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Vegetative growth response of round-leaved mallow to various day/night temperature regimes was studied under controlled-environment conditions to predict its potential geographic distribution and to develop an effective control program. Round-leaved mallow dry matter production was greatest with day temperatures of 18 to 26 C. Dry matter accumulation was reduced by a night temperature of 6 C but was minimally affected by night temperatures ranging from 12 to 24 C. Regression analysis predicted minimal vegetative growth at mean daily temperatures below 8 C and above 30 C, with optimum growth at 20 C. Partitioning of round-leaved mallow biomass in leaves, stems, and roots was affected by temperature. Maximum leaf weight ratio occurred at low temperatures, 10 C day and 6 C night. Stem weight ratio was greatest at a day temperature of 26 C, with night temperature having little effect. Maximum root biomass occurred with a day temperature of 18 C. Results are discussed in terms of environmental conditions that allow round-leaved mallow to be an effective competitor with crops and potential approaches for its control.
One year after application under irrigated conditions, atrazine at 1.2 kg/ha injured oat but there was no effect after two years. On dryland, wheat and barley were injured for up to two years after atrazine was applied at 1.5 kg/ha. Atrazine concentrations in the soil were related to accumulated rainfall in an exponential equation. The equation predicted that, under the most severe drought conditions ever recorded for southern Alberta, injury to cereal crops could occur for at least three years after atrazine application at 1.2 to 1.5 kg/ha. Cyanazine did not injure subsequent crops under either irrigated or dryland conditions.
Field experiments were conducted to determine the effect of CGA184927 rate, weed growth stage, and tank mixes with various broadleaf herbicides on the control of green foxtail and wild oat in spring wheat. CGA 184927 controlled green foxtail and wild oat equally well when applied at the 2- to 3- or 4- to 5-leaf stages. Green foxtail and wild oat were controlled at similar rates of CGA 184927 but the application rate giving > 90% control ranged from 22 to 90 g/ha over locations and years, indicating that CGA 184927 efficacy is sensitive to environmental conditions. CGA 184927 in tank mixtures was compatible with bromoxynil, clopyralid, and 2,4-D ester. However, tank mixing with metsulfuron or dicamba reduced activity on green foxtail and wild oat. Broadleaf herbicide activity on kochia and redroot pigweed was not reduced when such herbicides were tank-mixed with CGA 184927. Spring wheat tolerated 120 g/ha of CGA 184927. CGA 184927 provides growers with another herbicide option to control green foxtail and wild oat in wheat.
Field experiments were conducted to identify herbicides for selectively controlling foxtail barley seedlings in spring wheat and flax. ICIA0604, fenoxaprop-P/safener, CGA184927/safener, metribuzin, and MON37500 in wheat and sethoxydim, clethodim, quizalofop, fluazifop-P, and the mixture of fluazifop-P/fenoxaprop-P in flax were applied at the three- to four-leaf and one- to three-tiller stages of foxtail barley. MON37500 was the only herbicide tested in wheat that provided excellent control of foxtail barley and a high degree of crop tolerance. MON37500 at 13 to 19 g/ha applied at the early growth stage controlled foxtail barley but rates of 25 to 30 g/ha were needed at the later growth stage. In flax, quizalofop was the most efficacious herbicide on foxtail barley. Sethoxydim and clethodim sometimes provided weed control similar to that of quizalofop when applied at the three- to four-leaf stage, but quizalofop was always more effective at the one- to three-tiller stage of foxtail barley. Wheat and flax yields were greater when effective herbicides were applied at the early than at the late stage, indicating the need for early control of foxtail barley to minimize weed competition. MON37500 in wheat and quizalofop in flax provide growers with highly efficacious herbicide options for in-crop control of foxtail barley in conservation tillage systems.
Field experiments over 3 yr at Lethbridge, Alberta, determined the effect of various downy brome densities and times of its emergence on winter wheat biomass and seed yield. Downy brome reduced wheat biomass up to 59% and seed yield up to 68%. Time of downy brome emergence relative to wheat affected the magnitude of these yield reductions more than the density of downy brome. At comparable densities, downy brome caused 2- to 5-fold greater reductions in yield when it emerged within 3 wk after winter wheat than when it emerged 6 wk after wheat or in early spring. Late-emerging downy brome caused significant wheat yield or biomass losses only at densities of 200 to 400 plants m-2. Late-emerging downy brome plants were strongly shaded (70 to 90%) by winter wheat throughout much of the growing season.
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to examine the interaction of sethoxydim or fluazifop-P tank mixed with chlorsulfuron or thiameturon for selective weed control in safflower. Under greenhouse conditions, the addition of chlorsulfuron to sethoxydim or fluazifop-P slightly improved the control of green foxtail above that achieved with either herbicide alone. Control of wild oat and wild mustard was similar with the tank mixes and each herbicide alone. In the field, control of wild oat with sethoxydim or fluazifop-P was not altered by adding chlorsulfuron or thiameturon in tank mixes. Similarly, control of common lambsquarters and wild mustard with chlorsulfuron or thiameturon was not affected by adding either sethoxydim or fluazifop-P in tank mixes. Plant height, date of flowering, seed yield, and quality data indicated that safflower tolerated these herbicides applied alone or in combination. Sethoxydim or fluazifop-P tank mixed with chlorsulfuron or thiameturon provide a postemergent alternative for selective control of grass and broadleaf weeds in safflower.
Field experiments were conducted for 3 yr to determine the effect of various biological and physical factors on the operation of the weed-sensing Detectspray system. Plant detection is achieved by sensors measuring differential reflectance of red and near-infrared wavelengths of light from green plants, crop residues, and soil. Weed detection was greatly reduced 70 to 80 min after sunrise and before sunset when operated at lat 50°N because of reduced solar irradiance. Tall, dense-standing crop stubble limited detection of small weeds at the soil surface. Weed detection varied with plant species. Canola with three to four leaves consistently was detected, but wheat or green foxtail usually required five to six leaves to be detected. Small weeds were detected if present at densities greater than 70 plants m−2. Growers and commercial applicators need to be aware of the limitations of the Detectspray system to use it effectively to control weeds with concurrent reductions in herbicide use.
Germinated seeds of wild oat populations that were susceptible (S) or resistant (R) to triallate at the recommended soil-applied rate (1.7 kg/ha) were treated with six triallate concentrations on filter paper in petri dishes. Measurement of shoot length 8 d after treatment provided an accurate indication of differences among populations, and was more reliable than determining shoot fresh weight. ED50 values (herbicide concentrations that reduced shoot length by 50% relative to untreated controls), derived from nonlinear regression analysis, indicated four and five levels of response to triallate among eight S and seven R populations, respectively. The ED50 values varied from 0.11 to 11 ppm a.i. triallate for the most susceptible to the most resistant populations, respectively. Routine testing of wild oat samples suspected of resistance, at triallate concentrations of 0.5 or 1 ppm in the petri dish bioassay, effectively identified populations that had become resistant to the recommended soil-applied rate.
Field experiments were conducted to determine suitable application timings and rates of MON 37500 for downy brome control in winter wheat. MON 37500 applied preemergence (PRE) or in fall postemergence (POST) provided better control of downy brome than when applied spring POST. MON 37500 at rates ranging from 19 to 33 g ai/ha applied PRE or fall POST controlled downy brome >85%. MON 37500 applied spring POST at 60 g/ha only suppressed growth of downy brome. Winter wheat was not visibly injured and maturity was not delayed by MON 37500 applied up to 60 g/ha at any of the application timings. Winter wheat yield responded positively to all MON 37500 treatments but PRE or fall POST applications usually resulted in greater yields than spring POST applications. Wheat yields progressively increased with increasing rates of MON 37500 up to 30–40 g/ha, above which yields tended to plateau or, in two instances, decline slightly. MON 37500 is an important new herbicide that should enable growers to better manage downy brome in winter wheat production systems.
Studies were conducted to determine the usefulness of HOE-39866 (HOE-00661) in chemical fallow systems on the Canadian prairies. HOE-39866 at 0.5 to 1.0 kg ai/ha controlled Russian thistle, kochia, green foxtail, wild oats, and wheat comparable to paraquat, glyphosate, and glyphosate plus the isopropylamine salt of 2,4-D. However, control of barley with HOE-39866 was unacceptable. HOE-39866 was compatible in tank mixtures with ammonium sulfate, paraquat, chlorsulfuron, and metsulfuron. Ammonium sulfate improved weed control when HOE-39866 was applied at 0.25 kg/ha but not at 0.75 kg/ha. Adding paraquat at 0.07 to 0.21 kg ai/ha to HOE-39866 improved control of grass species over HOE-39866 alone. Adding chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron to HOE-39866 provided greater initial control of certain species as well as residual control of many weeds. HOE-39866 alone or in conjunction with other herbicides is an alternative to the herbicides used in chemical fallow systems.
Field studies were conducted to study the interaction of sethoxydim or fluazifop-P with clopyralid and/or ethametsulfuron applied as tank mixtures to canola. Control of the indicator species barley, broadbean, and wild mustard with the tank mixtures was comparable to, or sometimes better than, that attained with each herbicide alone. Canola tolerated all herbicides applied individually and all tank mixtures of these herbicides except fluazifop-P and ethametsulfuron. Tank mixtures of fluazifop-P and ethametsulfuron, with or without clopyralid included in the mixture, suppressed early growth of canola in two of four tests and reduced seed yield in one. Sethoxydim, clopyralid, and ethametsulfuron combined in tank mixtures provide an effective POST alternative for selective control of grass and broadleaf weeds in canola.
Postemergence control of broadleaf weeds in canola with DPX A7881 was studied under controlled-environment and field conditions. DPX A7881 controlled weeds of the Cruciferae family such as wild mustard, field pennycress, and flixweed, which are not controlled with existing herbicides used for weed control in canola. Weed control was better when DPX A7881 was applied at the two-leaf than at the six-leaf stage of the weeds. At the two-leaf stage, control of flixweed was achieved with 15 g ai/ha of DPX A7881; 20 to 30 g ai/ha was required for control of wild mustard and field pennycress. Control of redroot pigweed required 30 g ai/ha. Common lambsquarters was not controlled in this study with DPX A7881 up to 60 g ai/ha. Control of weeds with DPX A7881 increased canola yields in this study without altering the important quality components: oil content, 1000-kernel weight, and green seed content. DPX A7881 provides a postemergence alternative to existing herbicides for broadleaf weed control in canola.
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of ensiling and/or rumen digestion by cattle on the germination and viability of several common weed species. Seed survival of grass species subjected to ensiling and/or rumen digestion tended to be less than that of broadleaf species. Downy brome, foxtail barley, and barnyardgrass were nonviable after either ensiling for 8 weeks or rumen digestion for 24 h. Some green foxtail (17%) and wild oats (0 to 88%) seeds survived digestion in the rumen but were killed by the ensiling process. Varying percentages of seeds of kochia, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, wild buckwheat, round-leaved mallow, and field pennycress remained viable after ensiling (3 to 30%), rumen digestion (15 to 98%), and ensiling plus rumen digestion (2 to 19%). A time course study of rumen digestion indicated that loss of seed viability often was not a gradual process. With some species, there was an initial lag phase while degradation of the protective seed coat likely occurred, followed by a rapid decline in embryo viability. The diet fed to livestock appeared to affect viability losses caused by rumen digestion. Estimates of seed survival with varying rates of passage through the rumen due to differing ratios of grain to forage in the diet are presented.
Field studies were conducted to determine suitability of flurtamone alone and in tank mixture with ethalfluralin for selective control of weeds in safflower. Flurtamone at 0.6 to 0.9 kg ha−1 controlled field pennycress, kochia, and Russian thistle. Flurtamone and ethalfluralin were compatible in tank mixture and provided comparable or superior control of wild oat, kochia, and field pennycress than either herbicide alone. Plant height, date of flowering, seed yield, and quality data indicated that safflower tolerated flurtamone alone up to 1.6 kg ha−1 and flurtamone tank mixed with ethalfluralin at rates as high as 1.1 plus 1.1 kg tar1, respectively. Safflower yield response to these herbicides was positive and reflected level of weed control attained with various treatments.
Relationships between volunteer barley plant density and both pea and volunteer barley yield were determined in field experiments conducted over 2 yr at Vegreville and Lethbridge, Alberta. Nonlinear regression analysis indicated that severe pea yield losses due to volunteer barley occurred at both locations. Averaged over both years, pea seed yield losses per volunteer barley plant (initial slopes) varied from 1.7% at Vegreville to 5.4% at Lethbridge. Based on certain assumptions, economic thresholds calculated from the equations were approximately 2 and 6 volunteer barley plants m−2 at Lethbridge and Vegreville, respectively. Revenue from the volunteer barley seed partially alleviated the monetary losses caused by the reduced pea seed yield. The effects of pea density on pea and volunteer barley yield were inconsistent and marginal. This suggested that there was little advantage, in terms of increasing pea yield or reducing volunteer barley interference, to seeding pea above the recommended rate of 100 plants m−2.
Field experiments were conducted in 1990 and 1991 at Lethbridge, Alberta, to determine if narrower row spacings and increased plant densities than commonly practiced would improve safflower's competitive ability with weeds. A factorial set of treatments of safflower at two row spacings of 11 and 22 cm and six densities ranging from 10 to 192 plants m−2 grown weed free or infested with green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv.). Decreasing safflower row spacing from 22 to 11 cm slightly improved competition with green foxtail, but increasing safflower density had a much greater effect. Weed-free safflower biomass and seed yield plateaued at 70 and 84 plants m−2 in 1990 and 1991, respectively. However, safflower infested with 500 plants m−2 of green foxtail increased in biomass and seed production up to 100 plants m−2 in 1990 and 156 plants m−2 in 1991. At these high densities, weedy safflower yielded less than weed-free safflower but three to four times more than achieved at lower stand densities. Concurrently, high safflower density reduced green foxtail biomass up to 72% and seed yield up to 85%. Dense safflower stands developed a closed canopy early in the season and shaded green foxtail more than thin stands.
Field studies were conducted to determine the most effective rate of several herbicides applied at various growth stages to control downy brome in conservation fallow programs. Downy brome growth stage affected the efficacy of all herbicides. All herbicides were less effective when application was delayed until the boot stage of downy brome. Fluazifop-P and sethoxydim must be applied prior to tillering to effectively control downy brome. Glyphosate, the commercial mixture of glyphosate plus 2,4-D, paraquat, and HOE-39866 consistently controlled downy brome up to the 3- to 5-tiller stage. Glyphosate at 180 to 200 g ha-1, paraquat at 250 to 300 g ha-1, and the commercial mixture of glyphosate plus 2,4-D at 600 to 660 g ha-1 controlled downy brome 80 to 90%. The effective rates were lower than rates currently registered for downy brome control in western Canada, and thus there is potential for making conservation fallow programs more economical when downy brome is the predominant weed.
Field experiments were conducted from 1986 to 1988 at Lacombe and Lethbridge, Alberta and Scott, Saskatchewan to determine growth and yield response of canola to mixtures of ethametsulfuron with specific grass herbicides. Ethametsulfuron did not usually cause canola injury when mixed with sethoxydim. However, ethametsulfuron mixtures with the following grass herbicides listed in decreasing order of injury potential, often caused canola injury and yield loss: haloxyfop > fluazifop > fluazifop-P > quizalofop > quizalofop-P. Canola yield losses were severe in some experiments, ranging from 59% with quizalofop mixtures to 97% with haloxyfop mixtures; in other experiments, the same mixtures did not cause significant yield losses. ‘Tobin,’ a Brassica rapa cultivar, tended to be more susceptible to injury than the B. napus cultivars ‘Pivot’ and ‘Westar.’ Canola injury symptoms were consistent with those expected from sulfonylurea herbicides. Therefore, we suggest that specific grass herbicides differentially impair the ability of canola to metabolize ethametsulfuron to inactive forms.
Field research was conducted to determine the effectiveness of DPX-79406 (a 1:1 mixture of nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron) for green foxtail control in field corn. Green foxtail control was similar when DPX-79406 was applied postemergence compared to preplant incorporated EPTC/dichlormid or metolachlor. DPX-79406 gave similar green foxtail control to that of cyanazine and better control than inter-row cultivation following soil-applied herbicides. Green foxtail control was greatest when DPX-79406 was applied at the one- to two-tiller stage compared to the one- to two-leaf stage, suggesting that green foxtail is more susceptible to DPX-79406 at later growth stages. DPX-79406 injured ‘Pioneer 3995’ corn in all trials but injured ‘Pride K020’ corn in only one treatment. DPX-79406 between 15 and 25 g ai/ha gave 85% control of green foxtail with minimal corn injury. Adjuvants tended to increase both corn injury and green foxtail control with Scoil and Merge increasing DPX-79406 activity the most. DPX-79406 provides an effective postemergence alternative for green foxtail control in field corn, for either preplant incorporated herbicides or postemergence cyanazine.
Redstem filaree is becoming widespread and abundant on the Canadian prairies. A field study was conducted to determine the growth, development, and seed yield response of redstem filaree when grown under noncropped conditions and planted at various dates throughout the growing season in Alberta. Redstem filaree emerged within 7 to 13 d of planting with an accumulated 57 to 134 growing degree days (GDD). Flowering occurred within 46 to 65 d (327 to 779 GDD) of planting. Plants that emerged in August or later did not flower in that season and survived as winter annuals. Spring-emerging redstem filaree plants matured within 79 to 100 d (729 to 1,193 GDD). Plants that emerged in May and June attained more biomass and produced threefold more seeds than plants that emerged in July or later. Redstem filaree seed production ranged from 2,400 to 9,900 seeds/plant depending on emergence date and environmental conditions. Information from this study will assist in developing integrated management strategies for this increasingly important weed.