To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Monoclonal antibody therapeutics to treat coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have been authorized by the US Food and Drug Administration under Emergency Use Authorization (EUA). Many barriers exist when deploying a novel therapeutic during an ongoing pandemic, and it is critical to assess the needs of incorporating monoclonal antibody infusions into pandemic response activities. We examined the monoclonal antibody infusion site process during the COVID-19 pandemic and conducted a descriptive analysis using data from 3 sites at medical centers in the United States supported by the National Disaster Medical System. Monoclonal antibody implementation success factors included engagement with local medical providers, therapy batch preparation, placing the infusion center in proximity to emergency services, and creating procedures resilient to EUA changes. Infusion process challenges included confirming patient severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positivity, strained staff, scheduling, and pharmacy coordination. Infusion sites are effective when integrated into pre-existing pandemic response ecosystems and can be implemented with limited staff and physical resources.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
This chapter uses the work of Charles Taylor to frame the way in which time operates in the early Gothic. Taylor follows Friedrich Schiller in describing the cleavage between the modern and pre-modern worlds as the difference between ‘naïve’ enchantment and ‘sentimental’ disenchantment (‘radical reflexivity’, as Taylor terms it). Enchanted subjectivity was ‘porous’, meaning that the self had no defences beyond magic to regulate against animistic intrusions. Modern subjectivity, by contrast, is ‘buffered’. For Taylor, the Romantic period was that moment in which the process of disenchantment completed itself as a widely accepted, scarcely noted, norm. From across the unbridgeable divide of radical reflexivity, Gothic writers imagine encounters with an enchanted world where time is represented either as ‘kairotic knots’ affording glimpses into higher times that radically shift the subjectivity of the protagonist, or as senseless repetitions undermining the linear logic of modern character development. The chapter demonstrates how this dynamic plays out in three canonical Gothic texts: Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho, Gottfried Bürger’s ‘Lenore’ and S. T. Coleridge’s ‘Christabel’.
Rose gall wasps, Diplolepis Geoffroy (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), induce structurally distinct galls on wild roses (Rosa Linnaeus; Rosaceae), which provide gallers with food and shelter. These galls are attacked by a wide variety of micro-hymenopterans, including Periclistus Förster (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), which act as inquilines. Both Diplolepis and Periclistus are difficult to distinguish based on adult morphology, instead the structural appearance of galls is often used to distinguish species. Using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, we tested the species boundaries and built phylogenies of both Diplolepis and Periclistus. The molecular results have largely supported the validity of species described in the literature, with notable exceptions in four species groups. Periclistus exhibits a divide between the Palaearctic and Nearctic clades, and ranges from specialists to generalists in terms of host specificity. While it is premature to enact any taxonomic changes without additional molecular markers, this incongruence between morphological and molecular data indicates these groups need taxonomic revision and gall morphology alone may be inadequate to delimit species.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is to determine whether HRV, collected peri-operatively, is predictive of cognitive decline among older adults who undergo elective surgery/anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project is a part of the ongoing INTUIT/PRIME study, which is collecting pre- and post-operative cognitive testing, fMRI imaging, CSF samples, and EEG recordings from 200 older adults (age ≥ 60) undergoing elective non-cardiac/non-neurologic surgery scheduled to last > 2 hours at Duke University Medical Center and Duke Regional Hospital. This project utilizes data from the first 60 INTUIT participants who contributed continuous heart rate data before and during surgery. Participants undergo cognitive testing prior to surgery (baseline) and at 6 weeks after surgery. Our primary dependent variable is the change in the composite score from baseline to 6-weeks. Delirium is assessed in the hospital with the twice daily 3D-CAM tool, so we will report the proportion of individuals with 6-week cognitive decline who exhibited delirium in the days following surgery. Participants’ echocardiogram (ECG) recordings are extracted pre- and intraoperatively from B650/B850 patient monitors with VSCapture software. HRV is defined as the variability between successive R-spikes or inter-beat-intervals on ECG. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We anticipate that lower intraoperative HRV is associated with worse cognitive decline at 6 weeks after surgery. As secondary objectives, we will determine whether pre-operative HRV or change in HRV (from pre-operative to intra-operative measures) are predictive of cognitive decline after surgery. We expect that in-hospital delirium will be detected in a higher proportion of those with 6-week cognitive decline, compared to those with stable or improved cognition at 6 weeks. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: HRV may address the present need for pre- and intra-operative cognitive risk stratification in the elderly. Physiological indices like HRV have the potential to dramatically change our understanding of CI in older adults undergoing surgery, as they offer an accessible, cost-effective, and non-invasive means whereby clinicians, particularly those unfamiliar with the nuances of geriatric and CI/dementia-related care, can monitor patients and refer those at high-risk of CI after surgery for early intervention.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
In writing about Political Gothic fiction in the Romantic period two vexed questions confront us. First, in what sense is any Gothic fiction of the period political? Secondly, what is the difference between political Gothic fiction and the Jacobin novel? The essayist and critic William Hazlitt famously commented that Ann Radcliffe's romances ‘derived part of their interest, no doubt, from the supposed tottering state of all old structures at the time’ (Hazlitt 1907: 73). With his dissenting background Hazlitt understood this interest to be political (Paulin 1999); the ‘tottering of old structures’ clearly signalled the present Revolutionary age, and readers were thrilled with either eagerness or horror at the idea, depending on their political outlook. The connection between the Gothic and Revolution was reinforced by the Marquis de Sade, who claimed that Radcliffe's and Lewis's novels were ‘the necessary fruits of the revolutionary tremors felt by the whole of Europe’ (De Sade 1990: 49). This general connection creates the problem: if all Gothic novels refract ‘representations of Revolution’ (Paulson 1983), then no Gothic novels are political. Or rather, politics here is no more specific than it is in David Punter's seminal discussion of Marx and Freud in his concluding chapter to the The Literature of Terror (1980), in which the Gothic is read as a kind of dystopic imagining in the grim shadow of a new, capitalist Oedipus (Punter 1980). But that, clearly, is not what is understood by the phrase ‘political Gothic fiction’. The phrase suggests that there is a particular strand of Gothic fiction that is more political than other strands. The difficulty here is that this strand already has a name – the ‘Jacobin novel’ (Kelly 1976; Bellamy 1998). More recently it has been paired with ‘Anti-Jacobin’ fiction, novels of parody and reaction, which may include a particularly conservative strand of Gothic that James Watt calls ‘Loyalist’ (Watt 1999: 2–4; Grenby 2001; Wallace 2009). A work may belong to more than one genre, and a genre may have more than one name (Cohen 1991: 88–90). Still, the question needs to be asked: is political Gothic fiction another way of referring to the Jacobin novel, and/or to its reactionary shadow, the Anti-Jacobin? If the answer is ‘yes’, then we hardly need the category of ‘political Gothic fiction’ at all.
Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28–2287) and mean/median age (range 65–81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people.
A model with which to predict the effect of coplanar electrode geometry on diffraction uniformity in photorefractive polymer display devices was developed. Assumptions made in the standard use cases are no longer valid in the regions of extreme electric fields present in this type of device. Using electric-field induced second-harmonic generation through multiphoton microscopy, the physical response in regions of internal electric fields which fall outside the standard regimes of validity were probed. Adjustments to the standard model were made and the results of the new model corroborated through holographic four-wave mixing measurements.
Across the world, environmental concerns deepen. Citizens across a broad swath of nations – from affluent Germany and the Netherlands to publics in lesser affluent countries like Ghana and Vietnam – express unease about pollution problems. What explains this global concern with environmental issues?
We hope to contribute an answer to this question by examining the structure and sources of environmental concerns. First, we compare the attitudinal structure across the globe. Here we address the question of whether environmental attitudes occupy a comparable position in the minds of publics across diverse countries. Is environmentalism connected to economic views outside Western countries, as one might speculate on the basis of the prior literature? Or do environmental and economic views constitute separate dimensions everywhere? The theoretical relevance and the political implications of environmentalism partly depend on an answer to this question. For example, if environmental views are independent from economic orientations, it would make environmental demands more difficult to satisfy by policy changes limited to the economic realm. It would also increase the stability of these orientations and provide fertile ground for entrepreneurial activists to found groups and parties to translate these orientations into political action.
Then, in a second step, we model the attitudinal and contextual sources of environmental concerns. Here we step into a debate in the literature about the relationship between postmaterialism and environmentalism as a possible example of the cultural changes described in this book.
Commercial farmers have been using polyethylene plastic mulch since the 1950s. Despite the affordability and effectiveness of polyethylene mulch, the disposal process is financially and environmentally costly. Biodegradable plastic mulches, an ecologically sustainable alternative to polyethylene mulch films, were introduced in the 1980s. Biodegradable plastic mulches can be tilled into the soil or composted at the end of the season, reducing the labor and environmental costs associated with plastic removal and disposal. However, research results are mixed as to the effectiveness, degradability and ease-of-use of biodegradable plastic mulches. In 2008–2012, researchers, funded by a USDA Specialty Crop Research Initiative grant, conducted surveys and focus groups in three different agricultural regions of the USA to better understand the barriers and bridges to the adoption of biodegradable plastic mulches for specialty crop production systems. Data on the experiences and views of specialty crop growers, agricultural extension agents, agricultural input suppliers, mulch manufacturers and other stakeholders showed that the major adoption barriers were insufficient knowledge, high cost and unpredictable breakdown. The major bridges to adoption were reduced waste, environmental benefits and interest in further learning. These findings are discussed with reference to the classic innovation diffusion model, specifically work on the innovation–decision process and the attributes of innovations. The study results can be used to guide the activities of those involved in the design, development and promotion of biodegradable plastic mulches for US specialty crop production systems.
The device performance of GaAs p-i-n solar cells containing stacked layers of self-assembled InAs quantum dots is investigated. The solar cells demonstrate enhanced external quantum efficiency below the GaAs band gap relative to a control device without quantum dots. This is attributed to the capture of sub-band gap photons by the quantum dots. Analysis of the current density versus voltage characteristic for the quantum dot solar cell reveals a decrease in the series resistance as the device area is reduce from 0.16 cm2 to 0.01 cm2. This is effect is not observed in control devices and is quantum dot related. Furthermore, low temperature measurements of the open circuit voltage for both quantum dot and control devices provide experimental verification of the conditions required to realise an intermediate band gap solar cell.
While book history suggests that transatlantic Gothic was a singular phenomenon, albeit with regional differences, separate critical traditions have grown up largely dealing with Gothic on both sides of the Atlantic in isolation from each other. Early on, critics of American literature tended to minimize the Gothic by arguing that such generic features were the mere surface of the work, the important quality being the underlying “power of blackness”; or they argued the reverse, with the proviso that the genre that mattered was not Gothic, but “romance.” A recent trend has been to reject the question of genre entirely, on the grounds that “genre criticism” continues “to resist historical readings.” In his History of American Gothic, Charles Crow dramatically illustrates the upshot of this historical turn, by inverting Hawthorne's familiar complaint that novel-writing was inconceivably difficult in a land uncomplicated by “picturesque and gloomy wrong.” Hawthorne protests too much, says Crow, for, self-evidently, America suffered, not from a scarcity of history of the gloomy and sanguinary kind, but from a surfeit, starting with genocide and slavery – the kind of history that provided the reason for writing Gothic in the first place. Recent critics echo Louis S. Gross's claim that American Gothic ought to be read as a “demonic history text” and Leslie Fielder's that American Gothic constantly rewrites “a masterplot of cultural authority and guilt” arising from the “ambiguity of our relationship with Indian and Negro.” This version of the “return of the repressed” is based on the logic of abjection. In order to build itself up, ideologically, into a unified nation constructed out of republican idealism, the inchoate nation's criminal transgressions – its enslavement of blacks and extermination of natives – needed to be thrown down, and abjected; an act of self-ridding largely known through the fractal expressions of Gothic romance, with its dark conceits. Thus Erik Savoy argues that “the gothic is most powerful, and most distinctly American, when it strains toward allegorical translucency” (p. 6). With its dark matter made darker by an ideological dispensation to ignore it, American Gothic is troubled by an especially fraught tension between the countervailing push/pull of expression and denial, ending in a peculiar degree of ambiguity and opacity.
The present study tested the hypothesis that lactate concentration ([La− ]) would differ between sample sites and between assay techniques that used different analytical substrates. Six clinically normal adult (two Thoroughbreds, three Standardbreds and one Quarter Horse) mares weighing between 435 and 560 kg were used in the study. Each mare performed an incremental exercise test (graded exercise test, GXT) where it ran on a treadmill at a fixed 6% grade. The GXT started at 3 m s− 1 for 1 min with increased in speed by 1 m s− 1 every 60 s until the horses completed the final 10 m s− 1 step. Jugular vein, pulmonary arterial and carotid arterial blood samples (14 ml) were collected before exercise and during the last 10 s of each step of the GXT. [La− ] was measured in whole blood (WB, no manipulations), total blood (TB, where the red blood cells were lysed) and plasma. Data were used to calculate the velocity to produce [La− ] of 4 mmol l− 1 (VLA4) and 10 mmol l− 1 (VLA10). Statistical analysis utilized a three-way ANOVA and, where appropriate, the Holm–Sidak or the Student Neuman–Keuls method for post hoc comparisons. The null hypothesis was rejected when P < 0.05. There was an effect of exercise intensity on [La− ] for all three methods (P < 0.001) with all means during exercise significantly greater than the resting mean, and there were differences due to method (i.e. analytical substrate) (P < 0.001) and sample site (P = 0.043). Comparisons of least-squared means (LSM ± SE) within site revealed that there was a difference (P < 0.05) between jugular vein (5.41 ± 0.24) and carotid artery (6.24 ± 0.24) and between carotid and pulmonary artery (5.98 ± 0.24). There was no difference (P>0.05) between jugular vein and pulmonary artery. Within method, there was a difference (P < 0.05) between WB (6.54 ± 0.36) and TB (5.06 ± 0.36) and between TB and plasma (6.04 ± 0.64), but there was no difference (P>0.05) between WB (6.54 ± 0.36) and plasma (6.04 ± 0.64). Further analysis of the data demonstrated that the method and sample site influenced (P < 0.05) VLA4 and VLA10.
This study determined the effects and costs of a multifactorial, interdisciplinary team approach to falls prevention. Randomized controlled trial of 109 older adults who are at risk for falls. This was a six-month multifactorial and evidence-based prevention strategy involving an interdisciplinary team. The primary outcome was number of falls during the six-month follow-up. At six months, no difference in the mean number of falls between groups. Subgroup analyses showed that the intervention effectively reduced falls in men (75–84 years old) with a fear of falling or negative fall history. Number of slips and trips was greatly reduced; and emotional health had a greater improvement in role functioning related to emotional health in the intervention group. Quality of life was improved, slips and trips were reduced, as were falls among males (75–84 years old) with a fear of falling or negative fall history.