To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has migrated to regions that were initially spared, and it is likely that different populations are currently at risk for illness. Herein, we present our observations of the change in characteristics and resource use of COVID-19 patients over time in a national system of community hospitals to help inform those managing surge planning, operational management, and future policy decisions.
To determine risk factors for mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a system of community hospitals in the United States.
Retrospective analysis of patient data collected from the routine care of COVID-19 patients.
System of >180 acute-care facilities in the United States.
All admitted patients with positive identification of COVID-19 and a documented discharge as of May 12, 2020.
Determination of demographic characteristics, vital signs at admission, patient comorbidities and recorded discharge disposition in this population to construct a logistic regression estimating the odds of mortality, particular for those patients characterized as not being critically ill at admission.
In total, 6,180 COVID-19+ patients were identified as of May 12, 2020. Most COVID-19+ patients (4,808, 77.8%) were admitted directly to a medical-surgical unit with no documented critical care or mechanical ventilation within 8 hours of admission. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and vital signs at admission in this subgroup, the largest driver of the odds of mortality was patient age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06–1.08; P < .001). Decreased oxygen saturation at admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001) as was diabetes (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21–2.03; P < .001).
The identification of factors observable at admission that are associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients who are initially admitted to non-critical care units may help care providers, hospital epidemiologists, and hospital safety experts better plan for the care of these patients.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
A randomized controlled trial of three school-based programs and a no-intervention control group was conducted to evaluate their efficacy in reducing eating disorder and obesity risk factors.
A total of 1316 grade 7 and 8 girls and boys (mean age = 13.21 years) across three Australian states were randomly allocated to: Media Smart; Life Smart; the Helping, Encouraging, Listening and Protecting Peers (HELPP) initiative; or control (usual school class). Risk factors were measured at baseline, post-program (5 weeks later), and at the 6- and 12-month follow-ups.
Media Smart girls had half the rate of onset of clinically significant concerns about shape and weight than control girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP girls reported significantly lower weight and shape concern than Life Smart girls at the 12-month follow-up. Media Smart and control girls scored significantly lower than HELPP girls on eating concerns and perceived pressure at the 6-month follow-up. Media Smart and HELPP boys experienced significant benefit on media internalization compared with control boys and these were sustained at the 12-month follow-up in Media Smart boys. A group × time effect found that Media Smart participants reported more physical activity than control and HELPP participants at the 6-month follow-up, while a main effect for group found Media Smart participants reported less screen time than controls.
Media Smart was the only program to show benefit on both disordered eating and obesity risk factors. Whilst further investigations are indicated, this study suggests that this program is a promising approach to reducing risk factors for both problems.
A synthesis of the upper Moscovian sedimentological and palaeontological record of terrestrial habitats across the Variscan foreland and adjacent intramontane basins (an area which is referred to here as Variscan Euramerica) suggests a contraction and progressive westward shift of the coal swamps. These changes can be correlated with pulses of tectonic activity (tectonic phases) resulting from the northwards migration of the Variscan Front. This tectonic activity caused disruption to the landscapes and drainage patterns where the coal swamps were growing, which became less suitable to growth of the dominant plants of the swamps, the arborescent lycopsids. They were progressively replaced by vegetation dominated by marattialean ferns, which through a combination of slower growth and larger canopies resulted in less evapo-transpiration. This in turn caused localised reductions in rainfall, which further affected the ability of the lycopsids to dominate the swamp vegetation. These changes were initially localised and where the coal swamps were able to survive the lycopsids and pteridosperms show little change in either species diversity or biogeography, indicating that at this time there was minimal regional-scale climate change taking place. By Asturian times, however, the process had accelerated and the swamps in Variscan Euramerica became progressively replaced by predominantly conifer and cordaite vegetation that favoured much drier substrates. Except in localised pockets in intramontane basins of the Variscan Mountains, the last development of coal swamps in Variscan Euramerica was of early Cantabrian age. Further west, lycopsid-dominated coal swamps persisted for a little longer. The last remnants of the lycopsid-dominated coal swamps in the Illinois Basin disappeared probably by middle-late Cantabrian times, as the cycle of contracting wetlands and regional reductions in rainfall generated its own momentum, and no longer needed the impetus of tectonic instability. This tectonically-driven decline in the Euramerican coal swamps was probably responsible for an annual increase in atmospheric CO2 of c. 0.37 ppm, and may have been implicated in the marked increase in global temperatures near the Moscovian – Kasimovian boundary, and the onset of the Late Pennsylvanian interglacial.
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April–June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15 years, IQR 10–27). Symptoms were mild and similar to seasonal influenza, with the exception of diarrhoea, which was reported by 27%. Eleven per cent of all cases had an underlying medical condition, similar to the general population. The majority (92%) were treated with antiviral drugs with 12% reporting adverse effects, mainly nausea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Duration of illness was significantly shorter when antivirals were given within 48 h of onset (median 5 vs. 9 days, P=0·01). No patients died, although 14 were hospitalized, of whom three required mechanical ventilation. The FF100 identified key clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infection with this novel virus in near real-time.
Sera from 218 of 1574 (14%) small mammals collected in the Yukon Territory between 14 May and 13 August 1972 neutralized a Yukon strain of California encephalitis virus (snowshoe-hare subtype). These included 133 of 319 (42%) snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), 84 of 1243 (7%) ground squirrels (Citellus undulatus) and 1 of 12 (8%) tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). California encephalitis virus (snow-shoe hare subtype) was isolated from four pools of unengorged Aedes communis mosquitoes collected near Whitehorse (61° N., 135° W.) and on one occasion each from pools of the same species collected at Hunker Creek (64° N., 138° W.) and at mile 125, Dempster Highway (66° N., 138° W.) during July 1972. Replication of a Yukon strain of California encephalitis virus was observed in wild-caught Culiseta inornata and Aedes canadensis mosquitoes after intrathoracic injection and holding at temperatures of 80°, 50° and 40° F.
Texel muscling quantitative trait locus (TM-QTL) is a QTL on chromosome 18, originally identified in purebred UK Texel sheep, which was reported to increase ultrasonically measured muscle depth at the third lumbar vertebra by around 4% to 7%. The objective of the present study was to comprehensively evaluate the TM-QTL and to determine whether it could provide benefits to the UK sheep industry through increased carcass meat yield in crossbred slaughter lambs. Effects of this QTL on a range of carcass traits, including those measured in vivo and by dissection, were evaluated in heterozygous carrier and non-carrier lambs produced by crossing heterozygous carrier Texel rams with non-carrier Mule (Bluefaced Leicester × Scottish Blackface) ewes from a lowland flock. The TM-QTL was found to increase loin muscling in crossbred lambs at a given live weight or carcass weight, as measured by ultrasound, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and carcass dissection. Depth of M. longissimus lumborum (MLL) was greater in TM-QTL carrier lambs compared to non-carriers as measured by both ultrasound at the third lumbar vertebra (+4.5%; P = 0.033) and CT scanning at the fifth lumbar vertebra (+6.7%; P = 0.004). Width and area of MLL measured using CT were also greater in TM-QTL carrier lambs compared to non-carriers (+3.0%; P = 0.013 and +5.1%; P = 0.047, respectively). Loin muscle volume measured using CT was greater in TM-QTL carriers than in non-carriers (+5.9%; P = 0.005) and the dissected weight of the MLL was +7.1% greater in TM-QTL carriers compared to non-carriers (P < 0.001). The proportion of the total carcass lean meat yield (LMY) that was contained within the loin region was slightly higher in TM-QTL carriers than in non-carriers (0.154 v. 0.145; P = 0.006). However, TM-QTL was found to have no significant effect on the total weight or proportion of LMY or of saleable meat yield in the carcass measured by dissection, or on muscling in the hind leg measured by CT or dissection. This work has verified that the inheritance of TM-QTL is associated with increased loin muscling in crossbred lambs, as has previously been reported for purebred Texel lambs.
A QTL (TM-QTL) identified on ovine chromosome 18 (Walling et al., 2004), which increases loin muscle depth by 4-8% in UK Texel sheep, is of interest for the sheep industry as a potential means to increase carcass value. Since the contribution of Texel genes to the UK slaughter generation is generally through use of Texel sires to produce crossbred slaughter lambs (e.g. Texel x Mule lambs), it is necessary to verify the effects of the TM-QTL on loin muscularity and other carcass traits in such crossbred progeny of Texel sires before explotiation of the TM-QTL in commercial sheep populations.
We have observed a gate-bias stress induced instability in both the threshold voltage of SiC MOSFETs and the flatband voltage of SiC MOS capacitors. The magnitude of this bias stress-induced instability generally increases linearly with log time, with no saturation of the effect observed, even out to 100,000 seconds. The magnitude also increases with increasing gate field. A positive gate-bias stress causes a positive shift and a negative gate-bias stress causes a negative shift, consistent with electron tunneling into or out of oxide traps near the SiC / SiO2 interface as opposed to mobile ions drifting across the gate oxide. The effect is repeatable.
The water content of feedstuffs is an important factor when considering both the nutritive value of a feed for dietary rationing purposes and when assessing the functional properties associated with the practical inclusion of a feedstuff in animal diets. Water is a vital nutrient in its own right and must be supplied on a daily basis. Feed associated water provides one source of this obligatory requirement. In addition, the water holding capacity (WHC) of a feedstuff and its relationship with other constituents of the feed may have important effects. Water can be associated with feedstuff in one of three ways (Robertson and Eastwood, 1981b). Firstly, water can be bound by the hydrophilic polysaccharides of the fibre component of feeds. Secondly, water can be held within the structural fibre matrix of feeds and finally, water can be associated with feedstuff fibre other than bound or matrix water and is usually considered as water trapped within the cell wall lumen.
We have undertaken an adaptive optics imaging survey of extra-solar planetary systems and stars showing interesting radial velocity trends from high precision radial velocity searches. Adaptive Optics increases the resolution and dynamic range of an image, substantially improving the detectability of faint close companions. This survey is sensitive to objects less luminous than the bottom of the main sequence at separations as close as 1″. We have detected stellar companions to the planet bearing stars HD 114762 and Tau Boo. We have also detected a companion to the non-planet bearing star 16 Cyg A.
This research is comprised of understanding the linear photophysical properties of various dyes to better understand the more complicated nonlinear optical properties. Determining structure property relationships of a series of structurally closely related chromophores is the key in understanding the drivers for the various photophysical properties. In this paper we survey the effect of physically changing the Pt poly-yne structure on the S0-S1 and T1-Tn absorption properties for each of the chromophores. A series of structurally modified platinum poly-ynes have been studied using experimental methods including UV/Vis absorption and nanosecond laser flash photolysis. We found that with extension of the ligand length both the ground and triplet excited state absorption shift to lower energies. Comparing the absorption properties of the ligands and butadiynes with the platinum containing versions reveal that the S1 and Tn exciton is localized on one portion of the ligand with extension and not conjugated through the whole molecule. Changing the phosphine R group results in little effect to the absorption properties except when the R group is conjugated in the case of phenyl. However, changing the R group results in varied materials properties.
Projections for the future are always difficult but the Office for National Statistics states that the proportion of persons over the age of 65, which reached 16 per cent of the population in 1996, is expected to go on rising quite steadily so that the proportions of those aged more than 65 and those younger than 16 will be much the same in about 15 years' time. After this, there will be more old people than young. Very soon, it seems, there will be as great an overall need for ‘elder’ law as there is for child law.
When one adds to this that the elderly are, almost by definition, on the downslope of health and that, as a result, they become increasingly frail and vulnerable with time, one can appreciate even more clearly the need for their protection within a medicolegal context. And yet, what little legal involvement there is tends to aim at containing ‘difficult people’ rather than at recognising the autonomy of the aged and improving their self-esteem. The difficulty of so doing, of course, lies in the fact that all peoples' mental and physical capacities degenerate with age – and do so relatively steadily, albeit at different rates. At the same time, the capacity to generate income fails, savings get eaten away and poverty increases.