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Wittgenstein is often regarded as the most important philosopher of the twentieth century, and in recent decades, his work has begun to play a prominent role in literary studies, particularly in debates over language, interpretation, and critical judgment. Wittgenstein and Literary Studies solidifies this critical movement, assembling recent critics and philosophers who understand Wittgenstein as a counterweight to longstanding tendencies in both literary studies and philosophical aesthetics. The essays here cover a wide range of topics. Why have contemporary writers been so drawn to Wittgenstein? What is a Wittgensteinian response to New Historicism, Post-Critique, and other major critical movements? How does Wittgenstein help us understand the nature of style, fiction, poetry, and the link between ethics and aesthetics? As the volume makes clear, Wittgenstein's work provides a rare bridge between professional philosophy and literary studies, offering us a way out of entrenched positions and their denials-what Wittgenstein himself called 'pictures' 'that held us captive.'
The study in this research paper was undertaken with a hypothesis that accelerometer data can be used to improve monitoring of energy balance in dairy cows. Animals of high (select, S) and average (control, C) genetic-merit lines were allocated to two feeding systems, by-product (BP) and homegrown (HG). This culminated in four production systems referred to as BPS, BPC, HGS and HGC. Cows between their first and fourth lactations were included and a total of 8602 records were used. The target crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) content in the BP diet was 185 g/kg DM and 12.3 MJ/kg DM while it was 180 g/kg DM, and 11.5 MJ/kg DM for the HG diet, respectively. Milk yield, body energy content (BEC) and animal activity were monitored while the animals were all housed for winter. Results showed that cows on homegrown feeds were significantly (P < 0.05) more active than cows on by-product feeds as indicated by higher motion index and number of steps per day. Feeding duration was not significantly different (P > 0.05) between cows under by-product feeding system irrespective of the energy balance of the cows. However, there were significant differences for cows under homegrown feeding system. Cows in negative energy balance had a longer feeding duration per day than cows in positive energy balance. Milk yield was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) to motion index and number of steps per day but not to lying time and feeding duration. The results showed differences in cow activity were related to diet content and body energy status. This is useful in precision farming where feeds are provided according to specific animal behaviour and feed requirements.
The rate of normal birth outcomes (i.e. full-term births without intervention) for women with severe mental illness (SMI – psychotic and bipolar disorders) is not known. We examined rates of birth without intervention (spontaneous labour onset, spontaneous vaginal delivery without instruments, no episiotomy and no indication of pre- or post-delivery anaesthesia) in women with SMI (584 pregnancies) compared with a control population (70 942 pregnancies). Outcome ratios were calculated standardising for age. Women with SMI were less likely to have a birth without intervention (29.5%) relative to the control population (36.8%) (standardised outcome ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.63–0.87).
We report the strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi (Herbst, 1795) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a species native to Europe, Asia, and North Africa, as established in British Columbia, Canada. This is the first report of A. rubi in North America. We provide a diagnosis of the species and compare it with other species of the genus Anthonomus Germar in Canada. This species is a pest of plants in Rosaceae Jussieu, including economically important berries such as strawberries (Fragaria Linnaeus) and raspberries (Rubus idaeus Linnaeus), and of native berries of importance to Indigenous peoples in Canada. Female weevils oviposit eggs inside developing flower buds and sever flower stalks, facilitating larval development inside damaged buds and thus reducing fruit yields. Surveys to confirm the presence of A. rubi conducted in 2020 found the weevil to be well established in cultivated and wild hosts throughout the Greater Vancouver area and Fraser Valley, British Columbia. At least one species of parasitoid wasp in the genus Pteromalus Swederus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) has been found in association with A. rubi in the province. Future investigations are required to understand the biology of A. rubi in its new range, assess its impact on berries, and develop management strategies.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
Growth patterns are known to differ between breastfed and formula-fed infants, but little is known about the relative impact of maternal smoking in pregnancy v. feeding mode on growth trajectory in infancy. We conducted a secondary analysis of a trial, the Tolerance of Infant Goat Milk Formula and Growth Assessment trial involving 290 healthy infants, to examine whether smoking in pregnancy modified the association between feeding mode and body composition of infants. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were estimated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12 months of age using bioimpedance spectroscopy. Formula-fed infants (n 190) had a higher mean FFM at 4 months (mean difference (MD) 160 g, 95 % CI 50·4, 269·5 g, P < 0·05)) and 6 months (MD 179 g, 95 % CI 41·5, 316·9 g, P < 0·05) compared with the breastfed infants (n 100). Sub-group analysis of breastfed v. formula-fed infants by maternal smoking status in pregnancy showed that there were no differences in the FM and FFM between the breastfed and formula-fed infants whose mothers did not smoke in pregnancy. Formula-fed infants whose mothers smoked in pregnancy were smaller at birth and had a lower FM% and higher FFM% at 1 month compared with infants of non-smoking mothers regardless of feeding mode, but the differences were not significant at other time points. Adequately powered prospective studies with an appropriate design are warranted to better understand the relative impact of maternal smoking, feeding practice and the growth trajectory of infants.
Non-communicable diseases are projected to become the most common causes of death in Africa by 2030. The impact on health of epidemiological and nutritional transitions in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the trends of dietary fatty acids over time in Uganda, we examined fatty acids in serum collected from individuals in rural south-west Uganda, at three time points over two decades. Independent cross-sectional samples of 915 adults and children were selected from the general population cohort in 1990 (n 281), 2000 (n 283) and 2008 (n 351). Serum phospholipid fatty acids were measured by GC. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the geometric means of fatty acids by time period. Serum fatty acid profiling showed high proportions of SFA, cis-MUFA and industrial trans-fatty acids (iTFA), likely to be biomarkers of high consumption of palm oil and hydrogenated fats. In contrast, proportions of n-6 and n-3 PUFA from vegetable oils and fish were low. From 1990 to 2008, serum phospholipids showed increases in absolute amounts of SFA (17·3 % increase in adults and 26·4 % in children), MUFA (16·7 % increase in adults and 16·8 % in children) and n-6:n-3 PUFA (40·1 % increase in adults and 39·8 % in children). The amount of elaidic acid, iTFA from hydrogenated fats, increased in children (60·1 % increase). In this rural Ugandan population, we show evidence of unfavourable trends over time of dietary fatty acids.
Conservation resources are limited, yet an increasing number of species are under threat. Assessing species for their conservation needs is, therefore, a vital first step in identifying and prioritizing species for both ex situ and in situ conservation actions. Using a transparent, logical and objective method, the Conservation Needs Assessment process developed by Amphibian Ark uses current knowledge of species in the wild to determine those with the most pressing conservation needs, and provides a foundation for the development of holistic conservation action plans that combine in situ and ex situ actions as appropriate. These assessments allow us to maximize the impact of limited conservation resources by identifying which measures could best serve those species requiring help. The Conservation Needs Assessment complements the IUCN Red List assessment, and together they provide a more holistic guide to conservation priorities and actions. Conservation Needs Assessments generate national prioritized lists of species recommended for conservation action. These can subsequently be used to assist in the development of species recovery plans and national action plans, or to inform national conservation priorities better. Additional tools that will evaluate the recommendations for ex situ rescues, to determine the best candidates for conservation breeding programmes, are currently under development.