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Dolphins in captivity have to cope with severe changes in their environment. So far, there are few studies on the welfare of these animals under these conditions. The aim of the present study was to find if cortisol was present in the saliva of dolphins and to explore the possibility of performing serial, non-invasive cortisol assays in captive dolphins. Saliva was collected non-invasively during a month from four dolphins that had responded to previous training, in order to provide saliva samples, in two aquaria in Mexico City. In addition, serum and saliva time-matched samples were obtained in an aquarium in Nuevo Vallarta, Mexico. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and blood were measured by radioimmunoanalysis (RIA). Results show for the first time that measurable quantities of cortisol are secreted within the saliva of dolphins. Salivary cortisol measurements could be a useful tool for carrying out long-term cortisol sampling. It is far less invasive than blood-sampling and could be used, in conjunction with behavioural observations, to monitor the welfare of captive dolphins, non-invasively.
Adult male and female Murrah buffalo fibroblast cells were used as donors for the production of embryos using handmade cloning. Both donor cells and reconstructed embryos were treated with 50 nM trichostatin-A (TSA) and 7.5 nM 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC). The blastocyst rate of both treated male (40.1% ± 2.05) and female (37.0% ± 0.83) embryos was significantly lower than in untreated control males (49.7% ± 3.80) and females (47.2% ± 2.44) but their apoptotic index was lower (male, control: 5.90 ± 0.48; treated: 4.96 ± 0.31): (female, control: 8.11 ± 0.67; treated: 6.65 ± 0.43) and epigenetic status in terms of global acetylation and methylation of histone was significantly improved. The expression level of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) was higher (P < 0.05) and that of PGK, G6PD, OCT 4, IFN-tau and CASPASE3 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in treated male blastocyst than control and the expression levels of DNMT1, IGF1R and BCL-XL were not significantly different between the two groups. In the female embryos, the relative mRNA abundance of OCT4 was significantly higher (P < 0.05), and that of XIST and CASPASE3 was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the epigenetic modifier-treated group compared with that of the control group, whereas the expression levels of HPRT, PGK, G6PD, DNMT1, IFN-tau, IGF1R and BCL-XL were not significantly different between the two groups. In both embryos, a similar effect of treatment was observed on genes related to growth and development, but the effect on the expression of X-linked genes varied. These results indicate that not all X-linked genes respond to TSA and 5-aza-dC treatment in the same manner.
Policymakers and researchers have little evidence on prevalence rates of intellectual disability (ID) or their changes over time to tailor healthcare interventions. Prevalence rates and trends of ID are especially lacking in regions with lower socio-demographic development. Additionally, the assessment of inequalities in the prevalence of ID across regions with varying socio-demographic development is understudied. This study assessed variations in prevalence rates of ID from 1990 to 2019 and the related inequalities between low and high socio-demographic index (SDI) regions.
This study used global data from 1990 to 2019 for individuals with ID from the 2019 Global Burden of Diseases study. Data analyses were performed from September 2021 to January 2022. Prevalence for individuals with ID was extracted by sex, age groups and SDI regions. Annual percentage change (APC) was estimated for each demographic group within SDI regions to assess their prevalence trends over 30 years. Relative and absolute inequalities were calculated between low and high SDI regions for the various age groups.
In 2019, there were 107.62 million (1.74%) individuals with ID, with an APC of −0.80 (−0.88 to −0.72). There was a slightly higher prevalence among males (1.42%) than females (1.37%). The highest prevalence rates were found in the low-middle SDI regions (2.42%) and the lowest prevalence rates were in the high SDI regions (0.33%). There was a large reduction in the prevalence rate between the youngest age group v. the oldest age group in all the SDI regions and at all time points. The relative inequalities between low and high SDI regions increased over three decades.
While an overall decrease in global prevalence rate for ID was found, relative inequalities continue to increase with lower SDI regions needing more comprehensive support services. The demographic trends indicate a significantly higher mortality rate among those with ID v. the rest of the population. Our study highlights the necessity for policies and interventions targeting lower SDI regions to mobilise resources that better support individuals with ID and achieve sustainable development goals proposed by the United Nations.
We summarize what we assess as the past year's most important findings within climate change research: limits to adaptation, vulnerability hotspots, new threats coming from the climate–health nexus, climate (im)mobility and security, sustainable practices for land use and finance, losses and damages, inclusive societal climate decisions and ways to overcome structural barriers to accelerate mitigation and limit global warming to below 2°C.
We synthesize 10 topics within climate research where there have been significant advances or emerging scientific consensus since January 2021. The selection of these insights was based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings concern: (1) new aspects of soft and hard limits to adaptation; (2) the emergence of regional vulnerability hotspots from climate impacts and human vulnerability; (3) new threats on the climate–health horizon – some involving plants and animals; (4) climate (im)mobility and the need for anticipatory action; (5) security and climate; (6) sustainable land management as a prerequisite to land-based solutions; (7) sustainable finance practices in the private sector and the need for political guidance; (8) the urgent planetary imperative for addressing losses and damages; (9) inclusive societal choices for climate-resilient development and (10) how to overcome barriers to accelerate mitigation and limit global warming to below 2°C.
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Science has evidence on barriers to mitigation and how to overcome them to avoid limits to adaptation across multiple fields.
This study assessed the impact of improved green fodder production activities on technical efficiency (TE) of dairy farmers in climate vulnerable landscapes of central India. We estimated stochastic production frontiers, considering potential self-selection bias stemming from both observable and unobservable factors in adoption of fodder interventions at farm level. The empirical results show that TE for treated group ranges from 0.55 to 0.59 and that for control ranges from 0.41 to 0.48, depending on how biases are controlled. Additionally, the efficiency levels of both adopters and non-adopters would be underestimated if the selectivity bias is not appropriately accounted. As the average TE is consistently higher for adopter farmers than the control group, promoting improved fodder cultivation would increase input use efficiency, especially in resource-deprived small holder dairy farmers in the semi-arid tropics.
This study aimed to determine the radiation dose to the spleen in adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for gastric cancer, resulting in haematological toxicities.
This retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was conducted at a tertiary referral cancer centre. All patients with biopsy-proven non-metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma planned for adjuvant chemoradiotherapy from January 2017 to December 2021 were included. The mean dose to the spleen (Dmean) was estimated and correlated with the development of haematological toxicities.
The mean spleen volume was 186·65 cc. The Dmean to the spleen was 35·35 Gy (20–42 Gy). Grade 3 leukopenia was observed in 67%, grade 4 in 15%, and grade 3 thrombocytopenia was noted in 41% of patients. Radiotherapy (RT) dose > 35·5 Gy to the spleen resulted in ≥ grade 3 leukopenia. RT dose ≥ 36·5 Gy resulted in grade 3 thrombocytopenia. The occurrence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia was also affected by the location of the primary gastric cancer (higher incidence in distal than in proximal tumours).
The spleen should be considered as an important organs at risk during adjuvant RT for gastric cancer. Dmean to the spleen should be < 35·5 Gy to prevent major haematological toxicities.
Comparing the recommendations of two recently published national clinical practice guidelines for depression, this editorial highlights the concordance of advice concerning the selection and sequencing of therapies. Lifestyle and psychological interventions feature prominently and there is broad agreement regarding medication choice and optimisation strategies. The guidelines are therefore a useful resource.
Opioid withdrawal symptoms classically include severe muscle cramps, bone aches, autonomic symptoms, anxiety. Patients seldom have other complications like delirium and convulsions unless they have comorbid medical illnesses.
We hereby report a case of opioid withdrawal delirium.
A 20-year-old man with dependence for opiods and nicotine was admitted after compete history and mental status and physical examination, last intake for both substances 2 days back. There was no history of fever, head injury, siezures and other substance use. All investigations done were normal and urine drug screen was negative for other substances. Treatment was started with clonidine and quetiapine for sleep and Nsaids on prn basis. After 2 days there was hallucinatory behaviour, agitation, fleeting episodes of recognising family members, hearing voices and decreased sleep observed. Patient required sedation with 10 mg of lorazepam and haloperidol before he went to sleep.Later on lorazepam 8 mg in divided doses and clonidine was tapered off gradually and patient as discharged on naltrexone 50mg.
In our case we could not find any other reason for delirium.These complications are rare feature of delirium, parker et all reported 5 such cases. One of limitations was we didnt do blood alcohol levels which could have ruled out alcohol use.
This case is unique in terms of presenting with delirium without convulsions after 4 days of abstinence. No associated comorbidities, organic causes, and other substance use in dependence pattern or recently used. Use of a street variety (mixed with impurities) could be a risk factor for delirium in our patient.Psychiatrist need to be aware of complication.
Herbicide resistance has been studied extensively in agronomic crops across North America but is rarely examined in vegetables. It is widely assumed that the limited number of registered herbicides combined with the adoption of diverse weed management strategies in most vegetable crops effectively inhibits the development of resistance. It is difficult to determine whether resistance is truly less common in vegetable crops or whether the lack of reported cases is due to the lack of resources focused on detection. This review highlights incidences of resistance that are thought to have arisen within vegetable crops. It also includes situations in which herbicide-resistant weeds were likely selected for within agronomic crops but became a problem when vegetables were grown in sequence or in adjacent fields. Occurrence of herbicide resistance can have severe consequences for vegetable growers, and resistance management plans should be adopted to limit selection pressure. This review also highlights resistance management techniques that should slow the development and spread of herbicide resistance in vegetable crops.
The Diwani hills are located SE of Balaram–Abu Road in the Banaskantha district of north Gujarat. The crystalline rocks of the Diwani hill area are a diverse assemblage of Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks. These rocks are petrologically more complex and date back to the Aravallis or earlier. The mineralogical assemblages such as grt–sp–opx–qz of these rocks indicate their origin in anhydrous or dry conditions, implying metamorphism under pyroxene granulite facies. These granulitic rocks were subjected to Delhi orogenic deformation and were later intruded by the Erinpura granite. Textural and microstructural relationships, mineral chemistry, P–T–X pseudosection modelling and the oxidation state of pelitic granulites from the Diwani hill area of north Gujarat are all part of the current approach. The winTWQ program and pseudosection modelling in the NCKFMASHTO model system utilizing Perple_X software were used to restrict the P–T evolution of these pelitic granulites. The unification of these estimates shows that the pelitic granulites reached their pressure and temperature maxima at 8.6 kbar and 770 °C, respectively. The oxygen fugacity (log fO2) versus temperature computations at 6.2 kbar revealed log fO2–T values of −13.0 and 765 °C, respectively. The electron microprobe dating of monazite grains separated from the granulites of the Diwani hills yields ages ranging from 769 Ma to 855 Ma. The electron microprobe dating presented here from the Diwani hills provides evidence for a Neoproterozoic (Tonian) metamorphic event in the Aravalli–Delhi Mobile Belt.
To study unusual presentations of coronavirus-associated mucormycosis that are rarely seen in sinonasal mucormycosis cases.
The data of 400 rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis patients admitted to Sawai Man Singh Hospital, Jaipur, from May 2021 to June 2021, were retrospectively collected. The diagnosis of mucormycosis was made by histological examination of biopsy samples.
Out of 400 patients, 62 had symptoms other than common symptoms of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. Thirty-four patients had facial palsy, 19 complained of gum ulcers, 6 developed a cheek abscess, 2 complained of maggots in the nose along with common rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis symptoms, and 1 had a cerebellar infarct.
Mucormycosis is a disease with various presentations, and coronavirus-associated mucormycosis has added unusual presentations to the existing list of manifestations of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis. In this coronavirus disease era, mucormycosis should always be considered as a diagnosis in patients with these unusual presentations.
Background: Chordomas are rare malignant skull-base/spine cancers with devastating neurological morbidities and mortality. Unfortunately, no reliable prognostic factors exist to guide treatment decisions. This work identifies DNA methylation-based prognostic chordoma subtypes that are detectable non-invasively in plasma. Methods: Sixty-eight tissue samples underwent DNA methylation profiling and plasma methylomes were obtained for available paired samples. Immunohistochemical staining and publicly available methylation and gene expression data were utilized for validation. Results: Unsupervised clustering identified two prognostic tissue clusters (log-rank p=0.0062) predicting disease-specific survival independent of clinical factors (Multivariable Cox: HR=16.5, 95%CI: 2.8-96, p=0.0018). The poorer-performing cluster showed immune-related pathway promoter hypermethylation and higher immune cell abundance within tumours, which was validated with external RNA-seq data and immunohistochemical staining. The better-performing cluster showed higher tumour cellularity. Similar clusters were seen in external DNA methylation data. Plasma methylome-based models distinguished chordomas from differential diagnoses in independent testing sets (AUROC=0.84, 95%CI: 0.52-1.00). Plasma methylomes were highly correlated with tissue-based signals for both clusters (r=0.69 & 0.67) and leave-one-out models identified the correct cluster in all plasma cases. Conclusions: Prognostic molecular chordoma subgroups are for the first time identified, characterized, and validated. Plasma methylomes can detect and subtype chordomas which may transform chordoma treatment with personalized approaches tailored to prognosis.
Fully developed, sexually mature small male and female acanthocephalans, Microsentis wardae Martin & Multani, 1966 (Neoechinorhynchidae) reaching only 2.25 mm and 2.42 mm, respectively, were collected from the rectum of longjaw mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis Cooper, in the salty marches of Anaheim Bay and San Diego Bay, California. Our specimens were half the size of those reported in the original description from the same host in Scammon's Lagoon over 700 km to the south. The ratio of proboscis and receptacle size to trunk size was markedly higher in our specimens compared to the larger specimens measured in the original description. The anatomy of all structures in our specimens from Anaheim Bay was comparable to that of the larger Scammon's Lagoon specimens that have apparently realized more growth in the Scammon's Lagoon. We have observed more structures that are not reported in the original description, especially evident from our scanning electron microscopy images, which are not possible to observe in the original line drawings. In our specimens, the micropores were unusually widely spaced and the energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed longitudinal hook sections with high levels of sulphur and phosphorus and moderate levels of calcium, but the whole hooks showed highest levels of sodium and magnesium – the biochemical hook signature of this species. Sequences of the small subunit (18S) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA were generated and compared with acanthocephalan sequences available from GenBank. As M. wardae comprises a monotypic genus, therefore, phylogenetic analyses inferred from the 18S gene showed its relationship with other species of closely related genera of Eoacanthocephala. This is the first report of molecular data of M. wardae.
This chapter explores the relations between the structure of global value chains (GVCs) and labour employment in developing countries where downstream suppliers are largely concentrated. As laid out in the introduction to this book, this starts with knowledge, usually protected under intellectual property rights (IPRs), creating oligopolies or monopolies with degrees of monopoly in the product markets in the headquarter economies of lead firms. In an unequal world—unequal in the distribution of knowledge, incomes, and wages—there is the possibility of utilizing these differences to increase the profits of product monopolies through the disintegration of production in GVCs.
GVCs have embedded within them a distribution of knowledge among different GVC segments: knowledge-intensive segments in pre- and post-production tasks, which are protected under IPRs in lead firms; and production knowledge distributed among many suppliers in developing economies that is not protected under IPRs. The monopolies on the product market then appear as monopsonies in input markets, where a few buyers can bargain with many suppliers to the buyers’ advantage. In the resulting distribution of value within the value chain, the lead firms earn rents (or super profits), while the suppliers just earn competitive profits.
Before proceeding, let us revisit our terminology, as clarified in the introduction, once again. The technical term for a market with a few buyers and many suppliers is an oligopsony, while that for a market with a few sellers and many buyers is an oligopoly. Not only is oligopsony a somewhat clumsy word, but it is not very commonly used. The term ‘monopsony’ can be extended to describe a market where a few players on one side deal with many players on the other side. In this way, there are brands with degrees of monopoly in the product market and also degrees of monopsony in the input market.
The relationship between lead firms and suppliers has been analysed under the rubric of value chain governance (Gereffi, Humphrey, and Sturgeon 2005). The theory of supplier firm governance divides them into three types of governance, in which we emphasize differentiation based on the knowledge level of the tasks performed. Suppliers in captive governance are characterized by the low-knowledge level of tasks performed, as seen in the manufacture of garments or shoes. There is an intermediate level of knowledge in supplier firms in modular governance, as seen in automobile and electronics assemblies.