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We employ the concept of stupidity to address why more has not been done to address climate change and sustainable development. While the ‘new’ science of stupid has long existed in organizational studies, academicians have been too polite to call it that and organizational researchers historically labeled it the ‘threat-rigidity effect.’ With Alvesson and Spicer’s ‘stupidity-based theory of organizations’ management researchers overcame this reluctance. In this work we explore what we will call the ‘stress-stupidity system.’ Building on the threat-rigidity effect, we outline the elements of the stress-stupidity system and look at how we may be able to ‘fix stupid’ to address issues of sustainability.
To identify clusters of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to symptom profile and to examine the association of the A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene with these clusters.
Fifty-seven untreated Caucasian Vietnam veterans with PTSD were administered the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ) and the Mississippi Scale for combat-related PTSD. DRD2 allelic status was determined by PCR.
Subjects with the DRD2 Al allele compared to those without this allele had significantly higher scores on GHQ 2 (anxiety/insomnia), GHQ 3 (social dysfunction) and GHQ 4 (depression). Cluster analysis of the GHQ data identified two primary groups. A high psychopathology cluster (cluster 3), featured by high co-morbid levels of somatic concerns, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction and depression, and a low psychopathology cluster (cluster 1), manifested by the reverse pattern. Scores in each of the four GHQ groups were significantly higher in cluster 3 than cluster 1, as was Mississippi Scale PTSD score. DRD2 A1 allele veterans compared to those without this allele were significantly more likely to be found in the high than the low psychopathology cluster group.
DRD2 variants are associated with severe co-morbid psychopathology in PTSD subjects.
Methamphetamine has been consistently associated with positive psychotic symptoms, but little is known about whether the reverse also occurs.
This study determined whether the relationship between methamphetamine use and positive psychotic symptoms is bidirectional over 12 months. The impact of lifetime psychotic disorders and methamphetamine dependence on these relationships was also examined.
A total of 201 regular (at least monthly) primary methamphetamine users were recruited from free needle and syringe programmes in three Australian cities. Data on the frequency of methamphetamine and other drug use (from Timeline Followback inteviews) and the severity of positive psychotic symptoms (using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in the past 2 weeks were collected in 12 contiguous monthly face-to-face interviews (mean of 9.14/11 (s.d. = 3.16) follow-ups completed). Diagnoses were derived using the Psychiatric Research Interview for DSM-IV Substance and Mental Disorders.
The mean age of participants was 31.71 years (s.d. = 8.19) and 39% (n = 77) were women. At baseline 55% (n = 110) were dependent on methamphetamine and 51% (n = 102) had a lifetime psychotic disorder. Cross-lagged dynamic panel models found a significant bidirectional relationship between psychotic symptoms and methamphetamine use (Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.94, standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) = 0.05, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.05, 95% CI 0.04–0.06). The magnitude of the relationship in each direction was similar, and the presence of methamphetamine dependence or a lifetime psychotic disorder did not have an impact on results.
A dynamic, bidirectional relationship between methamphetamine and psychotic symptoms of similar magnitude in each direction was found over 1 year. This suggests integrated treatments that target methamphetamine, psychotic symptoms and their interrelationship may be of most benefit.
Introduction: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been suggested as an initial investigation in the management of renal colic. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the accuracy of POCUS for the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis, and 2) to assess its prognostic value in the management of renal colic (PROSPERO: 42016035331). Methods: An electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed was conducted utilizing subject headings, keywords, and synonyms that address our research question. Bibliographies of included studies and narrative reviews were manually examined. Studies of adult emergency department patients with renal colic symptoms were included. Any degree of hydronephrosis was considered a positive POCUS finding. Accepted criterion standards were CT evidence of renal stone or hydronephrosis, direct stone visualization, or surgical findings. Screening of abstracts, quality assessment with the QUADAS-2 instrument, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by conference with a third reviewer.Test performance was assessed by pooled sensitivity and specificity, calculated likelihood ratios, and a summary receiver operator curve (SROC). The secondary outcome of prognostic value was reported as a narrative summary. Results: The electronic search yielded 627 unique titles. After relevance screening, 25 papers underwent full-text review, and 8 articles met all inclusion criteria. Of these, 5 high-quality studies (N=1773) were included in the meta-analysis for diagnostic accuracy, and three yielded data on prognostic value. The pooled results for sensitivity and specificity were 70.2% (95% CI=67.1% to 73.2%) and 75.4% (95% CI=72.5% to 78.2%), respectively. The calculated positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.85 and 0.39. The SROC generated did not show evidence of a threshold effect.Three studies examining prognostic value noted a higher likelihood of a large stone or surgical intervention with positive POCUS findings. The largest randomized trial showed lower cumulative radiation exposure and no increase in adverse events in those who received POCUS investigation as the initial renal colic investigation. Conclusion: Point-of-care ultrasound is of modest accuracy for the diagnosis of nephrolithiasis. While positive POCUS findings are associated with larger stones and greater likelihood for intervention, the clinical importance of this is unclear.
Se and green tea have been shown in epidemiological, observational and preclinical studies to be inversely related to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). However, there are limited studies to evaluate their regulatory effects on genes/proteins that relate to CRC oncogenesis in human subjects, such as selenoproteins, WNT signalling pathway, inflammation and methylation. This study examined the effects of supplementation of Se using Brazil nuts and green tea extract (GTE) capsules, alone and in combination, on targeted biomarkers. In total, thirty-two volunteers (>50 years of age) with plasma Se≤1·36 µmol/l were randomised to one of three treatment groups: nine to Se (approximately 48 µg/d) as six Brazil nuts, eleven to four GTE capsules (800 mg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate) and twelve to a combination of Brazil nuts and GTE. Blood and rectal biopsies were obtained before and after each intervention. Plasma Se levels, rectal selenoprotein P (SePP) and β-catenin mRNA increased significantly in subjects consuming Brazil nuts alone or in combination, whereas rectal DNA methyltransferase (DNMT1) and NF-κB mRNA were reduced significantly in subjects consuming GTE alone or in combination. None of the interventions significantly affected rectal acetylated histone H3 or Ki-67 expression at the protein level or plasma C-reactive protein. Effects of the combination of Brazil nuts and GTE did not differ from what would be expected from either agent alone. In conclusion, supplementation of Brazil nuts and/or GTE regulates targeted biomarkers related to CRC oncogenesis, specifically genes associated with selenoproteins (SePP), WNT signalling (β-catenin), inflammation (NF-κB) and methylation (DNMT1). Their combination does not appear to provide additional effects compared with either agent alone.
The Middle Jurassic is a poorly sampled time interval for non-pelagic neosuchian crocodyliforms, which obscures our understanding of the origin and early evolution of major clades. Here we report a lower jaw from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Duntulm Formation of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, UK, which consists of an isolated and incomplete left dentary and part of the splenial. Morphologically, the Skye specimen closely resembles the Cretaceous neosuchians Pachycheilosuchus and Pietraroiasuchus, in having a proportionally short mandibular symphysis, shallow dentary alveoli and inferred weakly heterodont dentition. It differs from other crocodyliforms in that the Meckelian canal is dorsoventrally expanded posterior to the mandibular symphysis and drastically constricted at the 7th alveolus. The new specimen, together with the presence of Theriosuchus sp. from the Valtos Formation and indeterminate neosuchians from the Kilmaluag Formation, indicates the presence of a previously unrecognised, diverse crocodyliform fauna in the Middle Jurassic of Skye, and Europe more generally. Small-bodied neosuchians were present, and ecologically and taxonomically diverse, in nearshore environments in the Middle Jurassic of the UK.
Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed to manage sleep disorders, anxiety and muscular tension. While providing short-term relief, continued use induces tolerance and withdrawal, and in older users, increases the risk of falls. However, long-term prescription remains common, and effective interventions are not widely available. This study developed a self-managed cognitive behaviour therapy package for cessation of benzodiazepine use delivered to participants via mail (M-CBT) and trialled its effectiveness as an adjunct to a general practitioner (GP)-managed dose reduction schedule. In the pilot trial, participants were randomly assigned to GP management with immediate or delayed M-CBT. Significant recruitment and engagement problems were experienced, and only three participants were allocated to each condition. After immediate M-CBT, two participants ceased use, while none receiving delayed treatment reduced daily intake by more than 50%. Across the sample, doses at 12 months remained significantly lower than baseline, and qualitative feedback from participants was positive. While M-CBT may have promise, improved engagement of GPs and participants is needed for this approach to substantially impact on community-wide benzodiazepine use.
Dysfunction of dopamine D3 receptors, particularly in the mesocorticolimbic system, has been linked to the pathogenesis of major depression. Preclinical data show enhanced D3 receptor binding in the striatum upon antidepressant medication and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Thus, the potential impact of dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) variation on ECT outcome in treatment-resistant major depression was evaluated by applying a combined molecular and imaging genetic approach. Altogether, 10 representative variants covering 95.4% of DRD3 gene variation were investigated for association with response to ECT in a sample of 104 (71 female, 33 male) Caucasian patients with pharmacorefractory major depression. Additionally, ventral striatum responsiveness to happy faces was assessed in two independent samples of depressed patients (total N=54) by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Significant association of DRD3 rs3732790, rs3773679 and rs9817063 variants with response (uncorrected p=0.02–0.03) and remission (uncorrected p=0.01) after ECT was discerned. Logistic regression analyses revealed association of rs3732790 (uncorrected p=0.009; corrected p=0.045) and rs3773679 (uncorrected p=0.009; corrected p=0.045) with remission when applying a recessive model of inheritance. The rs3732790T allele conferring a more favourable treatment response was furthermore found to be associated with stronger striatal responsiveness to happy facial expressions (sample 1: cluster-corrected p=0.002; sample 2: p=0.023). In summary, the present study suggests some impact of DRD3 gene variation on ECT response, potentially mediated by alteration of striatal engagement during the processing of emotionally rewarding stimuli.
In an attempt to explain the recent resurgence of homosexually-acquired gonorrhoea in the Lothian region of Scotland the number of infections and pattern of infection (urethral, rectal and pharyngeal) of all gonococcal isolates from homosexual men attending the Department of Genitourinary Medicine at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary between 1985 and 1990 were analysed. Serovar typing data were available from infections acquired between January 1986 and December 1990. A correlation between one serovar, Bacejk/Brpyust, and the overall pattern of gonorrhoea was observed. The number of infections caused by minor serovars also correlated with rates of gonococcal infection. The number of minor serovars isolated, which may represent strains from other geographical locations, is related to the total incidence of gonorrhoea. It is possible that the incidence of Bacejk/Brpyust may be determined by the size of the infected pool of gonorrhoea. The most likely explanation for the recent increase in gonorrhoea is a change in sexual behaviour and/or an influx of strains from other geographical areas.
We investigated the adverse effect of phytate on mineral absorption and the effect of dietary phytate and age on the relationship between faecal phytate and faecal mineral excretion. Fourteen young women (aged 19–24 years) and fourteen elderly women (64–75 years) were studied for two metabolic periods (MP). In MP1, the subjects consumed a controlled high-phytate (HP) diet for 10 d; in MP2, they were on a low-phytate (LP) diet for 10 d. In each period, diet samples and complete faecal samples for 5 d were collected to analyse phytate and mineral contents. Mineral concentrations in diet and faeces were measured by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations between faecal phytate and mineral excretion. The degradation rate of dietary phytate was about 77 % for young women, which was significantly lower than that of elderly women (86 %) (P < 0·05). Faecal phytate excretion was positively correlated with mineral excretion (Ca, P, Fe and Zn) in both the HP and LP diet groups in young women (P < 0·05). The linear relationship tended to be greater during the LP diet period compared with the HP diet period in young women. However, no association was found between phytate excretion and mineral excretion in elderly women. In summary, undegraded dietary phytate (10–20 %) had a negative effect on mineral absorption in young women, and the relationship between faecal phytate and mineral excretion was affected by both dietary phytate and age.
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in the aetiology of affective disorders. In order to further clarify the impact of BDNF gene variation on major depression as well as antidepressant treatment response, association of three BDNF polymorphisms [rs7103411, Val66Met (rs6265) and rs7124442] with major depression and antidepressant treatment response was investigated in an overall sample of 268 German patients with major depression and 424 healthy controls. False discovery rate (FDR) was applied to control for multiple testing. Additionally, ten markers in BDNF were tested for association with citalopram outcome in the STAR*D sample. While BDNF was not associated with major depression as a categorical diagnosis, the BDNF rs7124442 TT genotype was significantly related to worse treatment outcome over 6 wk in major depression (p=0.01) particularly in anxious depression (p=0.003) in the German sample. However, BDNF rs7103411 and rs6265 similarly predicted worse treatment response over 6 wk in clinical subtypes of depression such as melancholic depression only (rs7103411: TT<CC, p=0.003; rs6265: GG<AA, p=0.001). All SNPs had main effects on antidepressant treatment response in ANOVA models when the remaining SNPs were considered as covariates. The STAR*D analyses did not yield significant results at any of the ten BDNF markers. Our results do not support an association between genetic variation in BDNF and antidepressant treatment response or remission. Post-hoc analyses provide some preliminary support for a potential minor role of genetic variation in BDNF and antidepressant treatment outcome in the context of melancholic depression.
In an effort to increase the internal and external diameter of the RNT's, tricyclic GΛC base derivatives (XGΛC) have been synthesized and characterized. Hierchichal self-assembly results in formation of RNT's with an increased diameter, as evidenced by AFM and TEM measurements. Progress on the derivitization and characterization of the XGΛC RNT's will be presented.
ESRI, Inc. of Redlands, California, is the leading maker of Geographic Information System (GIS) software that manages and analyzes data based on geographic information. One capability of ESRI's products is the determination of the shortest path between two locations in a road network. Dijkstra's Algorithm, currently being used to solve this problem, becomes computationally impractical when working with large networks. The Level Graph Search and Augmented Level Graph Search (ALGS) Algorithms can be used in these situations to greatly decrease the resources required for finding the solution, but at the cost of obtaining possibly sub-optimal solutions. The project involves coding and integrating the LGS and ALGS algorithms with Network Engine, ESRI's new programming library for developers of custom GIS applications.