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Dynamic interpersonal therapy (DIT) is a brief, structured psychodynamic psychotherapy with demonstrated efficacy in treating major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the study was to determine whether DIT is an acceptable and efficacious treatment for MDD patients in China.
Patients were randomized to 16-week treatments with either DIT plus antidepressant medication (DIT + ADM; n = 66), general supportive therapy plus antidepressant medication (GST + ADM; n = 75) or antidepressant medication alone (ADM; n = 70). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) administered by blind raters was the primary efficacy measure. Assessments were completed during the acute 16-week treatment and up to 12-month posttreatment.
The group × time interaction was significant for the primary outcome HAMD (F = 2.900, df1 = 10, df2 = 774.72, p = 0.001) in the acute treatment phase. Pairwise comparisons showed a benefit of DIT + ADM over ADM at weeks 12 [least-squares (LS) mean difference = −3.161, p = 0.007] and 16 (LS mean difference = −3.237, p = 0.004). Because of the unexpected high attrition during the posttreatment follow-up phase, analyses of follow-up data were considered exploratory. Differences between DIT + ADM and ADM remained significant at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up (ps range from 0.001 to 0.027). DIT + ADM had no advantage over GST + ADM during the acute treatment phase. However, at the 12-month follow-up, patients who received DIT remained less depressed.
Acute treatment with DIT or GST in combination with ADM was similarly efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms and yielded a better outcome than ADM alone. DIT may provide MDD patients with long-term benefits in symptom improvement but results must be viewed with caution.
Despite the wide recognition of language teacher educators’ contributions in the field of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), research on language teacher educators has only picked up the pace in the last decade, shedding light on their cognition, practices, and identities in relation to various personal, interpersonal, and contextual factors. This article provides a systematic and critical review of 69 empirical studies on university-based TESOL teacher educators from 2010 and 2020. A methodological review was also conducted to analyze the different research approaches employed by previous researchers. A synthesis of the identified research led to four major themes, namely: (1) a general professional state (including responsibilities, challenges and quality), (2) professional engagement (including teaching, practicum supervision, and research and publishing), (3) cognition (including beliefs, knowledge, and expertise), as well as (4) continuous learning and identity development. Through a critical discussion of the themes, the review argues against the implicit yet powerful discourse that characterizes language teacher educators as ‘supermen/superwomen’ and emphasizes the need to humanize them as whole people by recognizing their unique strengths and struggles as well as diverse learning needs. The review also proposes a new research agenda to stimulate and deepen future investigations on language teacher educators in TESOL.
Recently, the asymptotic mean value of the height for a birth-and-death process is given in Videla [Videla, L.A. (2020)]. We consider the asymptotic variance of the height in the case when the number of states tends to infinity. Further, we prove that the heights exhibit a cutoff phenomenon and that the normalized height converges to a degenerate distribution.
Varicella is an acute respiratory infectious diseases, with high transmissibility and quick dissemination. In this study, an SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infected-recovered) dynamic model was established to explore the optimal prevention and control measures according to the epidemiological characteristics about varicella outbreak in a school in a central city of China. Berkeley Madonna 8.3.18 and Microsoft Office Excel 2010 software were employed for the model simulation and data management, respectively. The result showed that the simulated result of SEIR model agreed well with the reported data when β (infected rate) equal to 0.067. Models showed that the cumulative number of cases was only 13 when isolation adopted when the infected individuals were identified (assuming isolation rate was up to 100%); the cumulative number of cases was only two and the TAR (total attack rate) was 0.56% when the vaccination coefficient reached 50%. The cumulative number of cases did not change significantly with the change of efficiency of ventilation and disinfection, but the peak time was delayed; when δ (vaccination coefficient) = 0.1, m (ventilation efficiency) = 0.7 or δ = 0.2, m = 0.5 or δ = 0.3, m = 0.1 or δ = 0.4 and above, the cumulative number of cases would reduce to one case and TAR would reduce to 0.28% with combined interventions. Varicella outbreak in school could be controlled through strict isolation or vaccination singly; combined interventions have been adopted when the vaccination coefficient was low.
Transmission of varicella occurs frequently in schools and households. We investigated the characteristics of varicella cases derived from within-household transmission and the modes of varicella transmission between school and household settings in Shanghai, China, from 2009 to 2018. Within-household transmission occurred in 278 households, of which 134 transmission events were between children. Sixty-one household varicella transmission events may be attributed to isolation procedures for infected students during school outbreaks, and 7.6% of school outbreaks were caused by schoolchildren cases derived from within-household transmission. The frequency of ‘school-household-school’ transmission adds an additional layer of complexity to the control of school varicella outbreaks. Administration of varicella vaccine as post-exposure prophylaxis after exposure is considered to be an effective measure to control varicella spread within households and schools.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a comprehensive overview of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtypes and to investigate temporal and geographical trends of the HIV-1 epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Chinese and English articles published between January 2007 and December 2017 were systematically searched. Pooled HIV-1 prevalence was calculated, and its stability was analysed using sensitivity analysis. Subgroups were based on study time period, sampling area and prevalence. Publication bias was measured using Funnel plot and Egger's test. A total of 68 independent studies that included HIV-1 molecular investigations were eligible for meta-analysis. Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE (57.36%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 53.76–60.92) was confirmed as the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype among MSM in China. Subgroup analysis for time period found that CRF01_AE steadily increased prior to 2012 but decreased during 2012–2016. Further whereas CRF07_BC increased over time, B/B′ decreased over time. CRF55_01B has increased in recent years, with higher pooled estimated rate in Guangdong (12.22%, 95% CI 10.34–13.17) and Fujian (8.65%, 95% CI 4.98–13.17) provinces. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in China has changed across different regions and periods. HIV-1 strains in MSM are becoming more complex. Long-term molecular monitoring in this population remains necessary for HIV-1 epidemic control and prevention.
Chickenpox is a common acute and highly contagious disease in childhood; moreover, there is currently no targeted treatment. Carrying out an early warning on chickenpox plays an important role in taking targeted measures in advance as well as preventing the outbreak of the disease. In recent years, the infectious disease dynamic model has been widely used in the research of various infectious diseases. The logistic differential equation model can well demonstrate the epidemic characteristics of epidemic outbreaks, gives the point at which the early epidemic rate changes from slow to fast. Therefore, our study aims to use the logistic differential equation model to explore the epidemic characteristics and early-warning time of varicella. Meanwhile, the data of varicella cases were collected from first week of 2008 to 52nd week of 2017 in Changsha. Finally, our study found that the logistic model can be well fitted with varicella data, besides the model illustrated that there are two peaks of varicella at each year in Changsha City. One is the peak in summer–autumn corresponding to the 8th–38th week; the other is in winter–spring corresponding to the time from the 38th to the seventh week next year. The ‘epidemic acceleration week’ average value of summer–autumn and winter–spring are about the 16th week (ranging from the 15th to 17th week) and 45th week (ranging from the 44th to 47th week), respectively. What is more, taking warning measures during the acceleration week, the preventive effect will be delayed; thus, we recommend intervene during recommended warning weeks which are the 15th and 44th weeks instead.
Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
Objectives: Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. Methods: We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. Results: The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. Conclusions: The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692–699)
Researches have suggested Mediterranean diet might lower the risk of chronic diseases, but data on skeletal muscle mass (SMM) are limited. This community-based cross-sectional study examined the association between the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMDS) and SMM in 2230 females and 1059 males aged 40–75 years in Guangzhou, China. General information and habitual dietary information were assessed in face-to-face interviews conducted during 2008–2010 and 3 years later. The aMDS was calculated by summing the dichotomous points for the items of higher intakes of whole grain, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, fish and ratio of MUFA:SFA, lower red meat and moderate ethanol consumption. The SMM of the whole body, limbs, arms and legs were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during 2011–2013. After adjusting for potential covariates, higher aMDS was positively associated with skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, SMM/height2, kg/m2) at all of the studied sites in males (all Ptrend<0·05). The multiple covariate-adjusted SMI means were 2·70 % (whole body), 2·65 % (limbs), 2·50 % (arms) and 2·70 % (legs) higher in the high (v. low) category aMDS in males (all P<0·05). In females, the corresponding values were 1·35 % (Ptrend=0·03), 1·05, 0·52 and 1·20 %, (Ptrend>0·05). Age-stratified analyses showed that the favourable associations tended to be more pronounced in the younger subjects aged less than the medians of 59·2 and 62·2 years in females and males (Pinteraction>0·10). In conclusion, the aMDS shows protective associations with SMM in Chinese adults, particularly in male and younger subjects.
Invasive species and acid rain cause global environmental problems. Creeping daisy, an invasive exotic allelopathic weed, has caused great damage in southern China, where acid rain is prevalent. The impact of the acidity of simulated acid rain (SAR) on soil nutrients, the decomposition of creeping daisy litter, and on the allelopathic potential of the surrounding soils was investigated. Litter was treated with SAR at different acidity (pH 2.5, 4.0, 5.6) or with water (pH 7.0) as a control. After 70 d, the remaining amount of creeping daisy litter, nutrient contents, and allelopathic potentials in the surrounding soil were determined. The litter decomposition was commensurate to the increase in the acidity of the SAR. Total C and N contents, NO3−-N and available P increased, levels of NH4+-N, the ratio of C/N and soil pH values decreased, water contents increased and then decreased, whereas available K did not significantly change in the soil surrounding the litters in response to the increase in the acidity of the SAR. Bioassays showed that SAR promoted the allelopathic activity in the soil surrounding the litter, as measured by seedling growth of turnip and radish. In conclusion, our results indicated that SAR influenced soil nutrient status, accelerated creeping daisy litter decomposition, and enhanced the allelopathic potential of its litter in the surrounding soil, suggesting that acid rain may enhance the invasiveness of creeping daisy plants.
The link between lithosphere thinning and formation of world-class gold deposits is well established in the Jiaodong Peninsula within the eastern North China Craton (NCC). However, the timing of initiation and duration of the lithospheric thinning process as well as the depth of formation of the mineralization remain uncertain. Since these parameters are fundamental to formulate exploration strategies, in this study we perform fission track (FT) analysis on zircon and apatite grains in Late Mesozoic granitoid samples from the Jiaodong Peninsula and provide new constraints for the mode and duration of lithospheric evolution and mineralization depth. The zircon FT ages range from 64.3 to 90.9 Ma and those of apatite show a range of 32.8–50.9 Ma. The data collectively display age peaks at ~60–80 and ~30–50 Ma. Reverse modelling of the apatite FT results indicates rapid crustal uplift during ~30–80 Ma in the Jiaodong Peninsula. This period coincides with the timing of maximal sedimentation in the neighboring basins and voluminous basaltic eruptions in the eastern NCC. We suggest that the Jiaodong Peninsula has experienced two stages of crust uplift in the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene as a consequence of the continuing lithosphere thinning, together with the surrounding basins, forming the horst–graben system in the eastern NCC. The Late Mesozoic granitoids are the main wall rocks for gold deposits in Jiaodong, and thus the crust denudation history gathered from the FT data suggest that the gold mineralization formed at depths of c. 6–11 km.
The evolution behavior of Ni2(Cr, Mo) phase with Pt2Mo-type structure in the Ni–Cr–Mo alloy with a low atomic Mo/Cr ratio subjected to a long-term thermal exposure of 100–340 h at 600 °C was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and microhardness. Results demonstrate that there is a linear relationship between major axis cube (L3) of ordered domain and thermal exposure time (t) followed by a coarsening regime described by the Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner model, as well as between the aspect ratio (D) of ordered domain and thermal exposure time. The volume fraction of ordered domain increases with increasing thermal exposure time, whereas the hardening of samples decreases due to growth-coarsening of ordered domain. Prolonged thermal exposure time led to the coarsening of ordered domain by rate of (3.39 ± 0.02) × 10−30 m3/s without changing their crystallography and ordering characteristics during thermal exposure. Plastic deformation before thermal exposure do not lead to decomposition of initial Ni2(Cr, Mo) phase, but both plastic deformation and thermal exposure affect their morphology and distribution.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
Folate and vitamin B12 are two vital regulators in the metabolic process of homocysteine, which is a risk factor of atherothrombotic events. Low folate intake or low plasma folate concentration is associated with increased stroke risk. Previous randomized controlled trials presented discordant findings in the effect of folic acid supplementation-based homocysteine lowering on stroke risk. The aim of the present review was to perform a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials to check the how different folate fortification status might affect the effects of folic acid supplementation in lowering homocysteine and reducing stroke risk.
Relevant randomized controlled trials were identified through formal literature search. Homocysteine reduction was compared in subgroups stratified by folate fortification status. Relative risks with 95 % confidence intervals were used as a measure to assess the association between folic acid supplementation and stroke risk.
The meta-analysis included fourteen randomized controlled trials,
A total of 39 420 patients.
Homocysteine reductions were 26·99 (sd 1·91) %, 18·38 (sd 3·82) % and 21·30 (sd 1·98) %, respectively, in the subgroups without folate fortification, with folate fortification and with partial folate fortification. Significant difference was observed between the subgroups with folate fortification and without folate fortification (P=0·05). The relative risk of stroke was 0·88 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·00, P=0·05) in the subgroup without folate fortification, 0·94 (95 % CI 0·58, 1·54, P=0·82) in the subgroup with folate fortification and 0·91 (95 % CI 0·82, 1·01, P=0·09) in the subgroup with partial folate fortification.
Folic acid supplementation might have a modest benefit on stroke prevention in regions without folate fortification.
In order to identify the density and material type, high energy protons, electrons, and heavy ions are used to radiograph dense objects. The particles pass through the object, undergo multiple coulomb scattering, and are focused onto an image plane by a magnetic lens system. A modified beam line at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has been developed for heavy-ion radiography. It can radiograph a static object with a spatial resolution of about 65 µm (1 σ). This paper presents the heavy-ion radiography facility at the Institute of Modern Physics, including the beam optics, the simulation of radiography by Monte Carlo code and the experimental result with 600 MeV/u carbon ions. In addition, dedicated beam lines for proton radiography which are planned are also introduced.
We consider a diffusive Nicholson's blowflies equation with non-local delay and study the stability of the uniform steady states and the possible Hopf bifurcation. By using the upper- and lower solutions method, the global stability of constant steady states is obtained. We also discuss the local stability via analysis of the characteristic equation. Moreover, for a special kernel, the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation near the steady state solution and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are given via the centre manifold theory. Based on laboratory data and our theoretical results, we address the influence of various types of vaccinations in controlling the outbreak of blowflies.
Background. This is the first study to examine variation across cohorts in lifetime risk of DSM-IV mental disorders in metropolitan China.
Method. Face-to-face household interviews of 2633 adults in Beijing and 2568 adults in Shanghai were conducted from November 2001 to February 2002 using a multi-stage household probability sampling method. The Chinese World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI) was used for assessment.
Results. Lifetime prevalence of any disorder was 13·2%. Alcohol abuse (4·7%), major depressive disorder (3·5%), and specific phobia (2·6%) were the most common disorders. The median age of onset was later for mood (43 years) than anxiety (17 years) and substance use (25 years) disorders. Compared to observed lifetime prevalence, the projected lifetime risk as of age 75 years increased by 106% for major depressive disorder (7·2%), and was uniformly higher for all disorders. Relative odds of any lifetime disorder were 4·7 in the most recent cohorts (ages 18–34) compared to the eldest cohorts (ages [ges ]65).
Conclusions. The findings of this cross-sectional study tally with the view that rapid socioeconomic changes may bring about increasing incidence of mental disorders in China. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to confirm if the increase is real. Because of the huge size of the Chinese population, any increase in projected lifetime risk of mental disorders represents an enormous increase in the number of affected individuals.
A ∼500 kV/400 kA/100 ns pulsed power generator (PPG-I) for
x-pinch experiments was designed and constructed at Tsinghua University.
It is composed of a Marx generator, a combined pulse forming line (PFL), a
gas-filled V/N field distortion switch, a transfer line, and a
copper-sulphate resistive load for testing. The PPG-I implements a novel
design in lines that four pieces of waterline with impedance 5Ω in
parallel constitute a combined PFL with 1.25Ω, and incorporate each
other by a common self-break V/N switch on a matched 1.25Ω
transfer line. At the peak charging voltage of the PFL, the V/N switch
breaks down in multi-channel discharge mode, and electric energy is fed
into the testing load through the 1.25Ω transfer line. This article
presents the design and test of the PPG-I generator.