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On continuous recognition tasks, changing the context objects are embedded in impairs memory. Older adults are worse on pattern separation tasks requiring identification of similar objects compared to younger adults. However, how contexts impact pattern separation in aging is unclear. The apolipoprotein (APOE) ϵ4 allele may exacerbate possible age-related changes due to early, elevated neuropathology. The goal of this study is to determine how context and APOE status affect pattern separation among younger and older adults.
Older and younger ϵ4 carriers and noncarriers were given a continuous object recognition task. Participants indicated if objects on a Repeated White background, Repeated Scene, or a Novel Scene were old, similar, or new. The proportions of correct responses and the types of errors made were calculated.
Novel scenes lowered recognition scores compared to all other contexts for everyone. Younger adults outperformed older adults on identifying similar objects. Older adults misidentified similar objects as old more than new, and the repeated scene exacerbated this error. APOE status interacted with scene and age such that in repeated scenes, younger carriers produced less false alarms, and this trend switched for older adults where carriers made more false alarms.
Context impacted recognition memory in the same way for both age groups. Older adults underutilized details and over relied on holistic information during pattern separation compared to younger adults. The triple interaction in false alarms may indicate an even greater reliance on holistic information among older adults with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
To evaluate efficiency and impact of a novel antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) prospective-audit-with-feedback (PAF) review process using the Cerner Multi-Patient Task List (MPTL).
Retrospective cohort study.
A 367-bed free-standing, pediatric academic medical center.
The ASP PAF review process expanded to monitor all systemic and inhaled antibiotics through use of the MPTL on July 23, 2020. Average number of daily ASP reviews, absolute number of monthly interventions, and time to conduct ASP reviews were compared between the preimplementation period and the postimplementation period following expansion. Antibiotic days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 patient days for overall and select antibiotics were compared between periods. ASP intervention characteristics were assessed.
Average daily ASP reviews significantly increased following program expansion (9 vs 14 reviews; P < .0001), and the absolute number of ASP interventions each month also increased (34 vs 52 interventions; P ≤ .0001). Time to conduct daily ASP reviews increased in the postimplementation period (1.03 vs 1.32 hours). Overall antibiotic DOT per 1,000 patient days significantly decreased in the postimplementation period (457.9 vs 427.9; P < .0001) as well as utilization of select, narrow-spectrum antibiotics such as ampicillin and clindamycin. Intervention type and antibiotics were similar between periods. The ASP documented 128 “nonantibiotic interventions” in the postimplementation period, including culture and/or susceptibility testing (32.8%), immunizations (25.8%), and additional diagnostic testing (22.7%).
Implementation of an ASP PAF review process using the MPTL allowed for efficient expansion of a pre-existing ASP and a decrease in overall antibiotic utilization. ASP documentation was enhanced to fully track the impact of the program.
Behavioral features of binge eating disorder (BED) suggest abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control. Studies of adult populations suggest functional abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control networks. Despite behavioral markers often developing in children, the neurobiology of pediatric BED remains unstudied.
58 pre-adolescent children (aged 9–10-years) with BED (mBMI = 25.05; s.d. = 5.40) and 66 age, BMI and developmentally matched control children (mBMI = 25.78; s.d. = 0.33) were extracted from the 3.0 baseline (Year 0) release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We investigated group differences in resting-state functional MRI functional connectivity (FC) within and between reward and inhibitory control networks. A seed-based approach was employed to assess nodes in the reward [orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), nucleus accumbens, amygdala] and inhibitory control [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] networks via hypothesis-driven seed-to-seed analyses, and secondary seed-to-voxel analyses.
Findings revealed reduced FC between the dlPFC and amygdala, and between the ACC and OFC in pre-adolescent children with BED, relative to controls. These findings indicating aberrant connectivity between nodes of inhibitory control and reward networks were corroborated by the whole-brain FC analyses.
Early-onset BED may be characterized by diffuse abnormalities in the functional synergy between reward and cognitive control networks, without perturbations within reward and inhibitory control networks, respectively. The decreased capacity to regulate a reward-driven pursuit of hedonic foods, which is characteristic of BED, may in part, rest on this dysconnectivity between reward and inhibitory control networks.
The study provides comparative risk analyses of Australia’s three Victorian dairy regions. Historical data were used to identify business risk and financial viability. Multivariate distributions were fitted to the historical price, production, and input costs using copula models, capturing non-linear dependence among the variables. Monte Carlo simulation methods were then used to generate cash flows for a decade. Factors that influenced profitability the most were identified using sensitivity analysis. The dairies in the Northern region have faced water reductions, whereas those of Gippsland and South West have more positive indicators. Our analysis summarizes long-term risks and net farm profits by utilizing survey data in a probabilistic manner.
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of parental invalidation and whether parental difficulties in emotion regulation mediated the association between past experiences of invalidation and current invalidating parenting practices. We also aimed to investigate whether gender might influence the transmission of parental invalidation. We recruited a community sample of 293 dual-parent families (adolescent and their parents) based in Singapore. Parents and adolescents each completed measures of childhood invalidation, whereas parents additionally reported on their difficulties in emotion regulation. Results based on path analyses demonstrated that past parental invalidation experienced by fathers positively predicted current perceived invalidation by their children. The association between mothers’ childhood invalidation and current invalidating practices was fully mediated by mothers’ difficulties with emotion regulation. Further analyses revealed that parents’ current invalidating behaviors were not predicted by their past experiences of paternal or maternal invalidation. These findings point to the importance of considering the family invalidating environment as a whole when examining the influence of past experienced parental invalidation on emotion regulation and invalidating behaviors of second-generation parents. Our study provides empirical support for the intergenerational transmission of parental invalidation and highlights the need to address childhood experiences of parental invalidation in parenting programs.
In 829 hospital encounters for patients with COVID-19, 73.2% included orders for antibiotics; however, only 1.8% had respiratory cultures during the first 3 hospital days isolating bacteria. Case–control analysis of 30 patients and 96 controls found that each antibiotic day increased the risk of isolating multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) in respiratory cultures by 6.5%.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The model of the Clinical Research Support Center at the University of Minnesota of streamlining clinical trial infrastructure can be leveraged by the larger clinical trial community to create valuable efficiencies and facilitate faster initiation of research activities by supporting researchers from concept to dissemination. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Substantial time, energy, and money are spent bridging disparate resources in research. We describe how the University of Minnesota’s (UMN) Clinical Research Support Center (CRSC) streamlines trial infrastructure, creating valuable efficiencies to support researchers from concept to dissemination. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The CRSC, established in 2018 through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program, brings resources together in a single, centralized, and convenient location to help researchers navigate the UMN clinical research startup process and specifically to assist with the development and initiation of a research study from feasibility assessment to project opening. Diverse expertise in components of human subject research is available to support the broad scope of projects at a large institution like the UMN. We present how CRSC services, when coordinated by Clinical Research Specialists, have been used to improve access to clinical research resources during the start up process. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since inception in 2018, the CRSC has provided support to over 1700 studies with 437 research projects referred to a Clinical Research Specialist within the CRSC. Of those projects, 97 (22.2%) received comprehensive support from the following expert groups: regulatory guidance (n=74), biostatistics (n=68), clinical (hospital or clinic) partners (n=60), recruitment (n=36), budget development assistance (n=30), and (bio)informatics (n=27). Successful examples of synergies to streamlining study start up include shortening the window between protocol development support from Clinical Research Specialists and IRB submission preparation through to Regulatory Specialists to 3 days. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Providing cross-functional support to research teams through the CRSC increases the likelihood of quicker and successful execution and completion of research initiation and subsequently impacts the dissemination of that research to patients and the broader community.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: In a global pandemic where data development and dissemination are integral to combating the disease, the Clinical Research Support Center at the University of Minnesota provides a model of comprehensive virtual support, helping to attain and disseminate novel research on COVID-19, its individual and community impact, and treatment initiatives/outcomes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The pandemic created massive disruption to the conduct of clinical research with an unprecedented reorientation towards COVID-19. In this fast-paced environment, the Clinical Research Support Center (CRSC) rapidly developed innovative means of supporting diverse research initiatives. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The CRSC rapidly transitioned into a virtual environment and developed tools for the clinical research community to enhance remote clinical trial start up. This includes supporting remote consent, eBinders, COVID-19 research training for clinical staff, and easier identification of potential participants for COVID-19 studies; all through virtual support. Support provided research teams guidance on study protocols, regulatory requirements, informatics, biostatistics, financial management, recruitment strategies to support critical, urgent COVID-19 research. We outline proactive examples of how the CRSC now provides support to research teams through the pandemic. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: From March-November 2020, 116 COVID-19 projects received virtual support from the CRSC for COVID-19 research: disease understanding (n=27), treatment (n=23), pandemic impact (n=20), clinical care innovation (n=18), disease control and surveillance (n=10), prevention (n=9), detection (n=5), and impact on minorities (n=4). The diversity of these studies demonstrates the demand for and benefit from multidisciplinary expertise supporting study design and implementation. Through successful articulation and acceleration of research activities, the CRSC met the need for speed and rapidly adapted to new challenges created by the pandemic. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: In a global pandemic where rapidly changing barriers to research is ongoing, through multidisciplinary efforts, the CRSC continues to provide comprehensive, virtual support to attain and disseminate novel research on COVID-19, its individual and community impact, and treatment initiatives/outcomes.
Recent research has revealed that cognitively unimpaired older adults who are at higher risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia often exhibit subtle cognitive alterations in their neuropsychological profiles. Emerging evidence suggests that autobiographical memory, which is memory for personal events and knowledge, may be sensitive to early AD-related cognitive alterations. In the present study, we investigated whether the rapid generation of autobiographical memory category exemplars, a retrieval process that taxes the neural network that is vulnerable to early AD, is compromised in cognitively unimpaired middle-aged and older carriers of the e4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE4), which increases risk for AD dementia.
In addition to standard neuropsychological tests, we administered a fluency task that requires generating exemplars for two types of autobiographical memory, namely episodic memories and personal semantics, to a group of cognitively unimpaired middle-aged and older adults (n = 45) enriched with APOE4 carriers (n = 20).
While no APOE4 deficits were found on standard neuropsychological tests, episodic and personal semantic exemplar generation was reduced in the APOE4 group.
Autobiographical memory aberrations associated with a higher risk for AD are evident in fluency and affect both episodic memory and personal semantics.
The aim of this study was to measure whether participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – Education (SNAP-Ed) interventions is associated with changes in meeting recommendations for healthy eating and food resource management behaviours, such as shopping, among low-income children, adolescents, and adults in eight states in the US Southeast. The study used a one-group pre-test post-test design, analysing aggregate data on nutrition and shopping behaviours collected during Federal Fiscal Year 17 from SNAP-Ed direct education in community settings. Twenty-five implementing agencies in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee provided aggregated data on program participants. Because survey questions differed, agencies followed standard recoding guidelines. The number of participants varied depending on the indicator; the maximum number was n 43 303 pre-tests, n 43 256 post-test. Participants were significantly more likely to consume more than one kind of fruit (pooled relative risk (RR), 1⋅10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1⋅09–1⋅11) and more than one kind of vegetable (pooled RR, 1⋅14; 95% CI, 1⋅12–1⋅15) after the intervention than before. On average, participants consumed 0⋅34 cups more of fruit per day (95% CI, 0⋅31–0⋅37), and 0⋅22 cups more of vegetables per day (95% CI, 0⋅19–0⋅25) after the intervention, compared to before. About 701 policy, systems, and environmental changes for nutrition supports were reported. This study suggests that SNAP-Ed direct education is associated with positive behaviour changes in the US Southeast. It provides a methodology that can inform data aggregation efforts across unique SNAP-Ed programs or other similar nutrition education programs to report on the collective impact.
Fibrinolysis is an acceptable treatment for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cannot be performed within 120 minutes. The American Heart Association has recommended Emergency Medical Services (EMS) interventions such as prehospital fibrinolysis (PHF), prehospital electrocardiogram (ECG), and hospital bypass direct to PCI center. Nova Scotia, Canada has incorporated these interventions into a unique province-wide approach to STEMI care. A retrospective cohort analysis comparing the primary outcome of 30-day mortality for patients receiving either prehospital or emergency department (ED) fibrinolysis (EDF) to patients transported directly by EMS from community or regional ED for primary PCI was conducted.
This retrospective, population-based cohort study included all STEMI patients in Nova Scotia who survived to hospital admission from July 2011 through July 2013. Three provincial databases were used to collect demographic, 30-day mortality, hospital readmission, and rescue PCI data. The results were grouped and compared according to reperfusion strategy received: PHF, EDF, patients brought by ambulance via EMS direct to PCI (EMS to PCI), and ED to PCI (ED to PCI).
There were 1,071 STEMI patients included with 145 PHF, 606 EDF, 98 EMS to PCI, and 222 ED to PCI. There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality across groups (n, %): PHF 5(3); EDF 36(6); EHS to PCI <5(2); and ED to PCI 10(4); P = .28. There was no significant difference in patients receiving fibrinolysis who underwent rescue PCI.
Prehospital fibrinolysis incorporated into a province-wide approach to STEMI treatment is feasible with no observed difference in patient 30-day mortality outcomes observed.
Anxiety is the most prevalent psychological disorder among youth, and even following treatment, it confers risk for anxiety relapse and the development of depression. Anxiety disorders are associated with heightened response to negative affective stimuli in the brain networks that underlie emotion processing. One factor that can attenuate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in high-risk youth is parental warmth. The current study investigates whether parental warmth helps to protect against future anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with histories of anxiety and whether neural functioning in the brain regions that are implicated in emotion processing and regulation can account for this link. Following treatment for anxiety disorder (Time 1), 30 adolescents (M age = 11.58, SD = 1.26) reported on maternal warmth, and 2 years later (Time 2) they participated in a functional neuroimaging task where they listened to prerecorded criticism and neutral statements from a parent. Higher maternal warmth predicted lower neural activation during criticism, compared with the response during neutral statements, in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC), right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Maternal warmth was associated with adolescents’ anxiety and depressive symptoms due to the indirect effects of sgACC activation, suggesting that parenting may attenuate risk for internalizing through its effects on brain function.
Blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea Gmelin) rapidly moult their flight feathers in Antarctic waters in February–April, immediately following the breeding season, yet the behaviour of moulting birds at sea has not been described. We observed large numbers of moulting blue petrels off West Antarctica from 67–71°S and 78–119°W in mid-February 2017. Most of these birds probably breed at the Diego Ramirez archipelago, southwest of Cape Horn, which is the closest colony to this area. Moulting petrels often sit on the water in dense flocks, just outside the marginal ice zone, at sea temperatures of -0.7 to 0.9°C. Wing moult is intense, with 7–8 inner primaries (62–75% of primary length and 55–69% of primary mass), their corresponding primary coverts and all greater secondary coverts being grown at the same time. Moulting petrels need a reliable food source during this energetically demanding period, so the waters off West Antarctica are probably crucial for the Diego Ramirez population, which makes up more than half of the world's blue petrels.
Due to correlations between purchasing patterns and diet disparities, differences in food shopping patterns and strategies across income levels and other socio-economic characteristics is a widely-studied research area. Most extant literature uses either primary or secondary data, which are often characterized by, respectively, limited geographical scope and considerable level of detail, or wide geographical reach but low detail. That literature also reveals contrasting results based on methods, data sources and geographic location. In this paper, we use three different datasets to characterize the differences in purchasing patterns across income levels, rural–urban status and other variables of food shoppers in the Northeastern USA and compare these trends with existing research. While many of the findings corroborate previous studies, new findings include less reliance on superstores overall, except for rural respondents, and a greater reliance on limited assortment supermarkets for SNAP and low-income households. Food purchasing differences are described by race and ethnicity, income and education, and children in the household. The analysis presented here includes a portion of the work performed by an interdisciplinary team of researchers engaged in the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture's Agriculture and Food Research Initiative project Enhancing Food Security in the Northeast (EFSNE). By using primary data from shoppers' intercept surveys, and secondary data from two large datasets, one of household food purchases and the other of food expenditures, we identify purchasing decisions holding at both the case-study (limited geography) and broader geographic (entire Northeast) levels, which both support previous findings and reveal the need for additional research in this area.