Because HIV/AIDS negatively impacts on the food security status of households, it is crucial to identify how households respond to these impacts, in order to identify positive food security entry points and design strategies that can effectively alleviate food insecurity among the households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). A cross-sectional study was thus undertaken to establish how HIV affected households in an urban Ugandan setting in terms of response to food shortages and the interrelations between the practice of agriculture by PLWHA households within and around town, food security, access to food aid and dietary diversity among these households. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected using quantitative methods from 144 randomly recruited households of PLWHA (aged 15–49 years) residing in Jinja town in Eastern Uganda. The study showed that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has increased the inability of affected households in the study area to put enough food on the table, possibly because of the continued decreased productivity in these households and the high expenditure on medical costs. Various coping mechanisms identified in the households of PLWHA may contribute to poor adherence to antiretroviral regimes and poor quality of life for all household members. However, the practice of agriculture by PLWHA households was one of the positive coping mechanisms to alleviate food insecurity.