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Our objective was to quantify the cross-sectional associations between dietary fatty acid (DFA) patterns and cognitive function among Hispanic/Latino adults. This study included data from 8942 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a population-based cohort study (weighted age 56·2 years and proportion female 55·2 %). The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate dietary intake from two 24-h recalls. We derived DFA patterns using principal component analysis with twenty-six fatty acid and total plant and animal MUFA input variables. Global cognitive function was calculated as the average z-score of four neurocognitive tests. Survey linear regression models included multiple potential confounders such as age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, physical activity, energy intake and CVD. DFA patterns were characterised by the consumption of long-chain SFA, animal-based MUFA and trans-fatty acids (factor 1); short to medium-chain SFA (factor 2); very-long-chain n-3 PUFA (factor 3); very-long-chain SFA and plant-based MUFA and PUFA (factor 4). Factor 2 was associated with greater scores for global cognitive function (β = 0·037 (sd 0·012)) and the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) (β = 0·56 (sd 0·17)), Brief Spanish English Verbal Learning-Sum (B-SEVLT) (β = 0·23 (sd 0·11)) and B-SEVLT-Recall (β = 0·11 (sd 0·05)) tests (P < 0·05 for all). Factors 1 (β = 0·04 (sd 0·01)) and 4 (β = 0·70 (sd 0·18)) were associated with the DSS test (P < 0·05 for all). The consumption of short to medium-chain SFA may be associated with higher cognitive function among US-residing Hispanic/Latino adults. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
The attributes and influencers that have allowed of the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) to exist and thrive for over five decades are described in this chapter. The chapter has two primary goals: (1) record lessons learned so other institutions wanting to establish or reinvigorate research organizations can glean ideas to help them avoid some of the pitfalls that will inevitably arise in their development, and (2) inform scientists, young and older, that when doing research using the systems ecology paradigm they do not work in organizational isolation. They stand on the shoulders of those who came before them and they depend on those around them to hold them up. Measures of success needed to be competitive, gain extramural funding support, and thrive are within organizational scientific leadership; teamwork; collaborative research; organizational pride; institutional and external influencer support; administrative functions sharing; and within-institution détente. A narrative by an organizational/industrial psychologist, who over a span of more than 25 years consulted with NREL staff on matters ranging from strategic planning and organizational management to interpersonal conflicts is presented. For developing organizations and existing organizations needing reinvigoration, ignoring his observations and insights about organizational behavior will be done at their own peril.
Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are less aware of their cholesterol levels and have a higher burden of associated adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes than non-Latino whites. Investigations of the associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in this population have often occurred within the context of metabolic syndrome and are limited to select lipids despite the fact that triglycerides (TGs) may be more relevant to the health of Hispanics/Latinos.
Baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, collected from 2008 to 2011, was used to investigate the associations of lipid levels (i.e., TG, total cholesterol, TC; low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C) with cognition (i.e., learning, memory, verbal fluency, and digit symbol substitution, DSS), adjusting for relevant confounders.
In 7413 participants ages 45 to 74 years from Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American backgrounds, separate, fully adjusted linear regression models revealed that TG levels were inversely associated with DSS performance; however, this relationship was no longer significant once additional cardiovascular disease risk factors were added to the model (p = .06). TC and LDL-C levels (separately) were positively associated with learning and verbal fluency regardless of adjustments (p-values < .05). Separate analyses investigating the effect modification by background and sex revealed a particularly robust association between TC levels and DSS performance for Puerto Ricans and Central Americans (albeit in opposite directions) and an inverse relationship between TG levels and DSS performance for women (p-values < .02).
It is important to consider individual lipid levels and demographic characteristics when investigating associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in Hispanics/Latinos.
We describe the design and performance of the Engineering Development Array, which is a low-frequency radio telescope comprising 256 dual-polarisation dipole antennas working as a phased array. The Engineering Development Array was conceived of, developed, and deployed in just 18 months via re-use of Square Kilometre Array precursor technology and expertise, specifically from the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. Using drift scans and a model for the sky brightness temperature at low frequencies, we have derived the Engineering Development Array’s receiver temperature as a function of frequency. The Engineering Development Array is shown to be sky-noise limited over most of the frequency range measured between 60 and 240 MHz. By using the Engineering Development Array in interferometric mode with the Murchison Widefield Array, we used calibrated visibilities to measure the absolute sensitivity of the array. The measured array sensitivity matches very well with a model based on the array layout and measured receiver temperature. The results demonstrate the practicality and feasibility of using Murchison Widefield Array-style precursor technology for Square Kilometre Array-scale stations. The modular architecture of the Engineering Development Array allows upgrades to the array to be rolled out in a staged approach. Future improvements to the Engineering Development Array include replacing the second stage beamformer with a fully digital system, and to transition to using RF-over-fibre for the signal output from first stage beamformers.
At Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina, 10Be, 26Al, and 40Ar/39Ar ages range from 190,000 to 109,000 yr for two moraines deposited prior to the last glaciation, 23,000�16,000 yr ago. Two approaches, maximum boulder ages assuming no erosion, and the average age of all boulders and an erosion rate of 1.4 mm/103 yr, both yield a common estimate age of 150,000�140,000 yr for the two moraines. The erosion rate estimate derives from 10Be and 26Al concentrations in old erratics, deposited on moraines that are >760,000 yr old on the basis of interbedded 40Ar/39Ar dated lavas. The new cosmogenic ages indicate that a major glaciation during marine oxygen isotope stage 6 occurred in the mid-latitude Andes. The next five youngest moraines correspond to stage 2. There is no preserved record of a glacial advance during stage 4. The distribution of dated boulders and their ages suggest that at least one major glaciation occurred between 760,000 and >200,000 yr ago. The mid-latitude Patagonian glacial record, which is well preserved because of low erosion rates, indicates that during the last two glacial cycles major glaciations in the southern Andes have been in phase with growth and decay of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets, especially at the 100,000 yr periodicity. Thus, glacial maxima are global in nature and are ultimately paced by small changes in Northern Hemisphere insolation.
Agri-environmental programs, such as the Environmental Quality Incentives Program, provide payments to livestock and crop producers to generate broadly defined environmental benefits and to help them comply with federal water quality regulations, such as those that require manure nutrients generated on large animal feeding operations to be spread on cropland at no greater than agronomic rates. We couch these policy options in terms of agri-environmental “carrots” and regulatory “sticks,” respectively. The U.S. agricultural sector is likely to respond to these policies in a variety of ways. Simulation analysis suggests that meeting nutrient standards would result in decreased levels of animal production, increased prices for livestock and poultry products, increased levels of crop production, and water quality improvements. However, estimated impacts are not homogeneous across regions. In regions with relatively less cropland per ton of manure produced, the impacts of these policies are more pronounced.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), was treated with either Betadine® (povidone-iodine) Solution or Betadine Surgical Scrub®. HIV inactivation was analyzed using the viral reverse transcriptase assay or by observing the cytopathic effect produced in HIV-infected, H-9, T-cell cultures. The minimum effective Betadine dose was 0.25% for complete inactivation of HIV that was treated for various time intervals (immediate vortex to ten minutes). The titer of HIV stocks used in these experiments (105 TCID50 per mL) was greater than amounts generally detected in clinical specimens. Our results provide a rationale for the use of povidone-iodine as a topical antiseptic against HIV in the clinic or laboratory.