University and their respective law school deans, Nicholas P. Cafardi and Henry G. Manne. Lori Godshall of Duquesne University has provided tireless secretarial and logistical assistance throughout the process of preparing the papers and the final manuscript.
The essays in this collection use interdisciplinary perspectives to investigate issues in international and comparative law, primarily employing theoretical or empirical economics. They demonstrate that the economic analysis of law has much to contribute to the study of international matters, despite the fact that mainstream international legal scholars and economists have had relatively little interaction. The essays take comparative or empirical approaches to explore themes in international trade, trade and the environment, law and development, the political economy of privatization and exchange rate policies, economic theories of international institutional design, immigration policy, comparative bankruptcy, international antitrust, and extraterritorial jurisdiction.