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Field research was conducted in 1988 and 1989 to compare effects of clethodim, fenoxaprop, haloxyfop, and sethoxydim each applied singly and sequentially at full (1X) and reduced (0.5X) rates on barnyardgrass, bearded sprangletop, and rice. A tank-mixture of propanil plus thiobencarb (2.2 + 2.2 kg ha–1) applied sequentially was included as a standard treatment. Control of barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop was equal to that of the standard treatment both years with 1X rates of clethodim and fenoxaprop, and with 0.5X rates of clethodim, fenoxaprop, and sethoxydim each applied after propanil; rice so treated produced high grain yields. In 1988, severe rice injury occurred after the second application of clethodim at the 0.5X rate, but rice recovered. Grass control costs were reduced 57% with a single application of fenoxaprop at the 1X rate compared with the standard treatment, but net returns were not different.
Field experiments were conducted to compare efficacy of BAS 514, bromoxynil, fenoxaprop, sethoxydim, and triclopyr with standard herbicides for barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop control in rice at four locations. Sequential applications of BAS 514 and fenoxaprop, or propanil and sethoxydim consistently controlled barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop as well as or better than standard treatments of propanil, thiobencarb, or pendimethalin alone or combined; and rice so treated produced high yields. BAS 514 applied postemergence alone, BAS 514 applied sequentially with sethoxydim, or BAS 514 tank mixed with propanil controlled barnyardgrass but not bearded sprangletop. Bromoxynil or triclopyr tank mixed with fenoxaprop or sethoxydim antagonized activity on barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop. Combinations of fenoxaprop with BAS 514 or propanil consistently provided barnyardgrass and bearded sprangletop control and high yields.
Growth and development of red rice (strawhull) and ‘Lemont’ and ‘Newbonnet’ rice were compared in 1987 and 1988 under noncompetitive field conditions at Stuttgart, AR. Growth and developmental differences were greater between red rice and rice than between rice cultivars. Compared to rice, red rice was taller, produced more culms m−2 and aboveground dry weight, had higher leaf area indices, and had a greater flag leaf area. Also, it had lower leaf to stem ratios late in the season, had greater crop growth rate early in the season but less late in the season, and produced a lower grain weight than rice. Compared to Newbonnet, Lemont plants were shorter at 60 d after emergence or later, produced more culms m−2, had a greater leaf area index, and produced higher grain weight than Newbonnet. Also, Lemont and Newbonnet produced comparable leaf to stem ratios, crop growth rates, and flag leaf areas.
Field experiments were conducted to investigate methods of controlling red rice (Oryza sativa L. ♯ ORYSA) in drill-seeded rice (O. sativa). Treatments included the rice cultivar ‘Mars', coated with calcium peroxide (CaO2) at 40% (w/w) and a crop protectant, R-33865 (O,O-diethyl-O-phenyl phosphorothioate) at 0.5 and 1% (v/w). Molinate (S-ethyl hexahydro-1H-azepine-1-carbothioate) at 6.7 kg ai/ha was applied preplant incorporated (ppi). The land was flooded (2.5 to 5 cm deep) after seeding with rice (100 kg/ha, 2.5 cm deep), and the water was maintained throughout the growing season. CaO2, with or without molinate, increased rice grain yield 50% and increased rice culm density fivefold above untreated rice. Molinate applied ppi controlled 96% of the red rice. Rice seed coated with only CaO2 or with CaO2 plus R-33865 at 0.5%, each combined with ppi molinate, produced 5690 and 6030 kg/ha of grain, respectively. These high yields were associated with red rice control by molinate and good stands of rice provided by O2 supplied by CaO2. R-33865 applied to rice seed at 1% (v/w) injured rice by reducing rice culm densities 41%, compared with rice without protectant.
Red rice at 20 plants m−2 was grown with two rice cultivars for 0, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 days after emergence. Red rice interference for 120 days after rice emergence reduced straw dry weights of Lemont and Newbonnet 58 and 34%, respectively. Grain yield of Lemont and Newbonnet was reduced 86 and 52%, respectively, by red rice interference for 120 days after emergence. Regression analyses indicated that red rice interference reduced straw dry weights of Newbonnet and Lemont 25 and 50 kg ha−1 day−1, respectively, for interference durations of 40 to 120 days after emergence. Grain yield of Newbonnet and Lemont was reduced 60 and 93 kg ha−1 day−1, respectively, for interference durations of 60 to 120 days. Negative linear relationships occurred between interference durations of red rice and plant height, panicles m−2, spikelets panicle−1, filled grains panicle−1, or panicle length of both cultivars. However, all parameters were reduced more for Lemont than for Newbonnet as interference duration increased. Head rice (whole kernels) and total milled rice yields of both cultivars were reduced by season-long red rice interference. Red rice straw dry weight and number of culms m−2 were greater when red rice was grown with Lemont than when grown with Newbonnet.
Field experiments were conducted in 1984 and 1985 at Stuttgart, AR, to investigate the interspecific and intraspecific interference of broadleaf signalgrass densities of 0, 10, 50, 100, and 150 plants/m2 with rice. In 1984, significant reductions in rice leaf area index (LAI) occurred 6 weeks after emergence with all broadleaf signalgrass densities. The first reduction in LAI occurred 8 weeks after emergence at the density of 150 plants/m2 in 1985. Densities of 50 plants/m2 or greater reduced rice dry weight 6 weeks after emergence in 1984, and the highest density of 150 plants/m2 reduced rice dry weight 12 weeks after emergence in 1985. Height of rice was reduced by densities of 100 and 150 plants/m2. Linear regression equations indicated that each broadleaf signalgrass plant/m2 reduced rough rice yield 18 kg/ha both years. Growth of broadleaf signalgrass was reduced by interspecific and intraspecific interference. The dry weight of broadleaf signalgrass increased at a decreasing rate at plant densities of 100 to 150/m2 when grown alone in 1984 and 1985, when a quadratic equation best described the response. Regression equations indicated interspecific interference from rice reduced broadleaf signalgrass dry weight an average of 48 and 81% in 1984 and 1985, respectively. The height of broadleaf signalgrass was greater when grown with rice than when grown alone.
Pot experiments were conducted in the field at Stuttgart, AR, during 1982 and 1983 to evaluate growth and morphological differences between strawhull and blackhull red rice (Oryza sativa L. ♯ ORYSA) biotypes collected from Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas. All red rice biotypes were compared with rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars ‘Lebonnet’ and ‘Nortai’. Growth and morphological differences were greatest between cultivars and red rice biotypes, less between blackhull and strawhull types, and least among collections within blackhull or strawhull. Cultivars emerged slower, were shorter, tillered less, produced less straw and fewer panicles/plant, had a lower leaf area index, and had less grain shattering than most of the red rice biotypes. Blackhull red rice biotypes tillered 27% more, produced 18% more straw, and had later maturity than strawhull. Blackhull red rice from Arkansas emerged earlier, tillered 6 to 38% more, and produced 8 to 38% more panicles per plant than other red rice biotypes, whereas blackhull red rice from Texas was 11 to 26% taller at maturity than other biotypes.
Field research was conducted in 1985 and 1986 to compare the efficacy of fluazifop and quizalofop on production of panicles and seeds of red rice. Single and first sequential treatments were applied to red rice in the early-tillering, midtillering, and panicle initiation stages of growth. Sequential treatments were applied 14 days after each earlier application to red rice in the midtillering, late-tillering, and early-heading growth stages, respectively. Both herbicides were applied singly or sequentially at 70, 140, and 280 g/ha. Sequential applications of fluazifop and quizalofop at 280 g/ha caused the greatest reduction of red rice panicle and seed production. Fluazifop at 280 g/ha applied sequentially reduced panicle production 75 to 80% and seed production 80%; 140 g/ha applied sequentially reduced seed production 83%. Quizalofop at 280 g/ha applied sequentially reduced panicle production 75 to 100% and seed production 91%. Sequential applications of either herbicide applied to red rice plants in the panicle initiation and early-heading growth stages were the most effective treatments.
Effects of bearded sprangletop interference durations on Lemont and Newbonnet rice cultivars were studied. Interference durations of 63, 70, and 130 d after rice emergence reduced Lemont grain yields 11, 21, and 50%, respectively, and lowered Newbonnet grain yields 11, 13, and 37%, respectively. Interference durations of 21 to 56 d after emergence did not reduce grain yields of either cultivar. Bearded sprangletop grown in Lemont rice produced more biomass than that in Newbonnet. Season-long interference reduced plant height and straw dry weight of Lemont more than that of Newbonnet.
Experiments were conducted from 1989 to 1991 on two silt loam and two clay soils to determine the effect of herbicides applied to the previous crop on growth and yield of rice. All herbicides were applied preplant-incorporated at recommended rates adjusted as needed for soil texture. Rice was planted the following year. Imazaquin, imazethapyr, alachlor, metolachlor, clomazone, trifluralin, and atrazine did not injure rice the year following application. Norflurazon was the only herbicide to injure rice on silt loam soils, with injury at one silt loam location in one of two years. Norflurazon and fluometuron residues caused rice injury on clay soils, and chlorimuron residues caused injury in one year on a day soil. This chlorimuron carryover injury was from August-planted soybean but did not occur from June-planted soybean. Norflurazon, fluometuron, and chlorimuron temporarily reduced rice dry matter early in the season. No herbicide reduced either rough rice or percent head rice yield on any of the soils.
Two field experiments were conducted from 1986 to 1988 to determine efficacy of herbidices and plant growth regulators for red rice control and suppression in water- and drill-seeded rice. Molinate applied PPI with fenoxaprop applied at panicle initiation (PI) of rice controlled 94 and 86% of red rice in water- and drill-seeded rice, respectively, compared with 79 and 49%, respectively, for molinate PPI alone in the two cultures. Although this treatment injured rice slightly (< 30%), rice so treated produced high yields with improved grain quality. Sequential treatments of molinate PPI followed by sethoxydim applied at PI or amidochlor applied at > 90% heading produced comparable rice yields with improved red rice control or suppression and grain quality in both cultures, compared with PPI molinate. Drill-seeded rice treated with molinate PPI followed by fenoxaprop applied at late boot or MH (maleic hydazide) applied 7 d after heading produced higher yield than rice treated with molinate PPI.
Field experiments were conducted at Stuttgart, AR, from 1986 to 1988 to determine effects of season-long interference of red rice densities of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 40 plants m–2 on ‘Lemont’ and ‘Newbonnet’ rice cultivars. This interference reduced straw dry weights of Newbonnet and Lemont by 100 and 130 kg ha–1 per red rice plant, and grain yields by 178 and 272 kg ha–1 per red rice plant, respectively. Grain yield reductions were due to decreases in panicle number and length, and in number of grains per panicle. Ten plants m–2 or more reduced height of Lemont, while 40 plants m−2 were required to reduce height of Newbonnet. Red rice at 10 plants m−2 or more reduced total milled and head rice yields of Lemont, but red rice did not affect these components for Newbonnet. Red rice interfered with rice, even at densities as low as two plants m−2, and interference was greater in Lemont, a semidwarf cultivar with mature plants 92 cm tall, than in Newbonnet, a conventional cultivar with mature plants 115 cm tall. Red rice produced more panicles m−2 and 31 to 64% greater straw dry weight when grown with Lemont than when grown with Newbonnet because red rice shaded Lemont more than Newbonnet. Red rice plants grew taller as red rice densities increased and also were taller when grown in Newbonnet than when grown in Lemont.
Red rice (Oryza sativa L. ♯ ORYSA) densities of 5, 108, and 215 plants/m2 reduced grain yield of commercial rice (Oryza sativa L.) 22, 77, and 82%, respectively. At a cultivated rice density of 195 plants/m2, red rice at 5, 108, and 215 plants/m2 reduced straw dry weight of cultivated rice 18, 66, and 68%, respectively. At a red rice density of 5 plants/m2, reduction in number of cultivated rice grains per panicle ranged from 8 to 18%, whereas densities of 108 and 215 plants/m2 reduced grains per panicle 56 to 70%. Red rice grain yield was 24 to 33% lower in ‘Mars' rice than in ‘Lebonnet’. Mars, a medium-grain cultivar that matures in 138 days, competed better with red rice than Lebonnet, a long-grain cultivar that matures in 126 days.
Interference from broadleaf signalgrass at a density of 180 plants/m2 reduced rough rice yields of ‘Bond’ a maximum of 48% at 95 days after rice emergence and reduced yields of ‘Mars' a maximum of 21% from season-long interference. Interference durations of 40 days or longer reduced the panicles/m2, culms/m2, and plant height of rice. Straw dry weight of Bond and Mars was reduced 41 and 26%, respectively, from season-long interference. Increased durations of weed interference did not affect the number of spikelets/panicle, percent filled spikelets, rough kernel weight, or head rice yield of either cultivar. Broadleaf signalgrass produced less dry weight and fewer panicles/m2 when grown with Mars than with Bond.
Experiments were conducted in 1985 and 1986 at three locations in eastern Arkansas to evaluate red rice control in soybeans with postemergence grass herbicides and plant growth regulators applied singly or sequentially at early to late-tillering growth stages of red rice. Haloxyfop at 0.21 kg ai/ha and quizalofop at 0.14 kg ai/ha applied singly or sequentially and fluazifop at 0.21 kg ai/ha applied sequentially consistently controlled red rice and suppressed seedhead production in soybeans. Mid-season treatments were not beneficial when high soil moisture stress conditions existed. Mefluidide or sethoxydim applied singly or sequentially or amidochlor applied singly provided erratic control and seedhead suppression of red rice in soybeans.
Density and spatial interference of barnyardgrass with ‘Lemont’ and ‘Newbonnet’ rice cultivars was investigated in 1987 and 1988. Barnyardgrass reduced grain yield of Lemont, a semidwarf cultivar, more than Newbonnet, a short-statured cultivar. Linear regression indicated that season-long interference of barnyardgrass at 1 to 20 plants m–2 reduced grain yields of Lemont and Newbonnet by 301 and 257 kg ha–1 per barnyardgrass plant, respectively. Grain yields of Lemont and Newbonnet were reduced by barnyardgrass densities to 40 plants m–2 but were not affected further at densities ≥40 plants m–2. Barnyardgrass reduced straw yield of Lemont more than of Newbonnet. Although barnyardgrass culms m–2 and straw yield increased as weed density increased, the weed produced more culms per plant at 2 and 5 m–2 than at 20 to 80 m–2. In a spatial interference experiment, Lemont grain yield reduction averaged 21% when plants were grown within 0 to 25 cm of a barnyardgrass plant group (group = 4 plants per 140 cm2). However, rice yields were not reduced when barnyardgrass plant groups were 25 to 50 or 50 to 100 cm away. Additional treatments included two barnyardgrass groups spaced 20, 40, 80, or 100 cm apart When Lemont grew between barnyardgrass groups spaced 20 or 40 cm apart, grain yields were reduced 40 and 27%, respectively, compared with weed-free rice. However, Lemont yield was not reduced when rice plants grew between weed plant groups spaced 100 cm apart.
Previous research has examined the extent to which red rice affects both yield and grain quality of cultivated rice. However, this research was conducted over 15 yr ago. Modern long-grain rice cultivars have the potential to produce yields above 10,000 kg ha−1; however, it is unknown whether modern rice cultivars sacrifice competitiveness to achieve higher yields, or if, in fact, they are more competitive. Field studies were conducted in 2002 and 2003 at the Southeast Research and Extension Center near Rohwer, AR, and at the University of Arkansas Pine Bluff Research Farm near Lonoke, AR, to investigate the effect of red rice density on interference between red rice and five rice cultivars (‘CL161’, ‘Cocodrie’, ‘LaGrue’, ‘Lemont’, and ‘XL8’). White rice yield reductions were between 100 and 755 kg ha−1 for every red rice plant m−2. The hybrid rice, XL8, had higher yields than the conventional cultivars. Red rice contamination in milling samples increased linearly as a function of red rice density at Lonoke and Rohwer in 2003. Dockage for each cultivar was calculated on the basis of the relationship between red rice density and red rice contamination. Semidwarf Lemont was the most contaminated and hybrid XL8 the least contaminated by the various densities of red rice.
A 4-year-old boy developed Rasmussen’s syndrome and was treated with alpha interferon intraventricularly. An improvement in the epileptic and neurologic syndrome was noted for several weeks following interferon. No adverse side effects were encountered. Since hemispherectomy is the only established therapy in Rasmussen’s Syndrome, further studies are needed to establish if intraventricular alpha interferon may halt the clinical progression of the syndrome.
This study focuses on the longstanding impoverishment of the rural South and three of its subregions-Appalachia, the Mississippi Delta, and the Black Belt. The poor quality of life in rural Appalachia and along the Mississippi Delta has been publically acknowledged by programs and commissions for improving conditions. However, the more comprehensive Black Belt subregion that links parts of Southern Appalachia and the Southern Delta has not received such regional policy attention. While the South as a whole is more rural and impoverished than other U.S. regions, this is largely due to the poor conditions in the Black Belt. In addition to region and rurality, a third feature of the pattern is race. It is in the Black Belt that the South's poor socioeconomic conditions are most concentrated. Policy and program attention are needed for regional solutions that take rurality and race into account along with demographic and other subregional characteristics.