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The practice of literary criticism came to Russia in the eighteenth century as a part of the Westernizing reforms of Emperor Peter the Great and, Empress Catherine the Great. In the 1830s and 1840s, as literary criticism became a profession, literary discussion directed at a newly emerging reading public crucially contributed to a debate about national identity, which became known as the debate between the Westernizers and the Slavophiles. Westernizers such as Ivan Turgenev, the critic Vissarion Belinsky and the reformist thinker Aleksandr Herzen wanted to follow the European trajectory laid out by Peter the Great towards a Europeanized, secular culture. The account of Russian literary criticism differs from Soviet-era accounts in its vocabulary and in its greater emphasis on cultural and intellectual networks of people and ideas. Belinsky's view of literature as the bearer of enlightened social consciousness intensified throughout the 1840s, after his break with conservative Hegelianism in 1841.
The French Revolution brought in its wake not merely a far more fluid society than that which preceded it, but also a radically different image of the self. Under the pervasive influence of Enlightenment thinkers on the one hand, and Rousseau on the other, individuals began to define themselves not so much in terms of national or social position but with regard to smaller family units, emphasising less inherited class than acquired wealth and position. Poetry reflected that radical swing towards the appreciation of individual values, resulting in an outpouring of highly personal poetry, which explored feelings and emphasised the importance and uniqueness of each human being. But the Revolution transformed poetry in other more formal ways. The concept of what language was fitting for poetry had gradually led to a stultification of the genre, a highly limited vocabulary, and forms of speech that were now held to be inadequate, not merely to express the range of emotions that were central to individual experience, but also to convey the unprecedented changes in material life, as the Industrial Revolution began to transform what had been until then a largely rural society. The red beret that revolutionaries had sported was now to be placed on the dictionary, with poets enhancing their word hoards from a wide variety of sources, and bringing together, in clashing but liberating juxtaposition, high and low registers, the language of the universities and that of the streets.
This study had two main aims. (1) To examine the role of discretionary effort (DE) in the multidimensional performance domain consisting of in-role behaviour (IRB) and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB); and (2) to assess whether skills and autonomy are important predictors of DE and show variance in common with DE over and above IRB and OCB. A managers/supervisors sample (n = 476) and a sample with both managerial and nonmanagerial employees (n = 424) were employed. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the three factor hierarchical model was superior compared to three other models tested, indicating that DE is a separate construct to both IRB and OCB but together with these forms part of the performance domain. Regression analysis showed that both skills and autonomy are important predictors of DE; however, only autonomy explained variance in DE over and above IRB, OCB and skills. Together these results add to the construct validity of DE. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Background. The incidence of schizophrenia in the African-Caribbean population in England is reported to be raised. We sought to clarify whether (a) the rates of other psychotic disorders are increased, (b) whether psychosis is increased in other ethnic minority groups, and (c) whether particular age or gender groups are especially at risk.
Method. We identified all people (n=568) aged 16–64 years presenting to secondary services with their first psychotic symptoms in three well-defined English areas (over a 2-year period in Southeast London and Nottingham and a 9-month period in Bristol). Standardized incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for all major psychosis syndromes for all main ethnic groups were calculated.
Results. We found remarkably high IRRs for both schizophrenia and manic psychosis in both African-Caribbeans (schizophrenia 9·1, manic psychosis 8·0) and Black Africans (schizophrenia 5·8, manic psychosis 6·2) in men and women. IRRs in other ethnic minority groups were modestly increased as were rates for depressive psychosis and other psychoses in all minority groups. These raised rates were evident in all age groups in our study.
Conclusions. Ethnic minority groups are at increased risk for all psychotic illnesses but African-Caribbeans and Black Africans appear to be at especially high risk for both schizophrenia and mania. These findings suggest that (a) either additional risk factors are operating in African-Caribbeans and Black Africans or that these factors are particularly prevalent in these groups, and that (b) such factors increase risk for schizophrenia and mania in these groups.
Charles Baudelaire's place among the great poets of the Western world is undisputed, and his influence on the development of poetry since his lifetime has been enormous. In this Companion, essays by outstanding scholars illuminate Baudelaire's writing both for the lay reader and for specialists. In addition to a survey of his life and a study of his social context, the volume includes essays on his verse and prose, analyzing the extraordinary power and effectiveness of his language and style, his exploration of intoxicants like wine and opium, and his art and literary criticism. The volume also discusses the difficulties, successes and failures of translating his poetry and his continuing power to move his readers. Featuring a guide to further reading and a chronology, this Companion provides students and scholars of Baudelaire and of nineteenth-century French and European literature with a comprehensive and stimulating overview of this extraordinary poet.
Criticism, for Baudelaire, whether of art, music or literature, was at its best when it was amusing, poetic and impassioned, and when it was driven by an urgent intellectual desire to deduce the reasons that justify the emotion these arts aroused (OC II 127). That emotion was at times so intense as to provoke a physical reaction: thus, recalling the first time he read the works of the poet, novelist and critic Théophile Gautier, Baudelaire asserts that his admiration for Gautier's skill was strong enough to create in him a kind of nervous convulsion (OC II 118). Finding a way of understanding that reaction, and conveying it in writing, dominates much of his criticism, giving it its particular savour and edge.
Indeed, to understand those reactions and to represent a work well, Baudelaire asserts in an article published in 1851, you need to get inside its skin. This expression, which he puts in italics to signify its novelty, had recently been created by an actor explaining his technique for conveying characters (OC II 1094). It is typical of Baudelaire's interest in the modern and his ability to transfer concepts created for one genre to another different genre that he seizes with such energy and acumen on this term from the theatre. In his literary criticism, Baudelaire constantly attempts to get inside the skin of the work he is reviewing, devoting considerable intellectual energy to analysing the writings of his contemporaries, not merely the well known, like Victor Hugo, Gustave Flaubert and Théophile Gautier, but also lesser-known figures such as the worker poet, Pierre Dupont, and Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, whose Elégies (1819) was the first volume of Romantic poetry published in France.
There has been a relative dearth of epidemiological research into bipolar affective disorder. Furthermore, incidence studies of bipolar disorder have been predominantly retrospective and most only included hospital admission cases.
To determine the incidence of operationally defined bipolar disorder in three areas of the UK and to investigate any differences in gender and ethnicity.
All patients who contacted mental health services with first-episode psychosis or non-psychotic mania between September 1997 and August 1999 were identified and diagnosed according to ICD–10 criteria. Incidence rates of bipolar affective disorder were standardised for age and stratified by gender and ethnic group across the three areas.
The incidence rate per 100 000 per year in south-east London was over twice that in Nottingham and Bristol. There was no significant difference in the rates of disorder in men and women. Incidence rates of bipolar disorder in the combined Black and minority ethnic groups in all three areas were significantly higher than those of the comparison White groups.
The incidence of bipolar disorder was higher in south-east London than in the other two areas, and was higher among Black and minority ethnic groups than in the White population.
Writing to Louis de Cormenin in June of 1844, the twenty-two-year-old Flaubert sketches an ideal society of 'good lads, all men of letters, living together and gathering two or three times a week to eat a good meal washed down with a good wine, while savouring some succulent poet' ['bons garçons, tous gens d'art, vivant ensemble et se réunissant deux ou trois fois par semaine pour manger un bon morceau arrosé d'un bon vin, tout en dégustant quelque succulent poète' (Cor. i 209)]. Friendship, the pleasures of the table, the delights of conversation, above all talk devoted to literature: these are all central to Flaubert's personality, all the more important for someone who chose to lead an existence that was primarily solitary. These are also the motifs that run through his correspondence like brightly coloured threads, even when the general fabric grows dark with the pessimism of his later years.
While the eighteenth century allowed a considerable degree of intellectual freedom to women in the upper echelons of society, the Revolution of 1789 and its aftermath mushroomed forth a series of depictions of the Republic, symbolized by woman as devouring virago, driving young men into the destruction of conflict and war. Intimately connected with such iconography, the removal of women's suffrage, in 1793, remains a potent symbol of just what fraternité can mean. The puritanism of Napoleon's public ethics used the changing iconography of the times in an attempt to restrict women to roles connected with children, the Church and the kitchen. The Napoleonic code of 1805 formalized the dichotomy between masculine public space and female private space, assigning to women the legal and metaphorical role of minors in the new society, controlling the way they dressed and the kinds of work they could do. Typical of this restriction of women's freedom was the suppression of the 1792 divorce law in 1816: divorce would not be made legal again until 1884. Adultery was punishable by imprisonment, with the female offender technically liable to remain incarcerated for as long as the husband wanted. As the century progressed and as women came to be seen as possessing a powerful role as consumers in an increasingly industrialized state, their intellectual and physical freedoms went through various revolutions reflected in a wide range of genres.
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