To search for an association of twin zygosity with tooth size, 56 dental variables measured from 65 pairs of twins (43 MZ, 22 DZ) were studied. Results of the t′ test for equality of the means showed no association of zygosity with any of the variables in males or in females. Results of the F′ test for homogeneity of total variances between zygosities showed evidence for unequal total variances in 15 variables in males and 13 in females. Sex influence was further noted on the association of zygosity with the variance of tooth size. Where total variances were unequal, genetic variance estimates differed when only the within-pair mean squares were used and when combined estimates designed to be unbiased by differences in environmental variances were used.