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Vitamin D deficiency is recognised as a public health problem globally, and a high prevalence of deficiency has previously been reported in Australia. This study details the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults aged ≥25 years, using an internationally standardised method to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and identifies demographic and lifestyle factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. We used data from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n 5034 with complete information on potential predictors and serum 25(OH)D concentrations). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS that is certified to the reference measurement procedures developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ghent University and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l and 50 to <75 nmol/l, respectively. Overall, 20 % of participants (19 % men; 21 % women) were classified as vitamin D deficient, with a further 43 % classified as insufficient (45 % men; 42 % women). Independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency included being born in a country other than Australia or the main English-speaking countries, residing in southern (higher latitude) states of Australia, being assessed during winter or spring, being obese, smoking (women only), having low physical activity levels and not taking vitamin D or Ca supplements. Given our increasingly indoor lifestyles, there is a need to develop and promote strategies to maintain adequate vitamin D status through safe sun exposure and dietary approaches.
Resistance training (RT) and increased dietary protein are recommended to attenuate age-related muscle loss in the elderly. This study examined the effect of a lean red meat protein-enriched diet combined with progressive resistance training (RT+Meat) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in elderly women. In this 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial, 100 women aged 60–90 years (mean 73 years) from self-care retirement villages participated in RT twice a week and were allocated either 160 g/d (cooked) lean red meat consumed across 2 meals/d, 6 d/week or ≥1 serving/d (25–30 g) carbohydrates (control group, CRT). HR-QoL (SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire), lower limb maximum muscle strength and lean tissue mass (LTM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline and 4 months. In all, ninety-one women (91 %) completed the study (RT+Meat (n 48); CRT (n 43)). Mean protein intake was greater in RT+Meat than CRT throughout the study (1·3 (sd 0·3) v. 1·1 (sd 0·3) g/kg per d, P<0·05). Exercise compliance (74 %) was not different between groups. After 4 months there was a significant net benefit in the RT+Meat compared with CRT group for overall HR-QoL and the physical component summary (PCS) score (P<0·01), but there were no changes in either group in the mental component summary (MCS) score. Changes in lower limb muscle strength, but not LTM, were positively associated with changes in overall HR-QoL (muscle strength, β: 2·2 (95 % CI 0·1, 4·3), P<0·05). In conclusion, a combination of RT and increased dietary protein led to greater net benefits in overall HR-QoL in elderly women compared with RT alone, which was because of greater improvements in PCS rather than MCS.
We assessed premorbid functioning during childhood and adolescence in 50 people with schizophrenia from multiply affected families, 39 of their unaffected siblings, 69 people with schizophrenia with no family history of psychosis, 67 of their unaffected siblings and 83 controls. People with schizophrenia had poorer premorbid social and academic adjustment and exhibited a decline between childhood and adolescence compared with controls. Unaffected siblings from multiply affected families also had poor academic functioning in adolescence, with a decline between childhood and adolescence. This may represent a familial (presumed genetic) effect.
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