To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Andrea Stolar, M.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, FL, Staff Psychiatrist, Women's Program, Bay Pines Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bay Pines, FL, USA,
Glenn Catalano, M.D., Associate Professor, University of South Florida College of Medicine, FL, Medical Director of Psychiatry, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA,
Sheryl M. Hakala, M.D., Child Fellow, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, FL, USA,
Robert P. Bright, M.D., Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina, Attending Psychiatrist, Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC, USA,
Francisco P. Fernandez, M.D., Professor and Chairperson, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USA
Reported rates of depression among people infected with HIV vary. During the course of their disease, up to 85% of HIV-seropositive individuals report some depressive symptoms, and up to 50% experience a major depressive disorder. The variability across studies may be due to small sample size, population characteristics, and evaluation tools. However, in their meta-analysis of published studies, Ciesla and Roberts (2001) found that people with HIV were almost twice as likely as those who are HIV-seronegative to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and that depression was equally prevalent in people with both symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV. In their recent analysis of rates of depression and anxiety disorders in people with HIV, Morrison et al. (2002) found a fourfold increase in the risk of current major depressive disorder in HIV-seropositive women compared with an HIV-seronegative group.
The data regarding the prevalence of mania in people with HIV is scant. Although less common than depression, the risk of mania is still thought to be significant, particularly as the disease progresses (Ellen et al., 1999). Mania may be the behavioral manifestation of direct central nervous system (CNS) pathology or toxicity or, if the patient has a family or personal history of bipolar disorder, mania may suggest a primary affective disorder.
The occurrence of psychosis is not too surprising since people with HIV experience marked disturbances in dopamine metabolism (Berger et al., 1994). Early samples found frequencies ranging between less than 0.5% to 15% (Sewell et al. 1994).
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.