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To determine healthcare-associated infection (HAI) prevalence in 9 hospitals in Jacksonville, Florida; to evaluate the performance of proxy indicators for HAIs; and to refine methodology in preparation for a multistate survey.
Point prevalence survey.
Acute care inpatients of any age.
HAIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. In each facility a trained primary team (PT) of infection prevention (IP) staff performed the survey on 1 day, reviewing records and collecting data on a random sample of inpatients. PTs assessed patients with one or more proxy indicators (abnormal white blood cell count, abnormal temperature, or antimicrobial therapy) for the presence of HAIs. An external IP expert team collected data from a subset of patient records reviewed by PTs to assess proxy indicator performance and PT data collection.
Of 851 patients surveyed by PTs, 51 had one or more HAIs (6.0%; 95% confidence interval, 4.5%–7.7%). Surgical site infections (n = 18), urinary tract infections (n = 9), pneumonia (n = 9), and bloodstream infections (n = 8) accounted for 75.8% of 58 HAIs detected by PTs. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen, causing 9 HAIs (15.5%). Antimicrobial therapy was the most sensitive proxy indicator, identifying 95.5% of patients with HAIs.
HAI prevalence in this pilot was similar to that reported in the 1970s by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. Antimicrobial therapy was a sensitive screening variable with which to identify those patients at higher risk for infection and reduce data collection burden. Additional work is needed on validation and feasibility to extend this methodology to a national scale.
In July 1999, a rare strain of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg was isolated from the sputum of a trauma patient. Over a 6-year period (1999-2005) in northeast Florida, this Salmonella serovar spread to 66 other patients in 16 different healthcare facilities as a result of frequent transfers of patients among institutions. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of healthcare-associated infection and colonization with a fluoroquinolone-resistant strain of S. Senftenberg in the United States.
To investigate an outbreak of infection and colonization with an unusual strain of S. Senftenberg and assist with infection control measures.
A case series, outbreak investigation, and microbiological study of all samples positive for S. Senftenberg on culture.
Cases of S. Senftenberg infection and colonization occurred in hospitals and long-term care facilities in 2 counties in northeast Florida.
The affected patients were mostly elderly persons with multiple medical conditions. They were frequently transferred between healthcare facilities. This Salmonella serovar was capable of long-term colonization of chronically ill patients. All S. Senftenberg isolates tested shared a similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern.
A prolonged outbreak of infection and colonization with multidrug-resistant S. Senftenberg was identified in several healthcare facilities throughout the Jacksonville, Florida, area and became established when infection control measures failed. The bacterial agent was capable of long-term colonization in chronically ill patients. Because the dispersal pattern of this strain suggested a breakdown of infection control practices, a multipronged intervention approach was undertaken that included intense education of personnel in the different institutions, interinstitutional cooperation, and transfer paperwork notification.
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