The Golden Langur Conservation Project in Assam, India, was initiated to involve local NGOs and communities in protecting the Endangered golden langur Trachypithecus geei and its habitat on a regional basis within a complex political situation. Since langurs are leaf eaters they are dependent on forests. The Project area, once dominated by militant action and ethnic violence, is in a densely populated area and formerly suffered much illegal deforestation and accompanying reduction in the golden langur population. The Project began with two NGOs and evolved into the formation of a forum of five NGOs focusing on a large proportion of the golden langur range in Assam, and eventually included > 11 newly formed community-based organizations. Each NGO focused on nearby Reserve Forests and their resident langur populations and adjacent human communities. The community-conservation tools used included (1) initial local community awareness campaigns, (2) formation of local Forest Committees and Self Help Groups, (3) a major regional awareness campaign about the golden langur and its forested habitat in the Manas Biosphere Reserve, and (4) creation of a number of village-based Forest Protection Forces. The Golden Langur Conservation Project has resulted in an increase in the total Indian population of golden langurs, control of illegal logging and poaching in two isolated Reserve Forests by formation of a protection force of surrounding village groups, and curtailing illegal logging and increasing forest protection in the Reserve Forests of the Manas Biosphere Reserve by the formation of 10 tribal, government-sanctioned volunteer Forest Protection Forces. The Project created an atmosphere of community awareness of the golden langur and its forests and community interest within the region, with communities taking responsibility for protection of regional forests.