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To identify central-line (CL)–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) incidence and risk factors in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
From July 1, 1998, to February 12, 2022, we conducted a multinational multicenter prospective cohort study using online standardized surveillance system and unified forms.
The study included 728 ICUs of 286 hospitals in 147 cities in 41 African, Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.
In total, 278,241 patients followed during 1,815,043 patient days acquired 3,537 CLABSIs.
For the CLABSI rate, we used CL days as the denominator and the number of CLABSIs as the numerator. Using multiple logistic regression, outcomes are shown as adjusted odds ratios (aORs).
The pooled CLABSI rate was 4.82 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days, which is significantly higher than that reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC NHSN). We analyzed 11 variables, and the following variables were independently and significantly associated with CLABSI: length of stay (LOS), risk increasing 3% daily (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03–1.04; P < .0001), number of CL days, risk increasing 4% per CL day (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.04; P < .0001), surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03–1.21; P < .0001), tracheostomy use (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.23–1.88; P < .0001), hospitalization at a publicly owned facility (aOR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.31–4.01; P <.0001) or at a teaching hospital (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.22–3.83; P < .0001), hospitalization in a middle-income country (aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.09–2.77; P < .0001). The ICU type with highest risk was adult oncology (aOR, 4.35; 95% CI, 3.11–6.09; P < .0001), followed by pediatric oncology (aOR, 2.51;95% CI, 1.57–3.99; P < .0001), and pediatric (aOR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.81–3.01; P < .0001). The CL type with the highest risk was internal-jugular (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.71–3.33; P < .0001), followed by femoral (aOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.96–2.68; P < .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) was the CL with the lowest CLABSI risk (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.02–2.18; P = .04).
The following CLABSI risk factors are unlikely to change: country income level, facility ownership, hospitalization type, and ICU type. These findings suggest a focus on reducing LOS, CL days, and tracheostomy; using PICC instead of internal-jugular or femoral CL; and implementing evidence-based CLABSI prevention recommendations.
Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are several times above those of high-income countries. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (RFs) for VAP cases in ICUs of LMICs.
Prospective cohort study.
This study was conducted across 743 ICUs of 282 hospitals in 144 cities in 42 Asian, African, European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.
The study included patients admitted to ICUs across 24 years.
In total, 289,643 patients were followed during 1,951,405 patient days and acquired 8,236 VAPs. We analyzed 10 independent variables. Multiple logistic regression identified the following independent VAP RFs: male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.28; P < .0001); longer length of stay (LOS), which increased the risk 7% per day (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07–1.08; P < .0001); mechanical ventilation (MV) utilization ratio (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23–1.31; P < .0001); continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 13.38; 95% CI, 11.57–15.48; P < .0001); tracheostomy connected to a MV, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 8.31; 95% CI, 7.21–9.58; P < .0001); endotracheal tube connected to a MV (aOR, 6.76; 95% CI, 6.34–7.21; P < .0001); surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17–1.29; P < .0001); admission to a public hospital (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.35-1.86; P < .0001); middle-income country (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 15–1.29; P < .0001); admission to an adult-oncology ICU, which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.22–5.09; P < .0001), admission to a neurologic ICU, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.78–3.45; P < .0001); and admission to a respiratory ICU (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.79–3.07; P < .0001). Admission to a coronary ICU showed the lowest risk (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51–0.77; P < .0001).
Some identified VAP RFs are unlikely to change: sex, hospitalization type, ICU type, facility ownership, and country income level. Based on our results, we recommend focusing on strategies to reduce LOS, to reduce the MV utilization ratio, to limit CPAP use and implementing a set of evidence-based VAP prevention recommendations.
To identify risk factors for mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) in Asia.
Prospective cohort study.
The study included 317 ICUs of 96 hospitals in 44 cities in 9 countries of Asia: China, India, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Patients aged >18 years admitted to ICUs.
In total, 157,667 patients were followed during 957,517 patient days, and 8,157 HAIs occurred. In multiple logistic regression, the following variables were associated with an increased mortality risk: central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI; aOR, 2.36; P < .0001), ventilator-associated event (VAE; aOR, 1.51; P < .0001), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI; aOR, 1.04; P < .0001), and female sex (aOR, 1.06; P < .0001). Older age increased mortality risk by 1% per year (aOR, 1.01; P < .0001). Length of stay (LOS) increased mortality risk by 1% per bed day (aOR, 1.01; P < .0001). Central-line days increased mortality risk by 2% per central-line day (aOR, 1.02; P < .0001). Urinary catheter days increased mortality risk by 4% per urinary catheter day (aOR, 1.04; P < .0001). The highest mortality risks were associated with mechanical ventilation utilization ratio (aOR, 12.48; P < .0001), upper middle-income country (aOR, 1.09; P = .033), surgical hospitalization (aOR, 2.17; P < .0001), pediatric oncology ICU (aOR, 9.90; P < .0001), and adult oncology ICU (aOR, 4.52; P < .0001). Patients at university hospitals had the lowest mortality risk (aOR, 0.61; P < .0001).
Some variables associated with an increased mortality risk are unlikely to change, such as age, sex, national economy, hospitalization type, and ICU type. Some other variables can be modified, such as LOS, central-line use, urinary catheter use, and mechanical ventilation as well as and acquisition of CLABSI, VAE, or CAUTI. To reduce mortality risk, we shall focus on strategies to reduce LOS; strategies to reduce central-line, urinary catheter, and mechanical ventilation use; and HAI prevention recommendations.
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