To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from a city in China and has now spread as a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is being extensively studied in terms of its genetic epidemiology using genomic approaches. Andhra Pradesh is one of the major states of India with the third-largest number of COVID-19 cases with a limited understanding of its genetic epidemiology. In this study, we have sequenced 293 SARS-CoV-2 genome isolates from Andhra Pradesh with a mean coverage of 13324X. We identified 564 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 variants. A total of 18 variants mapped to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primer/probe sites, and four variants are known to be associated with an increase in infectivity. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 in Andhra Pradesh majorly clustered under the clade A2a (20A, 20B and 20C) (94%), whereas 6% fall under the I/A3i clade, a clade previously defined to be present in large numbers in India. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive genetic epidemiological analysis performed for the state of Andhra Pradesh.
Depression is one of the prevalent mood disorders and it's the second debilitating disorder in the world. Female menstrual cycle is one of natural and psychological stage in fertility period and this cycle has different behavioral symptoms. In this study, changes in depression scores were studied during different phases of menstrual cycle.
Material and methods
During a basic study, 150 fertile women were chosen and were evaluated by Beck and Hamilton Questionnaires during a menstrual cycle. Data were gathered and analyzed by SPSS software.
Thirty four people were removed because of confounding factors. About 53.4% of them were single by the mean age of 22.10 years ( ± 4.67 SD), and 46.6% were married by the mean age of 34.65 years ( ± 7.51 SD). The mean score of Back questionnaire in the first phase was 11.49, in the second phase was 9.65, and in the third phase was 11.87. The score of Hamilton questionnaire in the first phase was 11.03, in the second phase was 9.45, and in third phase was 11.04, which there was significant differences in both of the tests.
Depression scores increase by reduction of hormone levels in days 2–3 and they classified as mild depression on average and during days 11–14. On the other hand, depression scores decreased by increment of hormone levels to maximum during ovulation days, as well as in days 23–26, depression scores increase by reduction of hormone levels and on average they classified as mild depression.
This paper is concerned with rapid distortion theory on transversely sheared mean flows that (among other things) can be used to analyse the unsteady motion resulting from the interaction of a turbulent shear flow with a solid surface. It expands on a previous analysis of Goldstein et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 824, 2017, pp. 477–512) that uses a pair of conservation laws to derive upstream boundary conditions for planar mean flows and extends these findings to transversely sheared flows of arbitrary cross-section. The results, which turn out to be quite general, are applied to the specific case of a round jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate and are used to calculate the radiated sound field, which is then compared with experimental data taken at the NASA Glenn Research Center.
This paper is concerned with rapid-distortion theory on transversely sheared mean flows which (among other things) can be used to analyse the unsteady motion resulting from the interaction of a turbulent shear flow with a solid surface. It extends previous analyses of Goldstein et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 736, 2013a, pp. 532–569; NASA/TM-2013-217862, 2013b) which showed that the unsteady motion is completely determined by specifying two arbitrary convected quantities. The present paper uses a pair of previously derived conservation laws to derive upstream boundary conditions that relate these quantities to experimentally measurable flow variables. The result is dependent on the imposition of causality on an intermediate variable that appears in the conservation laws. Goldstein et al. (2013a) related the convected quantities to the physical flow variables at the location of the interaction, but the results were not generic and hard to reconcile with experiment. That problem does not occur in the present formulation, which leads to a much simpler and more natural result than the one given in Goldstein et al. (2013a). We also show that the present formalism yields better predictions of the sound radiation produced by the interaction of a two-dimensional jet with the downstream edge of a flat plate than the Goldstein et al. (2013a) result. The role of causality is also discussed.
This paper is concerned with the small-amplitude unsteady motion of an inviscid non-heat-conducting compressible fluid on a transversely sheared mean flow. It extends previous analyses (Goldstein, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 84, 1978b, pp. 305–329; Goldstein, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 91, 1979a, pp. 601–632), which show that the hydrodynamic component of the motion is determined by two arbitrary convected quantities in the absence of solid surfaces and hydrodynamic instabilities. These results can be used to specify appropriate upstream boundary conditions for unsteady surface interaction problems on transversely sheared mean flows in the same way that the vortical component of the Kovasznay (J. Aero. Sci., vol. 20, 1953, pp. 657–674) decomposition is used to specify these conditions for surface interaction problems on uniform mean flows. But unlike Kovasznay’s result, the arbitrary convected quantities no longer bear a simple relation to the physical variables. A major purpose of this paper is to complete the formalism developed in Goldstein’s earlier two papers by obtaining the necessary relations between these quantities and the measurable flow variables. The results are important because they enable the complete extension of non-homogeneous rapid distortion theory to transversely sheared mean flows. Another purpose of the paper is to derive a generalization of the famous Ffowcs Williams and Hall (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 40, 1970, pp. 657–670) formula for the sound produced by the interaction of turbulence with an edge, which is frequently used as a starting point for predicting sound generation by turbulence–solid surface interactions. We illustrate the utility of this result by using it to calculate the sound radiation produced by the interaction of a two-dimensional jet with the downstream edge of a flat plate.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.