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The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
The mechanism through which developmental programming of offspring overweight/obesity following in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity operates is unknown but may operate through biologic pathways involving offspring anthropometry at birth. Thus, we sought to examine to what extent the association between in utero exposure to maternal overweight/obesity and childhood overweight/obesity is mediated by birth anthropometry. Analyses were conducted on a retrospective cohort with data obtained from one hospital system. A natural effects model framework was used to estimate the natural direct effect and natural indirect effect of birth anthropometry (weight, length, head circumference, ponderal index, and small-for-gestational age [SGA] or large-for-gestational age [LGA]) for the association between pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) category (overweight/obese vs normal weight) and offspring overweight/obesity in childhood. Models were adjusted for maternal and child socio-demographics. Three thousand nine hundred and fifty mother–child dyads were included in analyses (1467 [57.8%] of mothers and 913 [34.4%] of children were overweight/obese). Results suggest that a small percentage of the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI overweight/obesity on offspring overweight/obesity operated through offspring anthropometry at birth (weight: 15.5%, length: 5.2%, head circumference: 8.5%, ponderal index: 2.2%, SGA: 2.9%, and LGA: 4.2%). There was a small increase in the percentage mediated when gestational diabetes or hypertensive disorders were added to the models. Our study suggests that some measures of birth anthropometry mediate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and offspring overweight/obesity in childhood and that the size of this mediated effect is small.
Surgical experiments were conducted on cultured five-node apical rhizome segments of quackgrass. Removal of scale leaves promoted an initial burst of growth within the axillary buds but did not support the continued growth of buds as effectively as removal of the rhizome apex. Replacement of detached scale leaves over denuded buds temporarily repressed the promotive effect of scale leaf removal. Aqueous extracts of scale leaf material inhibited apical growth in rhizome segments but did not inhibit bud growth. Anatomical sections revealed that removal of scale leaves promoted development of buds: cells enlarged, vascular tissues differentiated, and new nodes began to form within 4 days of the removal of scale leaves. It is suggested that scale leaves contribute to apical dominance by inhibiting the initial development of axillary buds.
An experiment was conducted to determine the population dynamics of barnyardgrass under a range of weed management treatments in glyphosate-resistant (GR) cotton in Australia. These treatments consisted of glyphosate herbicide only (Glyphosate only), glyphosate herbicide plus a combination of conventional or integrated weed management practices (Glyphosate + IWM), glyphosate herbicide plus a reduced residual herbicide program (Glyphosate + Res.), glyphosate herbicide plus a grass herbicide (Glyphosate + Grass), and a combination of conventional weed management practices (IWM only). The experiment investigated the effects of weed management on the weed seed bank, weed emergence patterns, and weed populations. After three years, all treatments resulted in commercially acceptable control of barnyardgrass. However, treatments containing soil-applied residual herbicides proved more effective over the period of the experiment. Seed bank reductions were in the order of 100-fold over the period of the experiment for treatments that received residual herbicides compared to 10- to 20-fold reductions for treatments that did not. The experiment highlighted the importance of early-season weed control, as well as the importance of an integrated approach to weed management with residual herbicides to control later-emerging weeds in GR cotton.
Introduction: Effective management of major depressive disorder (MDD) continues to be a challenging task for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of adjunctive aripiprazole versus antidepressant monotherapy in patients with MDD and independently replicated the positive findings of two similar trials.
Methods: Patients (N=1, 147) with MDD experiencing a major depressive episode and a history of inadequate response to antidepressant monotherapy were enrolled (week 0); 827 received single-blind adjunctive placebo plus open-label antidepressant (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine controlled release, sertraline, or venlafaxine extended release) for 8 weeks to confirm inadequate response to antidepressants; 349 patients with inadequate response were randomized (1:1) to double-blind, adjunctive placebo (n=172) or adjunctive aripiprazole (n=177; 2–20 mg/day). Primary outcome was the mean change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) Total score from baseline (week 8) to endpoint (week 14).
Results: Clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms as assessed by decreases in the MADRS Total score were greater with adjunctive aripiprazole (−10.1) than placebo (−6.4; P<.001). Remission rates were greater for adjunctive aripiprazole than for adjunctive placebo (week 14, 36.8% vs 18.9%; P<.001). Completion rates with adjunctive aripiprazole and placebo were high (83% vs. 87%) and discontinuations due to adverse events were low (6.2% vs 1.7%).
Conclusion: For some patients with MDD who do not obtain adequate symptom relief with antidepressant monotherapy, adjunctive therapies can significantly improve depressive symptoms. As reported, adjunctive aripiprazole was associated with a two-fold higher remission rate than adjunctive placebo. This, and previous studies, have shown that discontinuations due to adverse events were low and completion rates were high, and has indicated that both antidepressant and aripiprazole in combination were relatively well-tolerated and safe. This is the third consecutive clinical trial, in the absence of a failed trial, to demonstrate that aripiprazole augmentation to antidepressants is an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment for patients with MDD who do not respond adequately to standard antidepressant monotherapy (ClinicalTrials.gov study NCT00105196).
This chapter discusses placental angiogenesis, including information on placental neovascular formation as well as transformation of the vessels during gestation. By 4 weeks' gestation, the cytotrophoblasts proliferate and form the primary villi. The placenta structurally provides a very intimate relationship between the maternal blood and fetal blood. Once blood vessels are formed within the tertiary villi, they begin to remodel and adapt to the changing needs of the growing embryo and fetus. Placental angiogenesis is very complex and depends on an appropriate balance between pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. Dysregulation of placental angiogenesis often leads to pregnancy-related diseases. Three common adverse pregnancy outcomes have been associated with defective placental vascularization: spontaneous abortion, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), sometimes referred to as small-for-gestational age (SGA), and preeclampsia (PE). Further characterization of angiogenesis in placental development will better inform clinicians and scientists about healthy and pathological pregnancies.
This collection of essays pays tribute to Nancy Freeman Regalado, a ground-breaking scholar in the field of medieval French literature whose research has always pushed beyond disciplinary boundaries. The articles in the volume reflect the depth and diversity of her scholarship, as well as her collaborations with literary critics, philologists, historians, art historians, musicologists, and vocalists - in France, England, and the United States. Inspired by her most recent work, these twenty-four essays are tied together by a single question, rich in ramifications: how does performance shape our understanding of medieval and pre-modern literature and culture, whether the nature of that performance is visual, linguistic, theatrical, musical, religious, didactic, socio-political, or editorial? The studies presented here invite us to look afresh at the interrelationship of audience, author, text, and artifact, to imagine new ways of conceptualizing the creation, transmission, and reception of medieval literature, music, and art.
EGLAL DOSS-QUINBY is Professor of French at Smith College; ROBERTA L. KRUEGER is Professor of French at Hamilton College; E. JANE BURNS is Professor of Women's Studies and Adjunct Professor of Comparative Literature at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Contributors: ANNE AZÉMA, RENATE BLUMENFELD-KOSINSKI, CYNTHIA J. BROWN, ELIZABETH A. R. BROWN, MATILDA TOMARYN BRUCKNER, E. JANE BURNS, ARDIS BUTTERFIELD, KIMBERLEE CAMPBELL, ROBERT L. A. CLARK, MARK CRUSE, KATHRYN A. DUYS, ELIZABETH EMERY, SYLVIA HUOT, MARILYN LAWRENCE, KATHLEEN A. LOYSEN, LAURIE POSTLEWATE, EDWARD H. ROESNER, SAMUEL N. ROSENBERG, LUCY FREEMAN SANDLER, PAMELA SHEINGORN, HELEN SOLTERER, JANE H. M. TAYLOR, EVELYN BIRGE VITZ, LORI J. WALTERS, AND MICHEL ZINK.