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Ovarian stimulation aims at the development of one or more of the ovarian follicles to reach the stage of maturity culminating in the release of one or more mature oocytes ready for fertilization. Ovarian follicular development is under the control of local factors inside the ovaries (most of it is poorly understood), as well as hormones produced from extraovarian sources, mainly pituitary gonadotropins. Other hormones may play a role in ovarian follicular development; the extent and details of such a role are not fully understood.
Human reproduction is the most basic of human functions and is the foundation of our very existence. When considering the bodily mechanisms involved, from the delicacy of the interacting endocrine network to the wonder of the cyclical changes in the ovary and uterus and the mechanism of sperm production, it is a constant source of amazement that the integration needed to produce another human being does not go wrong more often.
One of modern healthcare's most controversial areas, reproductive medicine is an emerging discipline that fosters hugely divergent opinions on topics such as laboratory techniques, clinical management and ethical considerations. Highlighting over 50 contentious topics in reproductive medicine, this book presents expertly argued opinions are presented for and against, often with diametrically opposing views about management. Debates such as these are being increasingly used as learning tools, helping participants develop their critical thinking skills and showing that context is vital when making decisions. Issues discussed include limits on IVF provision, ethical queries about sex selection, embryology, and ovarian stimulation. Authors are authorities in their field, combining years of experience with fresh and innovative ideas to structure their arguments. Readers will gain an insight into topical controversies, critically evaluating the different sides to enhance their own clinical practice.
The emergency department (ED) of NYU Langone Medical Center was destroyed by Hurricane Sandy, contributing to a public health disaster in New York City. We evaluated hospital-based acute care provided through the establishment of an urgent care center with an associated ED-run observation service (EDOS) that operated in the absence of an ED during this disaster.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients placed in an EDOS following a visit to an urgent care center during the 18 months of ED closure. We reviewed diagnoses, clinical protocols, selection criteria, and performance metrics.
Of 55,723 urgent care center visits, 15,498 patients were hospitalized, and 3167 of all hospitalized patients (20.4%) were placed in the EDOS. A total of 2660 EDOS patients (84%) were discharged from the EDOS. The 8 most frequently utilized clinical protocols accounted for 76% of the EDOS volume.
A diverse group of patients presenting to an urgent care center following the destruction of an ED by natural disaster can be cared for in an EDOS, regardless of association with a physical ED. An urgent care center with an associated EDOS can be implemented to provide patient care in a disaster situation. This may be useful when existing ED or hospital resources are compromised. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:405–410)
Autoimmune encephalitis associated with autoantibodies against the N‐methyl‐d‐aspartate receptor (NMDAR) often presents with behavioural change. Our objective was to describe in detail the psychiatric presentation and pathways to care in order to aid the early diagnosis of NMDAR encephalitis.
Sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with suspected NMDAR encephalitis were tested on HEK 293 cells transfected with the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR. Clinical information was obtained from the referring psychiatrists and neurologists and by review of the clinical records.
Samples from 15 patients (13 female, 2 male, mean age 24 years, range 5–56 years) tested anti‐NMDAR positive. Twelve of the 15 patients (80%) presented with prominent psychiatric symptoms and 8 were initially referred to a psychiatric service. The most prominent initial psychiatric symptoms were anxiety in seven (47%), behavioural change (often bizarre) in six (40%) and agitation in five (33%). All patients developed psychiatric symptoms in the first 6 weeks of illness. Thirteen patients received psychotropic medications: antipsychotics in 12 and benzodiazepines in 11. Treating physicians considered the psychotropic medication not effective in 11 patients resulting in many drug switches. At nadir, all patients were in a very poor condition. However, eight patients (53%) recovered (almost) completely. Outcome tended to be better in patients who had received early immunotherapy or tumour removal.
Autoimmune encephalitis and anti‐NMDAR testing in serum and CSF should be considered in patients, especially young females, presenting with atypical psychiatric phenomena. Early diagnosis and treatment will likely improve the prognosis of NMDAR encephalitis.