To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Although the potential of arts to promote social inclusion is recognised, barriers to social inclusion for disabled people in the arts is under-researched. Based on 34 semi-structured interviews with disabled people and those without disability from four arts organisations in Australia, the paper identifies barriers for social inclusion for disabled people within performing arts across four dimensions: access; participation; representation and empowerment. Findings highlight barriers are societal, being created with little awareness of needs of disabled people, supporting the social model of disability. Findings have implications beyond social inclusion of disabled people within the arts, demonstrating how the arts can empower disabled people and enable them to access, participate and represent themselves and have a voice. Our framework conceptualises these four barriers for social inclusion for disabled people for management to change.
Clarifying the relationship between depression symptoms and cardiometabolic and related health could clarify risk factors and treatment targets. The objective of this study was to assess whether depression symptoms in midlife are associated with the subsequent onset of cardiometabolic health problems.
The study sample comprised 787 male twin veterans with polygenic risk score data who participated in the Harvard Twin Study of Substance Abuse (‘baseline’) and the longitudinal Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (‘follow-up’). Depression symptoms were assessed at baseline [mean age 41.42 years (s.d. = 2.34)] using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version III, Revised. The onset of eight cardiometabolic conditions (atrial fibrillation, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, myocardial infarction, sleep apnea, and stroke) was assessed via self-reported doctor diagnosis at follow-up [mean age 67.59 years (s.d. = 2.41)].
Total depression symptoms were longitudinally associated with incident diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.07–1.57), erectile dysfunction (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.59), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04–1.53), and sleep apnea (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13–1.74) over 27 years after controlling for age, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, C-reactive protein, and polygenic risk for specific health conditions. In sensitivity analyses that excluded somatic depression symptoms, only the association with sleep apnea remained significant (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09–1.60).
A history of depression symptoms by early midlife is associated with an elevated risk for subsequent development of several self-reported health conditions. When isolated, non-somatic depression symptoms are associated with incident self-reported sleep apnea. Depression symptom history may be a predictor or marker of cardiometabolic risk over decades.
Susceptibility to infection such as SARS-CoV-2 may be influenced by host genotype. TwinsUK volunteers (n = 3261) completing the C-19 COVID-19 symptom tracker app allowed classical twin studies of COVID-19 symptoms, including predicted COVID-19, a symptom-based algorithm to predict true infection, derived from app users tested for SARS-CoV-2. We found heritability of 49% (32−64%) for delirium; 34% (20−47%) for diarrhea; 31% (8−52%) for fatigue; 19% (0−38%) for anosmia; 46% (31−60%) for skipped meals and 31% (11−48%) for predicted COVID-19. Heritability estimates were not affected by cohabiting or by social deprivation. The results suggest the importance of host genetics in the risk of clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and provide grounds for planning genome-wide association studies to establish specific genes involved in viral infectivity and the host immune response.
Background: Certain nursing home (NH) resident care tasks have a higher risk for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) transfer to healthcare personnel (HCP), which can result in transmission to residents if HCPs fail to perform recommended infection prevention practices. However, data on HCP-resident interactions are limited and do not account for intrafacility practice variation. Understanding differences in interactions, by HCP role and unit, is important for informing MDRO prevention strategies in NHs. Methods: In 2019, we conducted serial intercept interviews; each HCP was interviewed 6–7 times for the duration of a unit’s dayshift at 20 NHs in 7 states. The next day, staff on a second unit within the facility were interviewed during the dayshift. HCP on 38 units were interviewed to identify healthcare personnel (HCP)–resident care patterns. All unit staff were eligible for interviews, including certified nursing assistants (CNAs), nurses, physical or occupational therapists, physicians, midlevel practitioners, and respiratory therapists. HCP were asked to list which residents they had cared for (within resident rooms or common areas) since the prior interview. Respondents selected from 14 care tasks. We classified units into 1 of 4 types: long-term, mixed, short stay or rehabilitation, or ventilator or skilled nursing. Interactions were classified based on the risk of HCP contamination after task performance. We compared proportions of interactions associated with each HCP role and performed clustered linear regression to determine the effect of unit type and HCP role on the number of unique task types performed per interaction. Results: Intercept-interviews described 7,050 interactions and 13,843 care tasks. Except in ventilator or skilled nursing units, CNAs have the greatest proportion of care interactions (interfacility range, 50%–60%) (Fig. 1). In ventilator and skilled nursing units, interactions are evenly shared between CNAs and nurses (43% and 47%, respectively). On average, CNAs in ventilator and skilled nursing units perform the most unique task types (2.5 task types per interaction, Fig. 2) compared to other unit types (P < .05). Compared to CNAs, most other HCP types had significantly fewer task types (0.6–1.4 task types per interaction, P < .001). Across all facilities, 45.6% of interactions included tasks that were higher-risk for HCP contamination (eg, transferring, wound and device care, Fig. 3). Conclusions: Focusing infection prevention education efforts on CNAs may be most efficient for preventing MDRO transmission within NH because CNAs have the most HCP–resident interactions and complete more tasks per visit. Studies of HCP-resident interactions are critical to improving understanding of transmission mechanisms as well as target MDRO prevention interventions.
Funding: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (grant no. U01CK000555-01-00)
Disclosures: Scott Fridkin, consulting fee, vaccine industry (spouse)
Background: Incidence of community-associated (CA) and healthcare-associated, community-onset (HACO) USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections has remained unchanged in recent years. Traditionally considered a CA strain, USA300 is increasingly associated with healthcare settings. We examined whether antimicrobial nonsusceptibility among USA300 strains could distinguish epidemiologic class (community vs hospital), and whether divergences in susceptibility were occurring over time. Methods: We used data on invasive MRSA infections from active, population, and laboratory-based surveillance during 2005–2016 from 11 counties in 3 states. Invasive cases were defined as MRSA isolation from a normally sterile site in a surveillance area resident. Cases were considered hospital-onset (HO) if the culture was obtained >3 days after hospitalization and HACO if ≥1 of the following risk factors was present: hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, or residence in a long-term care facility in the past year; or central vascular catheter ≤2 days before culture. Otherwise, cases were considered CA. Sites submitted a convenience sample of clinical MRSA isolates for molecular typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis until 2008, when typing was inferred using a validated algorithm based on molecular characteristics. Reference broth microdilution was performed for 8 antimicrobials and interpreted based on CLSI interpretive criteria. We compared USA300 nonsusceptibility for HO and CA isolates. For antimicrobials with >5% nonsusceptibility and for which HO isolates had greater nonsusceptibility than CA isolates, we compared nonsusceptibility for HACO and CA and analyzed annual trends in nonsusceptibility within each epidemiologic class (ie, CA, HACO, and HO) using linear regression. Results: Of 17,947 MRSA cases during 2005–2016, isolates were available for 6,685 (37%), and 2,120 were USA300 (34% CA, 52% HACO, 14% HO). HO isolates had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to gentamicin (2.2% vs 0.6%; P = .03), levofloxacin (47.8% vs 39.7%; P = .02), rifampin (3.7 vs 1.1%; P = .01), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (3.4% vs 0.6%; P = .04). HACO isolates also had more nonsusceptibility than CA isolates to levofloxacin (50.9% vs 39.7%; P < .01). Levofloxacin nonsusceptibility increased during 2005–2016 for HACO and CA isolates (P < .01), but not among HO isolates (P = .36) (Fig. 1). Conclusions: Overall, nonsusceptibility across drugs cannot distinguish USA300 isolates causing HO versus CA disease. Although HO isolates had higher levofloxacin nonsusceptibility than CA and HACO isolates early on, USA300 MRSA HACO isolates now have levofloxacin nonsusceptibility most similar to that of HO isolates. Further study could help to explore whether increases in fluoroquinolone nonsusceptibility among CA and HACO cases may be contributing to the persistence of USA300 strains.
This article draws upon six social research studies completed by members of the Dementia and Ageing Research Team at The University of Manchester and their associated networks over an eight-year period (2011–2019) with the aim of constructing a definition of ‘being in the moment’ and situating it within a continuum of moments that could be used to contextualise and frame the lived experience of dementia. Using the approach formulated by Pound et al. (2005) in synthesising qualitative studies, we identified this continuum of moments as comprising four sequential and interlinked steps: (a) ‘creating the moment’, defined as the processes and procedures necessary to enable being in the moment to take place – the time necessary for this to occur can range from fleeting to prolonged; (b) ‘being in the moment’, which refers to the multi-sensory processes involved in a personal or relational interaction and embodied engagement – being in the moment can be sustained through creativity and flow; (c) ‘ending the moment’, defined as when a specific moment is disengaged – this can be triggered by the person(s) involved consciously or subconsciously, or caused by a distraction in the environment or suchlike; and (d) ‘reliving the moment’, which refers to the opportunity for the experience(s) involved in ‘being in the moment’ to be later remembered and shared, however fragmentary, supported or full the recall.
Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with poorer cognitive function in older adults. Although understudied in middle-aged adults, the relationship between alcohol and cognition may also be influenced by genetics such as the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele, a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. We examined the relationship between alcohol consumption, ApoE genotype, and cognition in middle-aged adults and hypothesized that light and/or moderate drinkers (≤2 drinks per day) would show better cognitive performance than heavy drinkers or non-drinkers. Additionally, we hypothesized that the association between alcohol use and cognitive function would differ by ApoE genotype (ε4+ vs. ε4−).
Participants were 1266 men from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA; M age = 56; range 51–60) who completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive abilities: general cognitive ability (GCA), episodic memory, processing speed, executive function, abstract reasoning, verbal fluency, and visuospatial ability. Alcohol consumption was categorized into five groups: never, former, light, moderate, and heavy.
In fully adjusted models, there was no significant main effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive functions. However, there was a significant interaction between alcohol consumption and ApoE ε4 status for GCA and episodic memory, such that the relationship of alcohol consumption and cognition was stronger in ε4 carriers. The ε4+ heavy drinking subgroup had the poorest GCA and episodic memory.
Presence of the ε4 allele may increase vulnerability to the deleterious effects of heavy alcohol consumption. Beneficial effects of light or moderate alcohol consumption were not observed.
Transnationalism provides a serious challenge in mental health care, especially due to the crucial role of communication. Emergency room interactions offer an opportunity to analyze the role of cultural competency among providers and how they relate to immigrants in the clinical encounter.
This study addresses three aims: to assess the level of provider-perceived accuracy of diagnoses; to evaluate the use of restraints; and to compare diagnoses rates between patients of diverse racial/ethnic groups.
We examined patients’ race/ethnicity and their relation to service use and perceived certainty of mental health diagnoses. Three hundred and forty-seven migrants and 67 natives as well as their providers were interviewed in psychiatry emergency rooms in Barcelona (Spain).
The perceived certainty of clinical diagnosis is lower for Asians (OR = 0.2, 95% CI [0.07–0.63]), and higher when the clinician feels comfortable with the patient (OR = 5.41, 95% CI [2.53–11.58]). The probability of restraints is higher for Maghreb patients compared to native born (OR = 3.56, 95% CI [1.03–12.26]). The probability of compulsory admission is lower for Latinos compared to native born (OR = 0.26, 95% CI [0.08–0.88]). The probability of receiving a diagnosis of psychosis is lower when the clinician can communicate in the patient's language (OR = 0.37, CI 95% [0.16–0.83]).
Cultural factors such as level of comfort and communication in the patient's language play a central role in diagnosis and treatment. This study highlights the importance of culture in psychiatric diagnosis and the role of cultural competency for mental health providers.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Diagnostic categorisation is a typical stage of the medical model. Nevertheless, it is important to consider what is helpful to both the clinician and the patient when symptoms, experiences and perceptions are categorised. In this case report, we address the problem of comorbidity and complexity in psychiatry. Research and clinical experience point to significant overlap between personality disorders, mood disorders, and developmental disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the face of such complexity, we discuss ways of addressing and managing multiple diagnoses in clinical practice. We synthesise the perspectives and views of a general practice trainee, two consultant psychiatrists and a person with lived experience.
This paper presents updated analyses on the genetic associations of sleep disruption in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We published previously a study of the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in eight genes related to circadian rhythms and objective measures of sleep-wake disturbances in 124 individuals with AD. Here, we present new relevant analyses using polygenic risk scores (PRS) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs) enumerations. PRS were calculated using the genetic data from the original participants and relevant genome wide association studies (GWAS). VNTRs for the same circadian rhythm genes studied with SNPs were obtained from a separate cohort of participants using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Objectively (wrist actigraphy) determined wake after sleep onset (WASO) was used as a measure of sleep disruption. None of the PRS were associated with sleep disturbance. Computer analyses using VNTRseek software generated a total of 30 VNTRs for the circadian-related genes but none appear relevant to our objective sleep measure. In addition, of 71 neurotransmitter function-related genes, 29 genes had VNTRs that differed from the reference VNTR, but it was not clear if any of these might affect circadian function in AD patients. Although we have not found in either the current analyses or in our previous published analyses of SNPs any direct linkages between identified genetic factors and WASO, research in this area remains in its infancy.
TwinsUK is the largest cohort of community-dwelling adult twins in the UK. The registry comprises over 14,000 volunteer twins (14,838 including mixed, single and triplets); it is predominantly female (82%) and middle-aged (mean age 59). In addition, over 1800 parents and siblings of twins are registered volunteers. During the last 27 years, TwinsUK has collected numerous questionnaire responses, physical/cognitive measures and biological measures on over 8500 subjects. Data were collected alongside four comprehensive phenotyping clinical visits to the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London. Such collection methods have resulted in very detailed longitudinal clinical, biochemical, behavioral, dietary and socioeconomic cohort characterization; it provides a multidisciplinary platform for the study of complex disease during the adult life course, including the process of healthy aging. The major strength of TwinsUK is the availability of several ‘omic’ technologies for a range of sample types from participants, which includes genomewide scans of single-nucleotide variants, next-generation sequencing, metabolomic profiles, microbiomics, exome sequencing, epigenetic markers, gene expression arrays, RNA sequencing and telomere length measures. TwinsUK facilitates and actively encourages sharing the ‘TwinsUK’ resource with the scientific community — interested researchers may request data via the TwinsUK website (http://twinsuk.ac.uk/resources-for-researchers/access-our-data/) for their own use or future collaboration with the study team. In addition, further cohort data collection is planned via the Wellcome Open Research gateway (https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/gateways). The current article presents an up-to-date report on the application of technological advances, new study procedures in the cohort and future direction of TwinsUK.
Invasions can be genetically diverse, and that diversity may have implications for invasion management in terms of resistance or tolerance to control methods. We analyzed the population genetics of Russian-olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), an ecologically important and common invasive tree found in many western U.S. riparian areas. We found three cpDNA haplotypes and, using 11 microsatellite loci, identified three genetic clusters in the 460 plants from 46 populations in the western United States. We found high levels of polymorphism in the microsatellites (5 to 15 alleles per locus; 106 alleles total). Our native-range sampling was limited, and we did not find a genetic match for the most common cpDNA invasive haplotype or a strong confirmation of origin for the most common microsatellite genetic cluster. We did not find geographic population structure (isolation by distance) across the U.S. invasion, but we did identify invasive populations that had the most diversity, and we suggest these as choices for initial biological control–release monitoring. Accessions from each genetic cluster, which coarsely represent the range of genetic diversity found in the invasion, are now included in potential classical biological control agent efficacy testing.
The cost-effectiveness of molecular pathology testing is highly context dependent. The field is fast-moving, and national health technology assessment may not be relevant or timely for local decision makers. This study illustrates a method of context-specific economic evaluation that can be carried out in a limited timescale without extensive resources.
We established a multi-disciplinary group including an oncologist, pathologists and a health economist. We set out diagnostic and treatment pathways and costs using registry data, health technology assessments, guidelines, audit data, and estimates from the group. Sensitivity analysis varied input parameters across plausible ranges. The evaluation setting was the West of Scotland and UK NHS perspective was adopted. The evaluation was assessed against the AdHopHTA checklist for hospital-based health technology assessment.
A context-specific economic evaluation could be carried out on a timely basis using limited resources. The evaluation met all relevant criteria in the AdHopHTA checklist. Health outcomes were expected to be at least equal to the current strategy. Annual cost savings of £637,000 were estimated resulting primarily from a reduction in the proportion of patients receiving intravenous infusional chemotherapy regimens. The result was not sensitive to any parameter. The data driving the main cost saving came from a small clinical audit. We recommended this finding was confirmed in a larger population.
The method could be used to evaluate testing changes elsewhere. The results of the case study may be transferable to other jurisdictions where the organization of cancer services is fragmented.
Later life is a period of increased risk of disability, but there is little quantitative evidence regarding the exclusion of older people (through discrimination and avoidance) due to their health conditions. This study aims to (1) measure the prevalence of disability exclusion in later life, (2) examine how experiences of exclusion differ by disability type, and (3) investigate the association of exposure to exclusion with psychological distress.
Using data from the 2015 ABS Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers, we calculated the prevalence of people aged 55 years and over with a disability experiencing discrimination and engaging in avoidance behaviors, disaggregated by 18 detailed disability types. Modified Log-Poisson models were fitted to estimate Prevalence Ratios to measure the association between exclusion and psychological distress, stratified by disability type.
In 2015, about 5% of Australians aged 55 years and over with a disability reported experiencing an instance of disability discrimination, and one in four reported avoiding a situation or context due to their disability. Accounting for psychosocial comorbidities and with extensive demographic controls, exposure to disability avoidance (PR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.7, 2.1) or discrimination (PR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.4, 2.1) almost doubled the probability of experiencing psychological distress. Effects were heightened for individuals reporting specific disabilities including sensory and speech and physical disabilities as well as those reporting a head injury, stroke, or acquired brain injury.
Despite protections against disability discrimination in legislation, discrimination and avoidance due to disability is prevalent and is associated with poor mental health outcomes.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within CPR (ECPR) may improve survival for refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We developed a prehospital, emergency department (ED), and hospital-based clinical and educational protocol to improve the key variable of time-to-ECPR (TTE).
In a single urban health region we involved key prehospital, clinical, and administrative stakeholders over a 2-year period, to develop a regional ECPR program with destination to a single urban tertiary care hospital. We developed clear and reproducible inclusion criteria and processes, including measures of program efficiency. We conducted seminars and teaching modules to paramedics and hospital-based clinicians including monthly simulator sessions, and performed detailed reviews of each treated case in the form of report cards. In this before-and-after study we compared patients with ECPR attempted prior to, and after, protocol implementation. The primary outcome was TTE, defined as the time of initial professional CPR to establishment of extracorporeal circulation. We compared the median TTE for patients in the two groups using the Wilcoxon signed rank test.
Four patients were identified prior to the protocol and managed in an ad hoc basis; for nine patients the protocol was utilized. Overall favourable neurological outcomes among ECPR-treated patients were 27%. The median TTE was 136 minutes (IQR 98 - 196) in the pre-protocol group, and 60 minutes (IQR 49 - 81) minutes in the protocol group (p=0.0165).
An organized clinical and educational protocol to initiate ECPR for patients with OHCA is feasible and significantly reduces the key benchmark of time-to-ECPR flows.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
George Cukor was a perceptive architect of scenarios which dramatize the commodification of women, in stories of trading and ownership through employ¬ment as well as through the prison-house of marriage. A range of his films feature women as working spectacles, literal ‘show girls’ who trade their bodies or talents as entertainment or who perform in the private arena of home-as-theater. The films under scrutiny here reflect the generic diversity of Cukor's work (a musical, a western, a gothic-thriller, a modern melodrama), but with the common concern of women on show, women in the spectacle marketplace: movie star Esther Blodgett/Vicki Lester in A Star is Born (1954), traveling theater stalwart Angela Rossini in Heller in Pink Tights (1960), and model Lily James in A Life of Her Own (1950) trade their performance skills. Even the archetypical paranoid woman, Paula Alquist in Gaslight (1944) is an opera singer, if also more of an unwitting player in a highly theatrical drama stage-managed by her husband. Cukor ‘pantomimed’ the actor's lines in rehearsal, playing them first for imitation, then mouthing them as the actor worked and the cameras rolled (which some found hard to get used to). Cukor's early career as an actor himself is reflected as he mimics the position of the women from whom he garnered such brilliant performances.
I term Cukor an ‘architect’ of scenarios because of the skill with which he organ¬izes the spaces of performance as well as the style and content of what is performed. His stars’ physical occupation of space is important to his sense of effective drama. Like the repertory director he was before Broadway, he found and made theatrical spaces everywhere. Here I risk identifying Cukor as a theatrical director who lacked cinematographic sensibility: Gene Kelly told critic Kenneth Tynan “basically Cukor is a theatre man who neither cares about nor understands the camera” (McGilligan 250). Gary Carey begins his early overview of Cukor's career, “The theatre is the keynote of Cukor's films” (9), not just because he has adapted so many theater plays for the screen or because his directing virtues (staging, working with actors, adherence to a great script) are theatrical as well as cinematic, but because he has a “predilection for back stage stories” which suggests that “he, like most theatre people, relishes shoptalk” (Carey 9).
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.