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Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
Maestripieri et al. provide an important service in highlighting prosocial biases toward attractive people from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Here I comment on the conceptual and critical side of their review of evolutionary psychology studies. I propose that further work should be focused on understanding the role of signaling in prosocial behavior.
In March 2008, I published an article in this journal that examined the ways in which the White House managed the news—and minimized the political impact—of Dwight D. Eisenhower's massive 1955 heart attack. In addition, the analysis explored the manner in which Eisenhower himself, in handling this issue, had brilliantly “manipulated his medical team, safeguarded his image, cajoled his staff, confused the press, managed his advisers, dominated his party, and ran a campaign that was virtually impossible for the opposition to counteract” (p. 18).1 This article expands on my previous work by considering the ways in which Eisenhower's ill health had significant public policy repercussions that went beyond the immediate political effects evaluated in 2008. These included the drawbacks associated with Eisenhower's concept of “Team Government,” a tragic war in the Middle East, a serious deterioration of the U.S. relationship with three very close allies and, finally, the beginnings of a presidentially led effort to add a much needed “presidential disability” amendment to the United States Constitution. These latter effects have been studied here through use of primary source materials located at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library, commentaries written by Eisenhower himself, members of his family and other close associates and the voluminous secondary literature that has appeared over the years focusing on the Eisenhower presidency.
This introduction to the special issue on presidential disability and succession focuses on the distinctly positive contributions that invocations of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment have made to American political life since the Amendment's ratification in 1967. It also underlines the importance for Presidents, their family members and aides to understand the necessity for putting the welfare of the country first, above all else—even at times above the wishes of a disabled Chief Executive. As the articles in this special issue make clear, the Twenty-Fifth Amendment provides an effective constitutional mechanism by which the country's well-being can be maintained while simultaneously showing compassion and respect for a disabled leader. The idea for this issue emerged from a conference organized by Professor Robert E. Gilbert focusing on presidential disability and succession held on the campus of Northeastern University in April 2014. Papers from the conference assembled here clarify and add to the historical record about presidential inability while illuminating the many political, legal, and constitutional contingencies that future presidential administrators may face. Contributors to this issue have varied disciplinary and professional backgrounds, including expertise in American politics, constitutional law, the presidency and vice presidency, presidential impairment, and, of course, the Twenty-Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.
This paper assesses the likelihood that the Iran-Contra scandal was shaped heavily by the effects of Ronald Reagan's cancer surgery in summer, 1985. During the President's hospitalization and in the period soon after, he took several actions—which he apparently did not remember—that launched a policy that was unwise, counterproductive, and a failure. These damaged both his Administration and his standing in history. The 25th Amendment afforded Reagan the means by which his involvement in these events could easily have been avoided. However, the President and his aides determined that he would resume the powers and duties of the presidency only hours after undergoing extensive cancer surgery. This decision contributed materially to the most damaging episode of Reagan's eight-year presidency.
Insight into dynamic electrochemical processes can be obtained with in situ electrochemical-scanning/transmission electron microscopy (ec-S/TEM), a technique that utilizes microfluidic electrochemical cells to characterize electrochemical processes with S/TEM imaging, diffraction, or spectroscopy. The microfluidic electrochemical cell is composed of microfabricated devices with glassy carbon and platinum microband electrodes in a three-electrode cell configuration. To establish the validity of this method for quantitative in situ electrochemistry research, cyclic voltammetry (CV), choronoamperometry (CA), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were performed using a standard one electron transfer redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/4−-based electrolyte. Established relationships of the electrode geometry and microfluidic conditions were fitted with CV and chronoamperometic measurements of analyte diffusion coefficients and were found to agree with well-accepted values that are on the order of 10−5 cm2/s. Influence of the electron beam on electrochemical measurements was found to be negligible during CV scans where the current profile varied only within a few nA with the electron beam on and off, which is well within the hysteresis between multiple CV scans. The combination of experimental results provides a validation that quantitative electrochemistry experiments can be performed with these small-scale microfluidic electrochemical cells provided that accurate geometrical electrode configurations, diffusion boundary layers, and microfluidic conditions are accounted for.
Baumard et al. argue that partner choice leads to fairness and mutualism, which then form the basis for morality. I comment that mutualism takes us only so far, and I apply the theory of competitive altruism in arguing how strategic investment in behaviours which make one a desirable partner may drive moral conduct.
Elephantgrass has been proposed as a potential feedstock for biofuel production in south Florida. To limit future invasion of escapes in sugarcane and vegetables, the response of newly established elephantgrass to glyphosate, clethodim, sethoxydim, asulam, and trifloxysulfuron was determined using dose–response curves. Log-logistic models were used to determine the herbicide dose required to produce 90% growth reduction (GR90). The GR90 values for shoot biomass at 21 d after treatment (DAT) were 477 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate, 262 g ai ha−1 of clethodim, 381 g ai ha−1 of sethoxydim, 12 kg ai ha−1 of asulam, and 94 g ai ha−1 of trifloxysulfuron. The GR90 values for root biomass at 35 DAT were 570 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate, 257 g ai ha−1 of clethodim, 432 g ai ha−1 of sethoxydim, 17 kg ai ha−1 of asulam, and 183 g ai ha−1 of trifloxysulfuron. Elephantgrass was predicted to exhibit 97, 98, 75, 1, and 5% mortality after application of glyphosate, clethodim, sethoxydim, asulam, and trifloxysulfuron, respectively, at the label use rates 35 DAT. Results suggest that glyphosate and clethodim will provide control of newly established elephantgrass at label use rates for spot treatments and in vegetables, respectively. Rates higher than the label use rate of sethoxydim will be required to provide acceptable control of newly established elephantgrass in vegetables. However, newly established elephantgrass was not controlled by asulam and trifloxysulfuron at label use rates, implying that control of escapes will be difficult in sugarcane.
Giant reed has been proposed as a bioenergy crop in the sugarcane production region of south Florida, where it has a high invasive potential. In an effort to limit future invasion of giant reed escapes in sugarcane, currently labeled sugarcane herbicides asulam and trifloxysulfuron were evaluated for its management. Greenhouse and field dose–response studies were conducted at the Everglades Research and Education Center in Belle Glade, FL, between 2010 and 2011. Herbicides were applied at rates ranging from 0.46 to 7.4 kg ha−1 asulam and 2 to 32 g ha−1 trifloxysulfuron, which represent 0.125× to 2× sugarcane labeled use rates, respectively. In the greenhouse, asulam and trifloxysulfuron reduced giant reed relative shoot dry weight by a maximum of 50% at 21 d after treatment (DAT). The probability of giant reed resprouting 35 d following herbicide treatment was greater for trifloxysulfuron when compared with asulam. In the field, it was predicted that a maximum of 69 and 55% giant reed control occurred with application of asulam and trifloxysulfuron, respectively, at 14 DAT. Relative shoot dry weight of giant reed treated with asulam and trifloxysulfuron was reduced by a maximum of 43% at 42 DAT. Application of asulam and trifloxysulfuron did not provide complete control of giant reed at twice the labeled sugarcane use rate, indicating that control of established giant reed in sugarcane with currently available herbicides would not be an option.
The Salmonella Bio-EnzaBead Screening Kit, in its modified form with both the MOPC 467 and the 6H4 antibodies, was used for the detection of salmonellas in naturally contaminated foods and animal feeding stuffs in parallel with a traditional cultural procedure.
Initial results showed an 82% agreement between the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and cultural methods when using the criterion recommended by the manufacturer as a cut-off for all types of foods. By adjusting the cut-off for each type of food, the number of EIA positive, culture negative samples was reduced although the number of EIA negative, culture positive samples increased. The EIA may be more sensitive than the cultural methods as in many cases the EIA positive, culture negative results could be real positives which were not detected by the cultural methods.
The screening kit provides a simple and convenient method for the detection of salmonella in foods and feeds and a presumptive positive result can be reported within 48 h. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed.
Between July 1976 and February 1989, 50 incidents of suspected red kidney bean poisoning were reported in the UK. Nine incidents in which nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea developed within 1–7 h of ingestion, were confirmed by the detection of haemagglutinin in the beans. The diagnosis was made on a further 23 incidents on the basis of symptoms, incubation time and the description of preparation of beans prior to consumption. The haemagglutinin (lectin), which occurs naturally in the red kidney bean, is inactivated by thorough cooking of well soaked beans. In many of the outbreaks reported the implicated beans were consumed raw or following an inadequate heat process.
An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT 124 infection which affected 101 people in England in December 1987 and January 1988 was detected through surveillance of laboratory reports from medical microbiology laboratories of the NHS and PHLS. Within 1 week of noting the increase in reports, epidemiological and microbiological investigations identified a small German salami stick as the vehicle of infection and the product was withdrawn from sale. The epidemiological investigation highlighted the occurrence of a long incubation period, bloody diarrhoea. Prompt recognition and investigation of the outbreak prevented further cases of severe infection.