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Annual prevalences of antimicrobial resistance among urine isolates (3,913 Escherichia coli isolates and 1,736 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates) from home-based primary care patients with dementia were high between 2014 and 2018 (ciprofloxacin, 18%–23% and 5%–7%, respectively; multidrug resistance, 9%–11% and 5%–6%, respectively). Multidrug resistance varied by region. Additional studies of antimicrobial resistance in home-care settings are needed.
Among 124 older adults with advanced cancer who were hospitalized with pneumonia, 7.3% met criteria for postobstructive pneumonia. There were no differences in antibiotic duration, antibiotic spectrum, 30-day and 90-day readmissions, or mortality between those with and without postobstructive pneumonia. Bacteria were identified in 5 patients with postobstructive pneumonia.
Between 2016 and 2021, we retrospectively identified 42 patients receiving ≥1 dose of dalbavancin for osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, endocarditis or bacteremia, or septic arthritis. Median antibiotic duration prior to dalbavancin administration was 7 days. Within 90 days, 93% achieved clinical cure, 12% were readmitted, 12% developed hepatotoxicity, and 5% died.
We surveyed trainees about their urine culture practices and assessed the impact of an educational intervention delivered electronically and in person. Trainee scores improved across all levels of training and across all questions on the postintervention survey, but there was no difference in scores by mode of education (P = .91).
We evaluated adverse drug events (ADEs) by chart review in a random national sample of 428 veterans with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who received tocilizumab (n = 173 of 428). ADEs (median time, 5 days) occurred in 51 of 173 (29%) and included hepatoxicity (n = 29) and infection (n = 13). Concomitant medication discontinuation occurred in 22% of ADE patients; mortality was 39%.
Prior studies of universal masking have not measured face-mask compliance. We performed a quality improvement study to monitor and improve face-mask compliance among healthcare personnel (HCP) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
Tertiary-care center in West Haven, Connecticut.
HCP including physicians, nurses, and ancillary staff.
Face-mask compliance was measured through direct observations during a 4-week baseline period after universal masking was mandated. Frontline and management HCP completed semistructured interviews from which a multimodal intervention was developed. Direct observations were repeated during a 14-week period following implementation of the multimodal intervention. Differences between units were evaluated with χ2 testing using the Bonferroni correction. Face-mask compliance between baseline and intervention periods was compared using time-series regression.
Among 1,561 observations during the baseline period, median weekly face-mask compliance was 82.2% (range, 80.8%–84.4%). Semistructured interviews were performed with 16 HCP. Qualitative analysis informed the development of a multimodal intervention consisting of audit and passive feedback, active discussion, and increased communication from leadership. Among 2,651 observations during the intervention period, median weekly face-mask compliance was 92.6% (range, 84.6%–97.9%). There was no difference in weekly face-mask compliance between COVID-19 and non–COVID-19 units. The multimodal intervention was associated with an increase in face-mask compliance (β = 0.023; P = .002).
Face-mask compliance remained suboptimal among HCP despite a facility-wide mandate for universal masking. A multimodal intervention consisting of audit and passive feedback, active discussion, and increased communication from leadership was effective in increasing face-mask compliance among HCP.
Among 300 advanced cancer patients with potential urinary tract infection (UTI), 19 had symptomatic UTI. Among remaining patients (n = 281), 21% had asymptomatic bacteriuria or candiduria, and 14% received inappropriate therapy for 279 antimicrobial days. Bacteriuria or candiduria predicted antimicrobial therapy. At 10,000 to <100,000 CFU/mL, the incidence rate ratio [IRR] was 16.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0–47.2), and at ≥100,000 CFU/mL, the IRR was 27.9 (95% CI, 10.9–71.2).
To assess the time-dependent exposure of California healthcare facilities to patients harboring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) upon discharge from 1 hospital.
Retrospective multiple-cohort study of adults discharged from 1 hospital in 2005–2009, counting hospitals, nursing homes, cities, and counties in which carriers were readmitted, and comparing the number and length of stay of readmissions and the number of distinct readmission facilities among carriers versus noncarriers.
We evaluated 45,772 inpatients including those with MRSA (N=1,198), VRE (N=547), ESBL (N=121), and CDI (N=300). Within 1 year of discharge, MRSA, VRE, and ESBL carriers exposed 137, 117, and 45 hospitals and 103, 83, and 37 nursing homes, generating 58,804, 33,486, and 15,508 total exposure-days, respectively. Within 90 days of discharge, CDI patients exposed 36 hospitals and 35 nursing homes, generating 7,318 total exposure-days. Compared with noncarriers, carriers had more readmissions to hospitals (MRSA:1.8 vs 0.9/patient; VRE: 2.6 vs 0.9; ESBL: 2.3 vs 0.9; CDI: 0.8 vs 0.4; all P<.001) and nursing homes (MRSA: 0.4 vs 0.1/patient; VRE: 0.7 vs 0.1; ESBL: 0.7 vs 0.1; CDI: 0.3 vs 0.1; all P<.001) and longer hospital readmissions (MRSA: 8.9 vs 7.3 days; VRE: 8.9 vs 7.4; ESBL: 9.6 vs 7.5; CDI: 12.3 vs 8.2; all P<.01).
Patients harboring antibiotic-resistant pathogens rapidly expose numerous facilities during readmissions; regional containment strategies are needed.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1275–1282
Across 366 California hospitals, we identified hospital-level characteristics predicting increased hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection (HA-CDI) rates including more licensed beds, teaching and long-term acute care (LTAC) hospitals, and polymerase chain reaction testing. Adjustment for these characteristics impacted rankings in 24% of teaching hospitals, 13% of community hospitals, and 11% of LTAC hospitals.
States have established public reporting of hospital-associated (HA) infections—including those of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)—but do not account for hospital case mix or postdischarge events
Identify facility-level characteristics associated with HA-MRSA infection admissions and create adjusted hospital rankings.
A retrospective cohort study of 2009–2010 California acute care hospitals. We defined HA-MRSA admissions as involving MRSA pneumonia or septicemia events arising during hospitalization or within 30 days after discharge. We used mandatory hospitalization and US Census data sets to generate hospital population characteristics by summarizing across admissions. Facility-level factors associated with hospitals’ proportions of HA-MRSA infection admissions were identified using generalized linear models. Using state methodology, hospitals were categorized into 3 tiers of HA-MRSA infection prevention performance, using raw and adjusted values.
Among 323 hospitals, a median of 16 HA-MRSA infections (range, 0–102) per 10,000 admissions was found. Hospitals serving a greater proportion of patients who had serious comorbidities, were from low-education zip codes, and were discharged to locations other than home were associated with higher HA-MRSA infection risk. Total concordance between all raw and adjusted hospital rankings was 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.40–0.51). Among 53 community hospitals in the poor-performance category, more than 20% moved into the average-performance category after adjustment. Similarly, among 71 hospitals in the superior-performance category, half moved into the average-performance category after adjustment.
When adjusting for nonmodifiable facility characteristics and case mix, hospital rankings based on HA-MRSA infections substantially changed. Quality indicators for hospitals require adequate adjustment for patient population characteristics for valid interhospital performance comparisons.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(10):1263–1270
To evaluate whether an ecologic inverse association exists between methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) prevalence and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) prevalence in nursing homes.
We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cross-sectional study of S. aureus prevalence in 26 nursing homes across Orange County, California, from 2008–2011. Admission prevalence was assessed using bilateral nares swabs collected from all new residents within 3 days of admission until 100 swabs were obtained. Point prevalence was assessed from a representative sample of 100 residents. Swab samples were plated on 5% sheep blood agar and Spectra MRSA chromogenic agar. If MRSA was detected, no further tests were performed. If MRSA was not detected, blood agar was evaluated for MSSA growth. We evaluated the association between MRSA and MSSA admission and point prevalence using correlation and linear regression testing.
We collected 3,806 total swabs. MRSA and MSSA admission prevalence were not correlated (r = −0.40, P = .09). However, MRSA and MSSA point prevalence were negatively correlated regardless of whether MSSA prevalence was measured among all residents sampled (r = −0.67, P = .0002) or among those who did not harbor MRSA (r = −0.41, P = .04). This effect persisted in regression models adjusted for the percentage of residents with diabetes (β = −0.73, P = .04), skin lesions (β = −1.17, P = .002), or invasive devices (β = −1.4, P = .0006).
The inverse association between MRSA and MSSA point prevalence and minimal association on admission prevalence suggest MSSA carriage may protect against MRSA acquisition in nursing homes. The minimal association on admission prevalence further suggests competition may occur during nursing home stays.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(10):1257–1262
Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is a national target for mandatory reporting and a Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services target for value-based purchasing. Differences in chart review versus claims-based metrics used by national agencies and groups raise concerns about the validity of these measures.
Evaluate consistency and reasons for discordance among chart review and claims-based CLABSI events.
We conducted 2 multicenter retrospective cohort studies within 6 academic institutions. A total of 150 consecutive patients were identified with CLABSI on the basis of National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria (NHSN cohort), and an additional 150 consecutive patients were identified with CLABSI on the basis of claims codes (claims cohort). Ail events had full-text medical record reviews and were identified as concordant or discordant with the other metric.
In the NHSN cohort, there were 152 CLABSIs among 150 patients, and 73.0% of these cases were discordant with claims data. Common reasons for the lack of associated claims codes included coding omission and lack of physician documentation of bacteremia cause. In the claims cohort, there were 150 CLABSIs among 150 patients, and 65.3% of these cases were discordant with NHSN criteria. Common reasons for the lack of NHSN reporting were identification of non-CLABSI with bacteremia meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for an alternative infection source.
Substantial discordance between NHSN and claims-based CLABSI indicators persists. Compared with standardized CDC chart review criteria, claims data often had both coding omissions and misclassification of non-CLABSI infections as CLABSI. Additionally, claims did not identify any additional CLABSIs for CDC reporting. NHSN criteria are a more consistent interhospital standard for CLABSI reporting.
We calculated hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HO-MRSA) rates for Orange County, California, hospitals using survey and state data. Numerators were variably defined as HO-MRSA occurring more than 48 hours (37%), more than 2 days (30%), and more than 3 days (33%) postadmission. Survey-reported denominators differed from state-reported patient-days. Numerator and denominator choices substantially impacted HO-MRSA rates.
To evaluate whether longitudinal insurer claims data allow reliable identification of elevated hospital surgical site infection (SSI) rates.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in US hospitals performing at least 80 procedures in 2005. Hospitals were assigned to deciles by using case mix–adjusted probabilities of having an SSI-related inpatient or outpatient claim code within 60 days of surgery. We then reviewed medical records of randomly selected patients to assess whether chart-confirmed SSI risk was higher in hospitals in the worst deciles compared with the best deciles.
Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries who underwent CABG in these hospitals in 2005.
We evaluated 114,673 patients who underwent CABG in 671 hospitals. In the best decile, 7.8% (958/12,307) of patients had an SSI-related code, compared with 24.8% (2,747/11,068) in the worst decile (P<.001). Medical record review confirmed SSI in 40% (388/980) of those with SSI-related codes. In the best decile, the chart-confirmed annual SSI rate was 3.2%, compared with 9.4% in the worst decile, with an adjusted odds ratio of SSI of 2.7 (confidence interval, 2.2–3.3; P<.001) for CABG performed in a worst-decile hospital compared with a best-decile hospital.
Claims data can identify groups of hospitals with unusually high or low post-CABG SSI rates. Assessment of claims is more reproducible and efficient than current surveillance methods. This example of secondary use of routinely recorded electronic health information to assess quality of care can identify hospitals that may benefit from prevention programs.
Postdischarge risks of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) infection among carriers are unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 199 patients newly detected as VRE carriers. Fifteen patients (8%) developed 27 VRE infections in the 18 months after detection. Among 10 postdischarge infections, 2 involved bacteremia and 3 resulted in readmission.
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