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To examine (i) the association of percentage of total energy intake from protein (protein intake %) with bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter and lumbar spine (L2–L4) and (ii) Ca as an effect modifier.
The Framingham Offspring Study.
Men (n 1280) and women (n 1639) completed an FFQ in 1992–1995 or 1995–1998 and underwent baseline BMD measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 1996–2000. Men (n 495) and women (n 680) had follow-up BMD measured in 2002–2005.
Cohort study using multivariable regression to examine the association of protein intake % with each BMD, adjusting for covariates. Statistical interaction between protein intake % and Ca (total, dietary, supplemental) intake was examined.
The mean age at baseline was 61 (sd 9) years. In the cross-sectional analyses, protein intake % was positively associated with all BMD sites (P range: 0·02–0·04) in women but not in men. Significant interactions were observed with total Ca intake (<800 mg/d v. ≥800 mg/d) in women at all bone sites (P range: 0·002–0·02). Upon stratification, protein intake % was positively associated with all BMD sites (P range: 0·04–0·10) in women with low Ca intakes but not in those with high Ca intakes. In the longitudinal analyses, in men, higher protein intake % was associated with more bone loss at the trochanter (P = 0·01) while no associations were seen in women, regardless of Ca intake.
This suggests that greater protein intake benefits women especially those with lower Ca intakes. However, protein effects are not significant for short-term changes in bone density. Contrastingly, in men, higher protein intakes lead to greater bone loss at the trochanter. Longer follow-up is required to examine the impact of protein on bone loss.
Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and diminutive or absent intrapericardial pulmonary arteries is a rare congenital abnormality, with high morbidity and mortality. Despite great advances in surgical- and catheter-based therapies, management remains challenging and controversial. We describe the surgical methods and the results from our institution.
We performed a retrospective study of the medical records of patients included in our institutional database with tetralogy and pulmonary atresia, concentrating on those predominantly managed by our programme over their lifetime. We obtained demographics and records of all catheterisations and operations, and established mortality. We assessed the current state of those surviving in terms of clinical function at their most recent clinical evaluation and right ventricular function by echocardiography.
We assessed 38 patients, with 89% follow-up. The mean number of catheterisations for each patients was 5, with a range from 1 to 15. The mean number of operations was 2.2, with a range from 1 to 6. Unifocalisation had been performed in 26 patients, with 12 undergoing procedures to recruit the native pulmonary vasculature. Of the overall cohort, eight patients died. The ventricular septal defect had been closed in all but two patients. Most patients have no or mild exercise intolerance. Right ventricle dysfunction has been a continuing hazard for 15 years.
An individualised approach, using unifocalisation as well as aggressive attempts to recruit the available native pulmonary vasculature, achieves outcomes in the intermediate term superior to the natural history of the lesions, and comparable with those of other studies.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilisation of a web-based multimedia patient-accessible electronic health record, for patients with congenital cardiac disease.
Patients and methods
This was a prospective analysis of patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery at a single institution from 1 September, 2006 to 1 February, 2009. After meetings with hospital administration, physicians, nurses, and patients, we configured a subset of the cardiac program’s web-based clinical electronic health record for patient and family access. The Electronic Health Record continuously measured frequency and time of logins, logins during and between hospitalisations, and page views by type (imaging versus textual data).
Of the first 270 patients offered access to the system, 252 became users (93% adoption rate). System uptime was 99.9%, and no security breaches were reported. Users accessed the system more often while the patients were in hospital (67% of total logins) than after discharge (33% of total logins). The maximum number of logins by a family was 440, and the minimum was 1. The average number of logins per family was 25. Imaging data were viewed significantly more frequently than textual data (p ⩽0.001). A total of 12 patients died during the study period and 11 members of their families continued to access their Electronic Health Records after the date of death.
A web-based Patient Accessible Electronic Health Record was designed for patients with congenital cardiac disease. The adoption rate was high, and utilisation patterns suggest that the Electronic Health Record could become a useful tool for health information exchange.
Temporary pacing wires have been associated with serious postoperative complications. Recommendations for their routine use after open heart surgery are decades old, and may not reflect current surgical techniques and outcomes.
The electronic web-enabled medical records of all patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery from February, 2002, through December, 2005, were reviewed, excluding patients undergoing implantation of pacemakers as a primary procedure, or those undergoing ligation of a patent arterial duct.
There were 1193 surgical procedures performed, 1041 with cardiopulmonary bypass. Median age of the patients was 5.8 months, with a range from 0 days to 54 years, weighing 6.2 kilograms, with a range from 1 to 114 kilograms. Mortality prior to discharge was 2.5%, and median postoperative stay was 6 days. No deaths were attributed to arrhythmias. Temporary pacing wires were placed 14 times (1.2%). Indications for placement included sinus nodal dysfunction in 8 patients, preoperative in 4 and intraoperative in 4, high degree atrioventricular block in 4 patients, and intraoperative atrial flutter in 2 patients. Of these patients, 4 (0.3%) eventually underwent permanent implantation of a pacemaker, 2 for persistent sinus nodal dysfunction, and 2 for persistent atrioventricular block. Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia requiring antiarrhythmic therapy occurred in 9 patients (0.8%). All recovered without incident, and none were treated with temporary pacing.
The diminished risk of unexpected postoperative arrhythmias in the current era alleviates the necessity for routine placement of temporary pacing wires. Those institutions with experienced surgical and cardiac critical care teams may be able to predict the need for temporary pacing wires preoperatively or intraoperatively.
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