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Mental disorders, including depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia, share a common neuropathy of disturbed large-scale coordinated brain maturation. However, high-interindividual heterogeneity hinders the identification of shared and distinct patterns of brain network abnormalities across mental disorders. This study aimed to identify shared and distinct patterns of altered structural covariance across mental disorders.
Subject-level structural covariance aberrance in patients with mental disorders was investigated using individualized differential structural covariance network. This method inferred structural covariance aberrance at the individual level by measuring the degree of structural covariance in patients deviating from matched healthy controls (HCs). T1-weighted anatomical images of 513 participants (105, 98, 190 participants with depression, OCD and schizophrenia, respectively, and 130 age- and sex-matched HCs) were acquired and analyzed.
Patients with mental disorders exhibited notable heterogeneity in terms of altered edges, which were otherwise obscured by group-level analysis. The three disorders shared high difference variability in edges attached to the frontal network and the subcortical-cerebellum network, and they also exhibited disease-specific variability distributions. Despite notable variability, patients with the same disorder shared disease-specific groups of altered edges. Specifically, depression was characterized by altered edges attached to the subcortical-cerebellum network; OCD, by altered edges linking the subcortical-cerebellum and motor networks; and schizophrenia, by altered edges related to the frontal network.
These results have potential implications for understanding heterogeneity and facilitating personalized diagnosis and interventions for mental disorders.
In order to make the designed ankle robotic system simpler, practical, and clinically oriented, we developed a novel
ankle rehabilitation robot with a variety of training functions covering all the required ranges of motion of the ankle joint complex (AJC), where
denote universal, prismatic, spherical, and revolute joints, respectively, and the underlined letter denotes the actuated joint. The robot was designed with three degrees of freedom (DOFs), with a series
mechanism and a
parallel mechanism. The main advantage is that the height of the robot is very low, which is convenient for clinical use by patients. At first, the mechanism design and inverse solution of positions were introduced in detail. Then, the patient-passive exercise based on the predefined trajectory tracking and patient-active exercise based on the spring model were developed to satisfy different rehabilitation stages. Finally, experiments with healthy subjects were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the developed patient-passive and patient-active exercises of the developed ankle rehabilitation robot, with results compared with the existing ankle robotic system showing good trajectory tracking performance and interactive performance.
Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in sensory integration deficits in schizophrenia, yet how glutamatergic function contributes to behavioural impairments and neural activities of sensory integration remains unknown.
Fifty schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls completed behavioural assessments for sensory integration and underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for measuring the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate levels. The correlation between glutamate levels and behavioural sensory integration deficits was examined in each group. A subsample of 20 pairs of patients and controls further completed an audiovisual sensory integration functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activation and task-dependent functional connectivity (FC) were assessed based on fMRI data. Full factorial analyses were performed to examine the Group-by-Glutamate Level interaction effects on fMRI measurements (group differences in correlation between glutamate levels and fMRI measurements) and the correlation between glutamate levels and fMRI measurements within each group.
We found that schizophrenia patients exhibited impaired sensory integration which was positively correlated with ACC glutamate levels. Multimodal analyses showed significantly Group-by-Glutamate Level interaction effects on BOLD activation as well as task-dependent FC in a ‘cortico-subcortical-cortical’ network (including medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, ACC, middle cingulate gyrus, thalamus and caudate) with positive correlations in patients and negative in controls.
Our findings indicate that ACC glutamate influences neural activities in a large-scale network during sensory integration, but the effects have opposite directionality between schizophrenia patients and healthy people. This implicates the crucial role of glutamatergic system in sensory integration processing in schizophrenia.
A droplet impinging on a superhydrophobic substrate in an electric field is an important process in droplet manipulation and electrostatic spraying. Here, the entire impinging dynamic of the droplet in a vertical electric field is studied by a visualization experiment and numerical simulation with OpenFOAM. We investigate the effect of an electrostatic force on droplet impact in depth, where four ejection modes and three rebound modes are found experimentally. In particular, the filamentous ejecting phenomenon occurs after a droplet impinging on a superhydrophobic substrate is first discovered. In the numerical simulation, the strong coupling between the dynamic distribution of the interface electric charge and the evolution of the droplet profile can lead to different ejection modes, and the different ejection behaviours are caused by the combined effects of electrostatic pressure, capillary pressure, dynamic pressure and static pressure on the droplet apex. A charge scaling law for the ejection droplets is proposed. Furthermore, a set of theoretical models is established, which can successfully predict the threshold electric capillary number for different droplet ejection modes. The results reveal some important characteristics for a droplet impinging on a superhydrophobic surface in an electric field, which could facilitate the design of electrically operated droplet equipment and guide the safe and stable operation of the device.
Two new genera and six new species of trilobites are systematically documented herein: Sinagnostus mirabilis new genus new species, Yanpingia punctata n. gen. n. sp., Illaenus taoyuanensis n. sp., Panderia striolatus n. sp., Nileus yichongqiaoensis n. sp., and Paratiresias peculiaris n. sp. The materials were collected from the Darriwilian (late Middle Ordovician) strata in the Upper Yangtze Region, South China. Also provided is an emended diagnosis of the genus Paratiresias based on the new species Paratiresias peculiaris, which is the oldest known species of this genus with an extremely narrow (sag. and exsag.) preglabellar field. Those Chinese species previously referred to Nanillaenus are reassigned to Illaenus sensu lato. These trilobites add new data for the Darriwilian trilobite macroevolution and show highly endemic to South China and the faunal exchanges between South China and Tarim, Kazakhstan, Alborz, as well as Sibumasu and North China.
The prevalence of malnutrition is high among oncology patients in Northern China. Malnutrition is related to the longer hospital stay, and it can be used to predict the prognostic outcome of patients. This work focused on investigating the relationship of nutritional condition with the length of hospital stay (LOS) in Northern Chinese patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) score, recent weight loss and BMI were assessed in a probabilistic sample of 389 LUAD patients without epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. This study collected the demographic and clinical features of patients in a prospective manner. Then, we examined the association of nutritional status with LOS among the population developing LUAD. According to the PG-SGA, 63 (16·3 %), 174 (44·7 %) and 78 (20·1 %) patients were at risk for undernutrition, moderate undernutrition and severe undernutrition, respectively. Nutritional risk was found in 141 (36·2 %) patients based on the NRS 2002. The average LOS for tumour patients in Northern China was 12·5 d. At admission, a risk of undernutrition or undernutrition according to the PG-SGA (P < 0·001), NRS 2002 (P < 0·001) and latest weight loss (P < 0·001) predicted the longer LOS. LOS was related to nutritional status and hospitalisation expenses (P < 0·001). LUAD patients who stayed in the ICU had a poorer nutritional status and a longer LOS (P < 0·001). In Northern Chinese patients with LUAD, a risk for undernutrition evaluated by the PG-SGA, the NRS 2002 and recent weight loss, but not BMI, could predict a longer LOS.
Nutritional Risk Screening index is a standard tool to assess nutritional risk, but epidemiological data are scarce on controlling nutritional status (CONUT) as a prognostic marker in acute haemorrhagic stroke (AHS). We aimed to explore whether the CONUT may predict a 3-month functional outcome in AHS. In total, 349 Chinese patients with incident AHS were consecutively recruited, and their malnutrition risks were determined using a high CONUT score of ≥ 2. The cohort patients were divided into high-CONUT (≥ 2) and low-CONUT (< 2) groups, and primary outcomes were a poor functional prognosis defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of ≥ 3 at post-discharge for 3 months. Odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the poor functional prognosis at post-discharge were estimated by using a logistic analysis with additional adjustments for unbalanced variables between the high-CONUT and low-CONUT groups. A total of 328 patients (60·38 ± 12·83 years; 66·77 % male) completed the mRS assessment at post-discharge for 3 months, with 172 patients at malnutrition risk at admission and 104 patients with a poor prognosis. The levels of total cholesterol and total lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in high-CONUT patients than low-CONUT patients (P = 0·012 and < 0·001, respectively). At 3-month post discharge, there was a greater risk for the poor outcome in the high-CONUT compared with the low-CONUT patients at admission (OR: 2·32, 95 % CI: 1·28, 4·17). High-CONUT scores independently predict a 3-month poor prognosis in AHS, which helps to identify those who need additional nutritional managements.
Reward dysfunction is a major dimension of depressive symptomatology, but it remains obscure if that dysfunction varies across different reward types. In this study, we focus on the abnormalities in anticipatory/consummatory processing of monetary and social reward associated with depressive symptoms.
Forty participants with depressive symptoms and forty normal controls completed the monetary incentive delay (MID) and social incentive delay (SID) tasks with event-related potential (ERP) recording.
In the SID but not the MID task, both the behavioral hit rate and the ERP component contingent negative variation (CNV; indicating reward anticipation) were sensitive to the interaction between the grouping factor and reward magnitude; that is, the depressive group showed a lower hit rate and a smaller CNV to large-magnitude (but not small-magnitude) social reward cues compared to the control group. Further, these two indexes were correlated with each other. Meanwhile, the ERP components feedback-related negativity and P3 (indicating reward consumption) were sensitive to the main effect of depression across the MID and SID tasks, though this effect was more prominent in the SID task.
Overall, we suggest that depressive symptoms are associated with deficits in both the reward anticipation and reward consumption stages, particularly for social rewards. These findings have a potential to characterize the profile of functional impairment that comprises and maintains depression.
Iridium (Ir) has an extremely high melting point (2443 °C), high chemical stability and is one of the most promising high-temperature materials. However, Ir is more difficult to process compared with other face-centered cubic metals, such as Ni and Al, which limits its applications. To solve this problem, we study the effect of 32 alloying elements (X) on stacking fault energy of dilute Ir-based alloys generated by shear deformation using the first-principles calculations. The investigation reveals that there are many alloying elements studied herein decrease the stacking fault energy of face-centered cubic (fcc) Ir, and the most effective element in reducing stacking fault energy of fcc Ir is Zn. The microscopic mechanism is caused by electron redistribution in the local stacking fault area. These results are expected to provide valuable guidance for the further design and application of Ir-based alloys.
Witherite originates from the biochemical sedimentation of barium in sea water. Due to the complexity of the metallogenic environment, witherite appears in many morphologies. However, the relationship between its diverse morphologies and its mineralisation environment is not well understood. In this paper, Ca2+, a common substitute for Ba2+, and mixed protein (egg white) were used to simulate the inorganic and organic environments of witherite mineralisation, respectively. Comparison of samples prepared under different conditions showed that Ca2+ and egg white have relatively independent regulatory effects on the mineralisation of witherite particles. Egg white primarily limits the growth of the nanocrystals, while Ca2+ directs their non-isodiametric growth. Results shows that Ca2+ is distributed along a gradient in nanocrystalline witherite particles, with the Ca2+ content being proportional to the diameter of the nanocrystals. The results of this study shed light on the different roles of organic matter and inorganic ions in the formation of witherite and offer insight into the genesis of its various morphologies.
To explore the association between dietary Na intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nationally representative sample of the US population.
In this cross-sectional study, the associations between Na intake and NAFLD, defined by the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the fatty liver index (FLI), were assessed through multivariable logistic regression models.
Communities in the USA from 2007 to 2014.
Men and women aged 20 years and older.
A total of 11 022 participants were included in the HSI-defined NAFLD analysis, and a subsample of 5320 participants was included in the FLI-defined NAFLD analysis. Compared with the lowest quartile of Na intake, the highest quartile had a multivariate-adjusted OR and 95 % CI of 1·46 (1·29, 1·65) for NAFLD as defined by HSI, and 1·41 (1·18, 1·69) for NAFLD as defined by FLI. This association was, to some degree, attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for several related metabolic parameters, including BMI, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes.
Findings from the current study indicate that dietary Na intake is positively associated with NAFLD in US adults.
We present the experimental optimization of electrons in the several hundred keV energy range originated from laser-irradiated wire targets. Accelerated by a femtosecond laser pulse, an electron pulse emitted from the wire target was collimated immediately along the wire to a filter unit for the manipulation of energy and spatial distributions. It is shown in simulation that with a pair of magnets as the filter unit, the optimized electrons could serve as a compact and tunable electron source. The proposed system was demonstrated in a proof-of-principle experiment where we attained 1 fC bunch charge with transverse coherence length approaching 1 nm based on a 0.2 TW laser platform. This indicates the scheme as a promising candidate for single-shot electron diffraction.
The association between milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome remains inconclusive, and data from Chinese populations are scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the association between milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome and its components among the residents of Suzhou Industrial Park, Suzhou, China. A total of 5149 participants were included in the final analysis. A logistic regression model was applied to estimate the OR and 95 % CI for the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components according to milk consumption. In addition, the results of our study were further meta-analysed with other published observational studies to quantify the association between the highest v. lowest categories of milk consumption and the metabolic syndrome and its components. There was no significant difference in the odds of having the metabolic syndrome between milk consumers and non-milk consumers (OR 0·86, 95 % CI 0·73, 1·01). However, milk consumers had lower odds of having elevated waist circumference (OR 0·78, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·92), elevated TAG (OR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·70, 0·99) and elevated blood pressure (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·99). When the results were pooled together with other published studies, higher milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (relative risk 0·80, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88) and its components (except elevated fasting blood glucose); however, these results should be treated with caution as high heterogeneity was observed. In summary, the currently available evidence from observational studies suggests that higher milk consumption may be inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome.
To evaluate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) in the first trimester (GWG-F) and the rate of gestational weight gain in the second trimester (RGWG-S) on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), exploring the optimal GWG ranges for the avoidance of GDM in Chinese women.
A population-based prospective study was conducted. Gestational weight was measured regularly in every antenatal visit and assessed by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) criteria (2009). GDM was assessed with the 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 weeks of gestation. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the effects of GWG-F and RGWG-S on GDM, stratified by pre-pregnancy BMI. In each BMI category, the GWG values corresponding to the lowest prevalence of GDM were defined as the optimal GWG range.
Pregnant women (n 1910) in 2017.
After adjusting for confounders, GWG-F above IOM recommendations increased the risk of GDM (OR; 95 % CI) among underweight (2·500; 1·106, 5·655), normal-weight (1·396; 1·023, 1·906) and overweight/obese women (3·017; 1·118, 8·138) compared with women within IOM recommendations. No significant difference was observed between RGWG-S and GDM (P > 0·05) after adjusting for GWG-F based on the previous model. The optimal GWG-F ranges for the avoidance of GDM were 0·8–1·2, 0·8–1·2 and 0·35–0·70 kg for underweight, normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively.
Excessive GWG in the first trimester, rather than the second trimester, is associated with increased risk of GDM regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI. Obstetricians should provide more pre-emptive guidance in achieving adequate GWG-F.
Rational construction of Z-scheme photocatalysts and exploration of the Z-scheme charge transfer mechanism have drawn much attention in the field of CO2 reduction because of its great potential to alleviate energy crisis and environmental problems. In this study, a series of Z-scheme CdS/BiOI composites were constructed by depositing CdS nanoparticles on the surface of BiOI nanosheets. The synthesized materials were characterized comprehensively, and their photoreduction CO2 activities were evaluated. The results show that the composites exhibit higher photoreduction CO2 activity under visible light irradiation (λ > 400 nm) than pure CdS and BiOI. The yields of CO and CH4 for the optimal composite after 3 h irradiation are 3.32 and 0.54 μmol/g, respectively. The improved photocatalytic activity is attributed to Z-scheme transfer mode of the photogenerated charges in the composites. The mechanism of CO2 reduction is proposed and verified experimentally.
The brachiopods collected from the Kuanyinchiao Beds (Hirnantian, uppermost Ordovician) in Meitan and Zunyi counties, northern Guizhou, include 13 species and one undetermined taxon, dominated by Hirnantia sagittifera (M'Coy, 1851) (which accounts for over one-third of the specimens), together with common Eostropheodonta hirnantensis (M'Coy, 1851). They are assigned to the Hirnantia–Eostropheodonta Community, which probably inhabited a shallow-water, nearshore Benthic Assemblage (BA) 2 to upper BA 3 environment. Population analysis shows that the community was well adapted to this environment after the first phase of the end-Ordovician mass extinction. Representative specimens of all the species are illustrated, and a new species, Minutomena missa, is described herein. The variation in Hirnantia sagittifera was noted in many of previous studies but was not statistically evidenced. Here we have measured representative specimens of that famous species from the major paleoplates and terranes in the world, along with other species assigned to the genus from South China. Having used principal component analysis (PCA), significant variations in the species are documented statistically and revised, and three nominal species, one subspecies, and two morphotypes are now reassigned to Hirnantia sagittifera sensu stricto.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.