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Lower limb exoskeletons (LLEs) have demonstrated their potential in delivering quantified repetitive gait training for individuals afflicted with gait impairments. A critical concern in robotic gait training pertains to fostering active patient engagement, and a viable solution entails harnessing the patient’s intrinsic effort to govern the control of LLEs. To address these challenges, this study presents an innovative online gait learning approach with an appropriate control strategy for rehabilitation exoskeletons based on dynamic movement primitives (DMP) and an Assist-As-Needed (AAN) control strategy, denoted as DMP-AAN. Specifically tailored for post-stroke patients, this approach aims to acquire the gait trajectory from the unaffected leg and subsequently generate the reference gait trajectory for the affected leg, leveraging the acquired model and the patient’s personal exertion. Compared to conventional AAN methodologies, the proposed DMP-AAN approach exhibits adaptability to diverse scenarios encompassing varying gait patterns. Experimental validation has been performed using the lower limb rehabilitation exoskeleton HemiGo. The findings highlight the ability to generate suitable control efforts for LLEs with reduced human-robot interactive force, thereby enabling highly patient-controlled gait training sessions to be achieved.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
Se deficiency causes impaired growth of fish skeletal muscle due to the retarded hypertrophy of muscle fibres. However, the inner mechanisms remain unclear. According to our previous researches, we infer this phenomenon is associated with Se deficiency-induced high concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could suppress the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) pathway-mediated protein synthesis by inhibiting protein kinase B (Akt), an upstream protein of TORC1. To test this hypothesis, juvenile zebrafish (45 d post-fertilisation) were fed a basal Se-adequate diet or a basal Se-deficient diet or them supplemented with an antioxidant (DL-α-tocopherol acetate, designed as VE) or a TOR activator (MHY1485) for 30 d. Zebrafish fed Se-deficient diets exhibited a clear Se-deficient status in skeletal muscle, which was not influenced by dietary VE and MHY1485. Se deficiency significantly elevated ROS concentrations, inhibited Akt activity and TORC1 pathway, suppressed protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, and impaired hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibres. However, these negative effects of Se deficiency were partly (except that on ROS concentration) alleviated by dietary MHY1485 and completely alleviated by dietary VE. These data strongly support our speculation that Se deficiency-induced high concentration of ROS exerts a clear inhibiting effect on TORC1 pathway-mediated protein synthesis by regulating Akt activity, thereby restricting the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibres in fish. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation for Se deficiency-caused retardation of fish skeletal muscle growth, contributing to a better understanding of the nutritional necessity and regulatory mechanisms of Se in fish muscle physiology.
Rationally higher population density is crucial for seeking a balance that meets lodging resistance and maximizes seed yield in mechanized direct-seeded winter canola. In this study, a split-plot experiment with two cultivars (Huayouza9 and Zhongshuang11) and eleven planting densities (12–105 plants m-2) was conducted in a two-season field experiment to evaluate the high planting density in this cropping system and improve its production efficiency. Seed yield noticeably increased in planting density up to 80 plants m-2 in Zhongshuang11 (2187 kg hm-2) and 60 plants m-2 in Huayouza9 (2943 kg hm-2). The seed yield of Huayouza9 did not differ significantly from the local target seed yield. Higher plant density curtailed the luxurious vegetative growth of individual canola plants at the density of no less than 60–80 plants m-2, and high seed yield was derived from the increased ratio of main raceme and branch seed weight in winter canola. An increase in plant densities contributed to the reinforced sunlight interception at the pod-filling stage, providing a larger canopy photosynthetic area for the rapid growth of more canola pods at higher densities (60–105 plants m-2). Lodging resistance and breaking resistance decreased sharply with the plant density increasing from 12 to 60 plants m-2 while remaining almost steady as it further increased from 60 to 105 plants m-2 for Huayouza9 and Zhongshuang11. Hence, the population density of 60 plants m-2 reached a balance between lodging resistance and maximized seed yield in mechanized direct-seeded winter canola in China.
The association between dietary Cu intake and mortality risk remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the relationship of dietary Cu intake with all-cause mortality among Chinese adults. A total of 17 310 participants from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, a national ongoing open cohort of Chinese participants, were included in the analysis. Dietary intake was measured by three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls in combination with a weighing inventory over the same 3 d. The average intakes of the 3-d dietary macronutrients and micronutrients were calculated. The study outcome was all-cause mortality. During a median follow-up of 9·0 years, 1324 (7·6 %) participants died. After adjusting for sex, age, BMI, ever alcohol drinking, ever smoking, education levels, occupations, urban or rural residents, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and the intakes of fat, protein and carbohydrate, the association between dietary Cu intake and all-cause mortality followed a J-shape (Pfor nonlinearity = 0·047). When dietary Cu intake was assessed as quartiles, compared with those in the first quartile (<1·60 mg/d), the adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0·87 (95 % CI (0·71, 1·07)), 0·98 (95 % CI (0·79, 1·21)) and 1·49 (95 % CI (1·19, 1·86)), respectively, in participants in the second (1·60–<1·83 mg/d), third (1·83–<2·09 mg/d) and fourth (≥2·09 mg/d) quartiles. A series of subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Overall, our findings emphasised the importance of maintaining optimal dietary Cu intake levels for prevention of premature death.
A fever clinic within a hospital plays a vital role in pandemic control because it serves as an outpost for pandemic discovery, monitoring and handling. As the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan was gradually brought under control, the fever clinic in the West Campus of Wuhan Union Hospital introduced a new model for construction and management of temporary mobile isolation wards. A traditional battlefield hospital model was combined with pandemic control regulations, to build a complex of mobile isolation wards that used adaptive design and construction for medical operational, medical waste management and water drainage systems. The mobile isolation wards allowed for the sharing of medical resources with the fever clinic. This increased the capacity and efficiency of receiving, screening, triaging and isolation and observation of patients with fever. The innovative mobile isolation wards also controlled new sudden outbreaks of COVID-19. We document the adaptive design and construction model of the novel complex of mobile isolation wards and explain its characteristics, functions and use.
Since the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in Wuhan City, China, pediatric cases have gradually increased. It is very important to prevent cross-infection in pediatric fever clinics, to identify children with fever in pediatric fever clinics, and to strengthen the management of pediatric fever clinics. According to prevention and control programs, we propose the guidance on the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period, which outlines in detail how to optimize processes, prevent cross-infection, provide health protection, and prevent disinfection of medical staff. The present consideration statement summarizes current strategies on the pre-diagnosis, triage, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019-nCoV infection, which provides practical suggestions on strengthening the management of pediatric fever clinics during the nCoV pneumonia epidemic period.
The X-ray emissions in the interaction of 3–6 MeV Xe23+ ions into thick solid In target are measured. The projectile-to-target and target Lα/Lβ X-ray production intensity ratios are observed to strongly depend on the projectile energy. The dependence deviates from Coulomb ionization predictions, which implies the important roles of coupling between subshells and the activation of 4fσ rotational couplings for projectile energy larger than 5 MeV.
This study seeks to identify healthcare utilization patterns following symptomatic respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and the variables that may influence these patterns.
RTIs are responsible for the bulk of the primary healthcare burden worldwide. Yet, the use of health services for RTIs displays great discrepancies between populations. This research examines the influence of social demographics, economic factors, and accessibility on healthcare utilization following RTIs.
Structured interviews were administered by trained physicians at the households of informants selected by cluster randomization. Descriptive and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess healthcare utilization and associated independent variables.
A total of 60 678 informants completed the interviews. Of the 2.9% informants exhibiting upper RTIs, 69.5–73.9% sought clinical care. Healthcare utilization rates for common cold, influenza, nine acute upper RTIs, and overall RTIs demonstrate statistically significant associations with the variables of age, type of residence, employment, medical insurance, annual food expenditure, distance to medical facilities, and others. The odds ratios for healthcare utilization rates varied substantially, ranging from 0.026 to 9.364. More than 69% of informants with RTIs sought clinical interventions. These findings signify a marked issue with the large amount of healthcare for self-limited RTIs.
Direct numerical simulation is conducted to uncover the response of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer to streamwise concave curvature and the related physical mechanisms at a Mach number of 2.95. Streamwise variations of mean flow properties, turbulence statistics and turbulent structures are analysed. A method to define the boundary layer thickness based on the principal strain rate is proposed, which is applicable for boundary layers subjected to wall-normal pressure and velocity gradients. While the wall friction grows with the wall turning, the friction velocity decreases. A logarithmic region with constant slope exists in the concave boundary layer. However, with smaller slope, it is located lower than that of the flat boundary layer. Streamwise varying trends of the velocity and the principal strain rate within different wall-normal regions are different. The turbulence level is promoted by the concave curvature. Due to the increased turbulence generation in the outer layer, secondary bumps are noted in the profiles of streamwise and spanwise turbulence intensity. Peak positions in profiles of wall-normal turbulence intensity and Reynolds shear stress are pushed outward because of the same reason. Attributed to the Görtler instability, the streamwise extended vortices within the hairpin packets are intensified and more vortices are generated. Through accumulations of these vortices with a similar sense of rotation, large-scale streamwise roll cells are formed. Originated from the very large-scale motions and by promoting the ejection, sweep and spanwise events, the formation of large-scale streamwise roll cells is the physical cause of the alterations of the mean properties and turbulence statistics. The roll cells further give rise to the vortex generation. The large number of hairpin vortices formed in the near-wall region lead to the improved wall-normal correlation of turbulence in the concave boundary layer.
Compared with traditional stainless steels, high nitrogen stainless steels (HNSS), have been widely used due to their high strength, toughness along with excellent corrosion resistance and low cost, formed by partial replacement of Ni (austenite-forming element) by N. The evolution of the microstructure of a Cr19Mn19Mo2N0.7 stainless steel is investigated after solution treatment at 1010, 1060, 1200 or 1250°C for 30min. A complex multilayer structure has been found under a negative pressure vacuum. A white ferritic layer at the surface is formed, and a subsurface layer with full austenitic structure and a bulk microstructure comprising of austenite and ferrite are detected. With increasing solution temperature, the surface layer thickness increases. The formation of the multilayer structure is attributed to an outward diffusion, a diffusive retardation and an abnormal accumulation of nitrogen during solution treatment.
Excessive worry is a defining feature of generalized anxiety disorder and is present in a wide range of other psychiatric conditions. Therefore, individualized predictions of worry propensity could be highly relevant in clinical practice, with respect to the assessment of worry symptom severity at the individual level.
We applied a multivariate machine learning approach to predict dispositional worry based on microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) tracts.
We demonstrated that the machine learning model was able to decode individual dispositional worry scores from microstructural properties in widely distributed WM tracts (mean absolute error = 10.46, p < 0.001; root mean squared error = 12.82, p < 0.001; prediction R2 = 0.17, p < 0.001). WM tracts that contributed to worry prediction included the posterior limb of internal capsule, anterior corona radiate, and cerebral peduncle, as well as the corticolimbic pathways (e.g. uncinate fasciculus, cingulum, and fornix) already known to be critical for emotion processing and regulation.
The current work thus elucidates potential neuromarkers for clinical assessment of worry symptoms across a wide range of psychiatric disorders. In addition, the identification of widely distributed pathways underlying worry propensity serves to better improve the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with worry.
Several studies have suggested that higher carotenoid levels may be beneficial for atherosclerosis patients, but few studies have examined this relationship in the Chinese population. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the levels of carotenoids in diet and serum and carotid intima–media thickness (IMT) in Chinese adults aged 50–75 years in Guangzhou, China. Dietary intake was assessed using a FFQ. HPLC was used to assay the serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein+zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene. The IMT at the common carotid artery (CCA) and bifurcation of the carotid artery was measured by B-mode ultrasound. A total of 3707 and 2947 participants were included in the analyses of dietary and serum carotenoids. After adjustment for demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors, all the serum carotenoids levels except lycopene were found to be inversely associated with the IMT at the CCA and bifurcation (Ptrend<0·001 to 0·013) in both men and women. The absolute mean differences in the IMT between the subjects in the extreme quartiles of serum carotenoid levels were 0·034 mm (α-carotene), 0·037 mm (β-carotene), 0·032 mm (lutein+zeaxanthin), 0·030 mm (β-cryptoxanthin), 0·015 mm (lycopene) and 0·035 mm (total carotenoids) at the CCA; the corresponding values were 0·025, 0·053 0·043, 0·050, 0·011 and 0·042 mm at the bifurcation. The favourable associations were also observed between dietary carotenoids (except lycopene) and the CCA IMT. In conclusion, elevated carotenoid levels in diet and serum are associated with lower carotid IMT values (particular at the CCA) in Chinese adults.
A coaxial-output rolled strip pulse-forming line (RSPFL) with a dry structure is researched for the purpose of miniaturization and all-solid state of pulse-forming lines (PFL). The coaxial-output RSPFL consists of a coaxial-output electrode (COE) and a rolled strip line (RSL). The COE is characterized by quasi-coaxial structure, making the output pulse propagate along the axial direction with a small output inductance. The RSL is rolled on the COE, whose transmission characteristics are analyzed theoretically. It shows that the RSL can be regarded as a planar strip line when the rolling radius of the strip line is larger than 60 times of the thickness of the insulation dielectric layer of RSL. CST modeling was carried out to simulate the discharging characteristic of the coaxial-output RSPFL. It shows that the coaxial-output RSPFL can deliver a discharging pulse with a rise time <6 ns when the impedance of the RSL matches that of the COE, which confirms the theoretical analysis. A prototype of the coaxial-output RSPFL was developed. A 49-kV discharging pulse on a matched load was achieved when it was charged to 100 kV. The discharging waveform has a pulse width of 32 ns, with a rise time of 6 ns, which is consistent with the simulation waveform. An energy-storage density of 1.9 J/L was realized in the coaxial-output RSPFL. By the method of multi-stage connection in series, a much higher output voltage is convenient to be obtained.
The internal buckling is a common phenomenon in the as-grown carbon nanotube arrays. It makes the physical properties of carbon nanotube array in experiment lower than that in theory. In this work, we analyzed the formation and evolution mechanism of the internal buckling based on quasi-static compression model, which is different from collective effect of the van der Waals interactions. The self-restriction effect and the different growth rate of carbon nanotubes verify the possibility of the quasi-static compression model to explain the morphology evolution of vertical carbon nanotube arrays, especially the phenomenon of the quasi-straight and bent carbon nanotubes coexisted in the array. We generalized the Euler beam to wave-like beam and explained the mechanism of high-mode buckling combined with the van der Waals interaction. The calculated result about the link between compressive stress and strain confirms with the stage of collective buckling in the quasi-static compression test of carbon nanotube array. Preparation of well-organized carbon nanotube arrays was strong evidence verified the effect of self-restriction in experiment.
We report a novel tip-type field emission (FE) emitter by synthesizing the few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes on tip of nichrome (8020) wire (ϕ≈80 μm) by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD). These resultant random arrays of free-standing FLG flakes are aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high-density and stacked to each other to form several larger “flower-like” agglomerates in spherical shapes. The FE performance of the tip-type FLG flakes emitter shows a low threshold field of 0.55 V/μm, a large field enhancement factor of 9455 ± 46, a large field emission current density of 22.18 A/cm2 at 2.70 V/μm, and an excellent field emission stability at high emission current densities (6.93 A/cm2). It can be used in variety of applications that include cathode-ray tube monitors, X-ray sources, electron microscopes, and other vacuum electronic applications.
A new band-reject frequency-selective surface (FSS) based on dual-band near-zero refractive index metamaterial (ZIM) design is presented in this paper. Consisting of a planar array of complementary dual-layer symmetry resonant ring, the proposed FSS exhibits a high-selective band-reject filtering response. From the viewpoint of effective medium, the subwavelength FSS is characterized by near-zero effective magnetic permeability and near-zero effective electric permittivity in two different operational bands, respectively. The corresponding resonant behavior and E-field distributions are analyzed in detail. A prototype of the proposed FSS working in X-band is fabricated and measured. The simulation and experiment results verify the effectiveness and correctness of the ZIM-based design method.
Objectives: Mental arithmetic is essential to daily life. Researchers have explored the mechanisms that underlie mental arithmetic. Whether mental arithmetic fact retrieval is dependent on surface modality or knowledge format is still highly debated. Chinese individuals typically use a procedure strategy for addition; and they typically use a rote verbal strategy for multiplication. This provides a way to examine the effect of surface modality on different arithmetic operations. Methods: We used a series of neuropsychological tests (i.e., general cognitive, language processing, numerical processing, addition, and multiplication in visual and auditory conditions) for a patient who had experienced a left frontotemporal stroke. Results: The patient had language production impairment; but preserved verbal processing concerning basic numerical abilities. Moreover, the patient had preserved multiplication in the auditory presentation rather than in the visual presentation. The patient suffered from impairments in an addition task, regardless of visual or auditory presentation. Conclusions: The findings suggest that mental multiplication could be characterized as a form of modality-dependent processing, which was accessed through auditory input. The learning strategy of multiplication table recitation could shape the verbal memory of multiplication leading to persistence of the auditory module. (JINS, 2017, 23, 692–699)
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are used widely in the provision of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) services. Today, there is an increasing demand on GNSS to support applications at lane level. These applications required at lane level include lane control, collision avoidance and intelligent speed assistance. In lane control, detecting irregular driving behaviour within the lane is a basic requirement for safety related lane level applications. There are two major issues involved in lane level irregular driving identification: access to high accuracy positioning and vehicle dynamic parameters, and extraction of erratic driving behaviour from this and other related information. This paper proposes an integrated algorithm for lane level irregular driving identification. Access to high accuracy positioning is enabled by GNSS and its integration with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) using filtering with precise vehicle motion models and lane information. The identification of irregular driving behaviour is achieved by algorithms developed for different types of events based on the application of a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS). The results show that decimetre level accuracy can be achieved and that different types of lane level irregular driving behaviour can be identified.