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Conservation tillage adoption continues to be threatened by glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-resistant Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weeds. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2010 through crop harvest in 2013 at two locations in Alabama to evaluate the effect of integrated management practices on weed control and seed cotton yield in glyphosate-resistant cotton. The effects of a cereal rye cover crop using high or low biomass residue, followed by wide or narrow within-row strip-tillage, and three PRE herbicide regimes were evaluated. The three PRE regimes were: 1) pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha-1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha-1 applied broadcast, 2) pendimethalin plus fomesafen applied banded on the row, or 3) no PRE. Each PRE treatment was followed by (fb) glyphosate (1.12 kg ae ha-1) applied POST fb a LAYBY applications of diuron (1.12 kg ai ha-1) plus MSMA (2.24 kg ai ha-1). Low residue plots ranged in biomass from 85 to 464 kg ha-1, while high biomass plots ranged from 3119 to 6929 kg ha-1. In most comparisons, surface disturbance width, residue amount, and soil applied herbicide placement did not influence within-row weed control; however, broadcast PRE resulted in increased carpetweed, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, tall morningglory, and yellow nutsedge weed control in row middles compared to plots receiving banded PRE. In addition, high residue increased carpetweed, common purslane, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, sicklepod, and tall morningglory weed control between rows. Use of banded PRE herbicides resulted in equivalent yield and revenue in four of six comparisons compared to those with broadcast PRE herbicide application; however, this would likely result in many between row weed escapes. Thus, conservation tillage cotton would benefit from broadcast soil-applied herbicide applications regardless of residue amount and tillage width when infested with Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weed species.
Beothukis mistakensis from the Ediacaran System of Newfoundland, Canada demonstrates complex fractal-like morphology through the development of primary-, secondary- and tertiary-order Rangea-like units. The primary-order rangeomorph units observed in B. mistakensis are tightly juxtaposed, show no evidence of being independent of one another and are made up of chamber-like secondary-order – probably mesoglea-filled – units. The growth of these rangeomorph units demonstrates that the frond developed from the tip towards the basal region through ontogeny. The tertiary-order units of Beothukis are considered to represent surface morphology on the secondary-order units. This is in contrast to palaeobiological reconstructions of Beothukis that invoke three-dimensional fractal-like branches with independent units, which has been used to infer an osmotrophic mode of life. It is considered here that the fractal-like morphology of the lower surface of B. mistakensis was an adaptation to increase surface area to volume ratio. The quilted morphology of Beothukis proposed here is consistent with a sessile, reclining, phagocytotic and/or chemosymbiotic mode of life similar to that invoked for the reclining rangeomorph Fractofusus.
Driving is an essential activity of daily living for many patients. A diagnosis of dementia is likely to affect one's ability to continue driving safely due to cognitive decline. It is the role of the memory services team to inform the patient of the above, assess their risk and advise patients about their driving accordingly. Furthermore given that there are currently no gold standard assessment tools available, the method by which patient risk is assessed is often left of the discretion of the assessor. This literature review looks at assessment of driving to see if there is an effective method that could be adopted by memory service assessors.
To review literature with regards to assessing competency of driving in patients with dementia (pre and post disclosure).
To see if there are effective measures, tools or assessment criteria that can effectively determine if a patient is competent to continue driving.
PubMed and OvidSP search using ‘driving assessment’ and ‘dementia’ as search criteria for journal publications in English over the past five years.
The search gave 60 papers from pubmed and 14 from OvidSP. 12 papers met the criteria for selection.
There are many different tools that can be used to assess cognition, each with varying ability to identify those patients who are at risk when continuing to drive. The problem lies not only in detecting those at risk but there is also the issue over validation for the tests that are available
A collaborative research model was developed and tested to enable regional healthcare systems to join multisite clinical trials emanating from the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Trial Innovation Network (TIN) by the Institute of Translational Health Sciences at the University of Washington and the Northwest Participant and Clinical Interactions (NW PCI) Network. The NW PCI is a collaborative group of regional research programs located at medical centers, healthcare systems, and universities across Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. This article describes the purpose, development, barriers, and initial experience with feasibility assessment for TIN-supported studies in the NW PCI. The tools and processes of the NW PCI Network were adapted to enable network sites to assess studies for clinical relevance and feasibility. Seven of seventeen TIN-supported studies were reviewed for consideration; three of which resulted in successful completion of study documentation for site selection by NW PCI sites. The NW PCI/TIN model can be adapted by other CTSAs to increase involvement of regional research programs in national multisite clinical research studies. Barriers to expanding TIN-supported trials to regional networks include short timelines for study document submissions, insufficient site reimbursement rates, and non-feasible study designs.
Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
We propose the concept of the “Fish Revolution” to demarcate the dramatic increase in North Atlantic fisheries after AD 1500, which led to a 15-fold increase of cod (Gadus morhua) catch volumes and likely a tripling of fish protein to the European market. We consider three key questions: (1) What were the environmental parameters of the Fish Revolution? (2) What were the globalising effects of the Fish Revolution? (3) What were the consequences of the Fish Revolution for fishing communities? While these questions would have been considered unknowable a decade or two ago, methodological developments in marine environmental history and historical ecology have moved information about both supply and demand into the realm of the discernible. Although much research remains to be done, we conclude that this was a major event in the history of resource extraction from the sea, mediated by forces of climate change and globalisation, and is likely to provide a fruitful agenda for future multidisciplinary research.
Recent commercialization of auxin herbicide–based weed control systems has led to increased off-target exposure of susceptible cotton cultivars to auxin herbicides. Off-target deposition of dilute concentrations of auxin herbicides can occur on cotton at any stage of growth. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Mississippi from 2014 to 2016 to assess the response of cotton at various growth stages after exposure to a sublethal 2,4-D concentration of 8.3 g ae ha−1. Herbicide applications occurred weekly from 0 to 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). Cotton exposure to 2,4-D at 2 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 64% visible injury, whereas 2,4-D exposure 5 to 6 WAE resulted in machine-harvested yield reductions of 18% to 21%. Cotton maturity was delayed after exposure 2 to 10 WAE, and height was increased from exposure 6 to 9 WAE due to decreased fruit set after exposure. Total hand-harvested yield was reduced from 2,4-D exposure 3, 5 to 8, and 13 WAE. Growth stage at time of exposure influenced the distribution of yield by node and position. Yield on lower and inner fruiting sites generally decreased from exposure, and yield partitioned to vegetative or aborted positions and upper fruiting sites increased. Reductions in gin turnout, micronaire, fiber length, fiber-length uniformity, and fiber elongation were observed after exposure at certain growth stages, but the overall effects on fiber properties were small. These results indicate that cotton is most sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4-D during late vegetative and squaring growth stages.
The introduction of auxin herbicide weed control systems has led to increased occurrence of crop injury in susceptible soybeans and cotton. Off-target exposure to sublethal concentrations of dicamba can occur at varying growth stages, which may affect crop response. Field experiments were conducted in Mississippi in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to characterize cotton response to a sublethal concentration of dicamba equivalent to 1/16X the labeled rate. Weekly applications of dicamba at 35 g ae ha−1 were made to separate sets of replicated plots immediately following planting until 14 wk after emergence (WAE). Exposure to dicamba from 1 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 32% visible injury, and exposure from 7 to 10 WAE delayed crop maturity. Exposure from 8 to 10 and 13 WAE led to increased cotton height, while an 18% reduction in machine-harvested yield resulted from exposure at 6 WAE. Cotton exposure at 3 to 9 WAE reduced the seed cotton weight partitioned to position 1 fruiting sites, while exposure at 3 to 6 WAE also reduced yield in position 2 fruiting sites. Exposure at 2, 3, and 5 to 7 WAE increased the percent of yield partitioned to vegetative branches. An increase in percent of yield partitioned to plants with aborted terminals occurred following exposure from 3 to 7 WAE and corresponded with reciprocal decreases in yield partitioned to positional fruiting sites. Minimal effects were observed on fiber quality, except for decreases in fiber length uniformity resulting from exposure at 9 and 10 WAE.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the integration of cover crops and POST herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton. The winter-annual grasses accumulated the greatest amount of biomass and provided the most Palmer amaranth control. The estimates for the logistic regression would indicate that 1540 kg ha−1 would delay Palmer amaranth emerging and growing to 10 cm by an estimated 16.5 days. The Palmer amaranth that emerged in the cereal rye and wheat cover crop treatments took a longer time to reach 10 cm compared to the hairy vetch and crimson clover treatments. POST herbicides were needed for adequate control of Palmer amaranth. The glufosinate-based weed control system provided greater control (75% vs 31%) of Palmer amaranth than did the glyphosate system. These results indicate that a POST only herbicide weed management system did not provide sufficient control of Palmer amaranth, even when used in conjunction with cover crops that produced a moderate level of biomass. Therefore, future recommendations for GR Palmer amaranth control will include integrating cover crops with PRE herbicides, overlaying residual herbicides in-season, timely POST herbicide applications, and hand weeding in order to achieve season-long control of this pest.
The intense heat and energetic particle fluxes expected in ITER and future magnetic fusion reactors pose prohibitive problems to the design, selection and maintenance of the first wall and divertor. Micropellet injection (MPI) technologies can offer some innovative solutions to the material and extreme heat challenges. Basic physics of micropellet motion, ablation and interactions with high-temperature plasmas and energetic particles are presented first. We then discuss MPI technology options and applications. In addition to plasma diagnostic applications, controlled injection of micropellets of different sizes, velocities and injection frequencies will offer several possibilities: (1) better assessment of the core plasma cooling due to dust produced in situ; (2) better understanding of the plasma–material interaction physics near the wall; (3) new methods for plasma fuelling and impurity control; and (4) techniques for edge cooling with minimal impact on the plasma core. Dedicated small-scale laboratory experiments will complement major fusion experiments in development and applications of MPI.
The relative contribution of demographic, lifestyle and medication factors to the association between affective disorders and cardiometabolic diseases is poorly understood.
To assess the relationship between cardiometabolic disease and features of depresion and bipolar disorder within a large population sample.
Cross-sectional study of 145 991 UK Biobank participants: multivariate analyses of associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and five cardiometabolic outcomes, adjusting for confounding factors.
There were significant associations between mood disorder features and ‘any cardiovascular disease’ (depression odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI 1.12–1.19; bipolar OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.14–1.43) and with hypertension (depression OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.18; bipolar OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.12–1.42). Individuals with features of mood disorder taking psychotropic medication were significantly more likely than controls not on psychotropics to report myocardial infarction (depression OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.24–1.73; bipolar OR = 2.23, 95% CI 1.53–3.57) and stroke (depression OR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.10–2.80; bipolar OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.39–3.85).
Associations between features of depression or bipolar disorder and cardiovascular disease outcomes were statistically independent of demographic, lifestyle and medication confounders. Psychotropic medication may also be a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease in individuals without a clear history of mood disorder.