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This paper provides an overview and appraisal of the International Design Engineering Annual (IDEA) challenge - a virtually hosted design hackathon run with the aim of generating a design research dataset that can provide insights into design activities at virtually hosted hackathons. The resulting dataset consists of 200+ prototypes with over 1300 connections providing insights into the products, processes and people involved in the design process. The paper also provides recommendations for future deployments of virtual hackathons for design research.
The ‘thrifty phenotype’ hypothesis proposed that fetal undernutrition increases risk of diabetes in later life. Undernourished low birthweight Indian babies are paradoxically more adipose compared to well-nourished European babies, and are at higher risk of diabetes in later life. Twin pregnancies are an example of in utero growth restrictive environment due to shared maternal nutrition. There are few studies of body composition in twins. We performed secondary analysis of anthropometric body composition of twins and singletons in Guinea-Bissau, an economically deprived African country.
Anthropometric data were available on 7–34 year-old twins (n = 209, 97 males) and singletons (n = 182, 86 males) in the Guinea-Bissau Twin Registry at the Bandim Health Project. Twins had lower birthweight (2420 vs 3100 g, p < 0.001); and at follow-up, lower height (HAZ mean Z-score difference, −0.21, p = 0.055), weight (WAZ −0.73, p = 0.024) and BMI (BAZ −0.22, p = 0.079) compared to singletons but higher adiposity (skinfolds: +0.33 SD, p = 0.001). Twins also had higher fasting (+0.38 SD, p < 0.001) and 2-hour OGTT glucose concentrations (+0.29 SD, p < 0.05). Linear mixed-effect model accounting for intrapair correlations and interactions confirmed that twins were thinner but fatter across the age range. Data on maternal morbidity and prematurity were not available in this cohort.
African populations are known to have a muscular (less adipose) body composition. Demonstration of a thin-fat phenotype in twins in a low socio-economic African country supports the thesis that it could be a manifestation of early life undernutrition and not exclusive to Indians. This phenotype could increase risk of diabetes and related conditions.
The amount of data available to healthcare practitioners is growing, and the rapid increase in available patient data is becoming a problem for healthcare practitioners, as they are often unable to fully survey and process the data relevant for the treatment or care of a patient. Consequently, there are currently several efforts to develop systems that can aid healthcare practitioners with reading and processing patient data and, in this way, provide them with a better foundation for decision-making about the treatment and care of patients. There are also efforts to develop algorithms that provide suggestions for such decisions. However, the development of these systems and algorithms raises several concerns related to the privacy of patients, the patient–practitioner relationship, and the autonomy of healthcare practitioners. The aim of this article is to provide a foundation for understanding the ethical challenges related to the development of a specific form of data-processing systems, namely clinical algorithms.
Improving family-centered outcomes is a priority in oncologic critical care. As part of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Collaborative, we implemented patient- and family-centered initiatives in a comprehensive cancer center.
A multidisciplinary team was created to implement the initiatives. We instituted an open visitation policy (OVP) that revamped the use of the two-way communication boards and enhanced the waiting room experience by hosting ICU family-centered events. To assess the initiatives’ effects, we carried out pre-intervention (PRE) and post-intervention (POST) family/caregiver and ICU practitioner surveys.
A total of 159 (PRE = 79, POST = 80) family members and 147 (PRE = 95, POST = 52) ICU practitioners participated. Regarding the decision-making process, family members felt more included (40.5% vs. 68.8%, p < 0.001) and more supported (29.1% vs. 48.8%, p = 0.011) after the implementation of the initiatives. The caregivers also felt more control over the decision-making process in the POST survey (34.2% vs. 56.3%, p = 0.005). Although 33% of the ICU staff considered OVP was beneficial for the ICU, 41% disagreed and 26% were neutral. Only half of them responded that OVP was beneficial for patients and 63% agreed that OVP was beneficial for families. Half of the practitioners agreed that OVP resulted in additional work for staff.
Significance of results
Our project effectively promoted patient- and family-centered care. The families expressed satisfaction with the communication of information and the decision-making process. However, the ICU staff felt that the initiatives increased their work load. Further research is needed to understand whether making this project universal or introducing additional novel practices would significantly benefit patients admitted to the ICU and their family.
Poor mental health is a state of psychological distress that is influenced by lifestyle factors such as sleep, diet, and physical activity. Compulsivity is a transdiagnostic phenotype cutting across a range of mental illnesses including obsessive–compulsive disorder, substance-related and addictive disorders, and is also influenced by lifestyle. Yet, how lifestyle relates to compulsivity is presently unknown, but important to understand to gain insights into individual differences in mental health. We assessed (a) the relationships between compulsivity and diet quality, sleep quality, and physical activity, and (b) whether psychological distress statistically contributes to these relationships.
We collected harmonized data on compulsivity, psychological distress, and lifestyle from two independent samples (Australian n = 880 and US n = 829). We used mediation analyses to investigate bidirectional relationships between compulsivity and lifestyle factors, and the role of psychological distress.
Higher compulsivity was significantly related to poorer diet and sleep. Psychological distress statistically mediated the relationship between poorer sleep quality and higher compulsivity, and partially statistically mediated the relationship between poorer diet and higher compulsivity.
Lifestyle interventions in compulsivity may target psychological distress in the first instance, followed by sleep and diet quality. As psychological distress links aspects of lifestyle and compulsivity, focusing on mitigating and managing distress may offer a useful therapeutic approach to improve physical and mental health. Future research may focus on the specific sleep and diet patterns which may alter compulsivity over time to inform lifestyle targets for prevention and treatment of functionally impairing compulsive behaviors.
To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system.
Design, setting, and participants:
Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20–December 17, 2020.
Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity.
In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24–5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71–6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity.
Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.
Analysis of efficacy and tolerability of vortioxetine 20 mg/day, and optimal timing of dose adjustment, in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Pooled analysis of six randomized, fixed-dose studies of vortioxetine 5 to 20 mg/day. Mean change from baseline in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score was analyzed by vortioxetine dose using a mixed model for repeated measures. Tolerability was assessed over the 8-week treatment period and from day 8 (ie, following dose increase to 20 mg/day). Data from three randomized, flexible-dose studies were examined for frequency and timing of dose adjustment.
A clear dose–response relationship for vortioxetine was confirmed in terms of improvement in MADRS total score. Significant differences vs placebo were seen for vortioxetine 20 mg/day from week 2 onwards; vortioxetine 10 mg did not separate from placebo until week 4. At week 8, mean change in MADRS total score from baseline was significantly greater for vortioxetine 20 mg/day vs 10 mg/day (difference, −1.03 points; P < .05). Incidence of adverse events was not increased in patients who received vortioxetine 20 mg/day vs 10 mg/day. In flexible-dose studies, dosage was increased to 20 mg/day after 1 week in 48.0% of patients; final dosage was 20 mg/day in 64.3% of patients.
Vortioxetine 20 mg is significantly more effective than vortioxetine 10 mg in patients with MDD, with a similar tolerability profile. In flexible-dose studies, almost half of all patients received 20 mg/day after 1 week and two-thirds received 20 mg/day as their final dosage.
There is a lack of longitudinal studies of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or unipolar depression (UD) in terms of psychological well-being as measured by the WHO-5 and the correlation to symptom scores. It is of interest to investigate whether the WHO-5 is useful in monitoring patients with mood disorders over time, as a tool in measurement-based care, and as a supplement to other psychometric measures.
In this study we investigate the correlation at baseline between the depressive symptom scores according to the 6-item Hamilton Depression Score (HDS-6) and the WHO-5 scores in outpatients treated for BD or UD. Furthermore, in patients with BD we investigate correlations between manic symptom scores according to the modified Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale (MAS-M) and the WHO-5 scores. Lastly, in patients with BD or UD, we investigate the correlations between endpoint-baseline change in WHO-5 and change in MAS-M and HDS-6.
A longitudinal study of 200 outpatients diagnosed and treated for either BD or UD. Patients will be measured at baseline and at least four weeks later. Baseline data are presented as frequencies, means and standard deviations or medians with interquartile ranges as appropriate. All correlations are presented as scatter plots and a Spearman correlation analysis
The study is ongoing, but the results will be available for presentation at the EPA in 2021.
The WHO-5 may represent a relevant outcome measure in the treatment of BD and UD.
Improved survival has led to a growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), followed by numerous reports of late complications. Liver disease is a known complication in some patients, with most studies focusing on Fontan associated liver disease. Whether liver disease also exists in other patients with CHD is not fully investigated. Elevated central venous pressure is considered pivotal in the development of liver disease in Fontan associated liver disease, and other patients with alterations in central venous pressure may also be at risk for developing liver fibrosis. We wanted to see if liver fibrosis is present in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Many patients with tetralogy of Fallot have severe pulmonary regurgitation, which can lead to elevated central venous pressure. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot may be at risk of developing liver fibrosis.
Materials and methods:
Ten patients (24–56 years) with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation were investigated for liver fibrosis. All patients were examined with magnetic resonance elastography of liver, hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan, indocyanine green elimination by pulse spectrophotometry, elastography via FibroScan, abdominal ultrasound including liver elastography, and blood samples including liver markers.
Three out of ten patients had findings indicating possible liver fibrosis. Two of these had a liver biopsy performed, which revealed fibrosis stage 1 and 2, respectively. The same three patients had an estimated elevated central venous pressure in previous echocardiograms.
Mild liver fibrosis was present in selected patients with tetralogy of Fallot and may be related to elevated central venous pressure.
Our objective was to determine the content of the bioactive protein osteopontin (OPN) in bovine milk and identify factors influencing its concentration. OPN is expressed in many tissues and body fluids, with by far the highest concentrations in milk. OPN plays a role in immunological and developmental processes and it has been associated with several milk production traits and lactation persistency in cows. In the present study, we report the development of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of OPN in bovine milk. The method was used to determine the concentration of OPN in milk from 661 individual Danish Holstein cows. The median OPN level was determined to 21.9 mg/l with a pronounced level of individual variation ranging from 0.4 mg/l to 67.8 mg/l. Breeding for increased OPN in cow's milk is of significant interest, however, the heritability of OPN in milk was found to be relatively low, with an estimated value of 0.19 in the current dataset. The variation explained by the herd was also found to be low suggesting that OPN levels are not affected by farm management or feeding. Interestingly, the concentration of OPN was found to increase with days in milk and to decrease with parity.
In March 2020, academic medical center (AMC) pharmacies were compelled to implement practice changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes were described by survey data collected by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program which were interpreted by a multi-institutional team of AMC pharmacists and physician investigators.
The CTSA program surveyed 60 AMC pharmacy departments. The survey included event timing, impact on pharmacy services, and corrective actions taken.
Almost all departments (98.4%) reported at least one disruption. Shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) were common (91.5%) as were drug shortages (66.0%). To manage drug shortages, drug prioritization protocols were utilized, new drug supply vendors were identified (79.3%), and onsite compounding was initiated. PPE shortages were managed by incorporating the risk mitigation strategies recommended by FDA and others. Research pharmacists supported new clinical research initiatives at most institutions (84.0%), introduced use of virtual site visits, and shipped investigational drugs directly to patients. Some pharmacies formulated novel investigational products for clinical trial use. Those AMC pharmacies within networked health systems assisted partner rural and inner-city hospitals by sourcing commercial and investigational drugs to alleviate local disease outbreaks and shortages in underserved populations. Pharmacy-based vaccination practice was expanded to include a wider range of pediatric and adult vaccines.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically altered hospital pharmacy practice. By adopting innovative methods and adapting to regulatory imperatives, pharmacies at CTSA sites played an extremely important role supporting continuity of care and collaborating on critical clinical research initiatives.
The ‘16Up’ study conducted at the QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute from January 2014 to December 2018 aimed to examine the physical and mental health of young Australian twins aged 16−18 years (N = 876; 371 twin pairs and 18 triplet sets). Measurements included online questionnaires covering physical and mental health as well as information and communication technology (ICT) use, actigraphy, sleep diaries and hair samples to determine cortisol concentrations. Study participants generally rated themselves as being in good physical (79%) and mental (73%) health and reported lower rates of psychological distress and exposure to alcohol, tobacco products or other substances than previously reported for this age group in the Australian population. Daily or near-daily online activity was almost universal among study participants, with no differences noted between males and females in terms of frequency or duration of internet access. Patterns of ICT use in this sample indicated that the respondents were more likely to use online information sources for researching physical health issues than for mental health or substance use issues, and that they generally reported partial levels of satisfaction with the mental health information they found online. This suggests that internet-based mental health resources can be readily accessed by adolescent Australians, and their computer literacy augurs well for future access to online health resources. In combination with other data collected as part of the ongoing Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study, the 16Up project provides a valuable resource for the longitudinal investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to phenotypic variation in a variety of human traits.
Fish consumption is associated with reduced risk of CVD, which may be partly mediated by alterations in plasma lipids, such as HDL-cholesterol. However, comprehensive analyses of associations between fatty fish consumption and lipoprotein subclass profile are limited and show inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of the present exploratory study was to investigate the association between fatty fish consumption and lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations and composition, with an emphasis on HDL. We performed a comprehensive plasma metabolite profiling in 517 healthy adults, using a targeted high-throughput NMR spectroscopy platform. The participants were divided into tertiles based on consumption of fatty fish, reported through a validated FFQ. We compared the concentration of metabolites between the participants in the lowest and highest tertiles of fatty fish consumption. We show that high consumers of fatty fish (>223 g/week, median intake 294 g/week) had higher particle concentrations and content of total lipids, free cholesterol and phospholipids in large and extra-large HDL particles and higher content of total cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and TAG in large HDL particles than low consumers (<107 g/week, median intake 58 g/week). Using fatty fish consumption as a continuous variable, we found that fatty fish consumption was associated with lower levels of the inflammation marker glycoprotein acetyls. In conclusion, high consumers of fatty fish seem to have a more favourable HDL-cholesterol-related lipoprotein profile and anti-inflammatory phenotype than low consumers of fatty fish. Thus, these data support the current Norwegian dietary recommendations for fish consumption regarding CVD risk.
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a widely hypothesized biomarker of biological aging. Persons with shorter LTL may have a greater likelihood of developing dementia. We investigate whether LTL is associated with cognitive function, differently for individuals without cognitive impairment versus individuals with dementia or incipient dementia.
Enrolled subjects belong to the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), a multi-generational cohort study, where enrollment was predicated upon exceptional family longevity. Included subjects had valid cognitive and telomere data at baseline. Exclusion criteria were age ≤ 60 years, outlying LTL, and missing sociodemographic/clinical information. Analyses were performed using linear regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for sex, age, education, country, generation, and lymphocyte percentage.
Older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL, and LTL was significantly longer in family members than spouse controls (p < 0.005). LTL was not associated with working or episodic memory, semantic processing, and information processing speed for 1613 cognitively unimpaired individuals as well as 597 individuals with dementia or incipient dementia (p < 0.005), who scored significantly lower on all cognitive domains (p < 0.005).
Within this unique LLFS cohort, a group of families assembled on the basis of exceptional survival, LTL is unrelated to cognitive ability for individuals with and without cognitive impairment. LTL does not change in the context of degenerative disease for these individuals who are biologically younger than the general population.
Since 2012, when Ophiothela was first described in the Atlantic, there has been no consensus regarding its identification. It has been described as O. mirabilis, O. cf. mirabilis, O. danae, or only Ophiothela sp. In order to fill these gaps, our aim was to test if specimens from Brazil are Ophiothela mirabilis and/or Ophiothela danae. Syntypes from the Museum of Comparative Zoology and United States National Museum, Smithsonian Institution, were used. We examined species boundaries of the small six-rayed brittle star Ophiothela using independent character sets utilizing morphology (external morphology and morphometry) and molecular data (16S and COI). Concordance was found between the analyses indicating that Ophiothela sp. from Brazil (BR), Ophiothela mirabilis and Ophiothela danae are closely related. We suggest that O. danae should be considered as a junior synonym of O. mirabilis. A detailed description of O. mirabilis BR is presented using external morphology and microstructural ossicles (arm plates, vertebra, dental and oral plates). This description includes new diagnostic features, particularly regarding its microstructures: (i) transspondylous articulation (first record in Ophiotrichidae); (ii) eight smooth knobs on the dorsal surface of the vertebrae (to date only in Ophiothela); (iii) vertebrae with distal keel divided into two separate end processes matching the two large dorsal grooves proximally (first time in the literature); and (iv) an opening on both sides of the oral plate (as seen in other fissiparous species Ophiactis savignyi and Ophiocomella ophiactoides).
To identify and synthesise the literature on the cost of mental disorders.
Systematic literature searches were conducted in the databases PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit, NHS York Database and PsychInfo using key terms for cost and mental disorders. Searches were restricted to January 1980–May 2019. The inclusion criteria were: (1) cost-of-illness studies or cost-analyses; (2) diagnosis of at least one mental disorder; (3) study population based on the general population; (4) outcome in monetary units. The systematic review was preregistered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42019127783).
In total, 13 579 potential titles and abstracts were screened and 439 full-text articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers. Of these, 112 articles were included from the systematic searches and 31 additional articles from snowball searching, resulting in 143 included articles. Data were available from 48 countries and categorised according to nine mental disorder groups. The quality of the studies varied widely and there was a lack of studies from low- and middle-income countries and for certain types of mental disorders (e.g. intellectual disabilities and eating disorders). Our study showed that certain groups of mental disorders are more costly than others and that these rankings are relatively stable between countries. An interactive data visualisation site can be found here: https://nbepi.com/econ.
This is the first study to provide a comprehensive overview of the cost of mental disorders worldwide.
Thermal infrared data collected by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instruments have significantly impacted the understanding of martian surface mineralogy. Spatial/temporal variations in igneous lithologies; the discovery of quartz, carbonates, and chlorides; and the widespread identification of amorphous, silica-enriched materials reveal a planet that has experienced a diversity of primary and secondary geo-logic processes including igneous crustal evolution, regional sedimentation, aqueous alteration, and glacial/periglacial activity.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the outermost of the rocky, terrestrial planets that make up the inner solar system. Mars is the second smallest planet; only Mercury is smaller. Surface gravity on Mars is 3.71 m s–2, which is 37.6% that of the Earth. The present atmospheric pressure is low (~0.6 kPa) relative to Earth’s (101 kPa), and the atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (95%). The obliquity of Mars (tilt of the axis of rotation relative to the plane of orbit) is presently 25 degrees and may have varied by tens of degrees over the past tens of millions of years and longer (Laskar et al., 2004).