A method is proposed for assessing the maturity and quality of seeds, based on measuring the amount of chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) signals of intact seeds. In general, the amount of chlorophyll is directly related to the degreening process and thus the maturity. Cabbage seeds (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) were separated into three subsamples based on the CF signals of the individual intact seeds. Seeds with the lowest amount of CF had the highest percentage of germination and normal seedlings. In a controlled deterioration test, the subsample with the lowest CF signal had slightly lower germination and normal seedling percentages than the non-treated seeds, whereas the seeds with the highest CF signals had much lower germination and normal seedling percentages. Advantages of the CF method for determining seed maturity and seed quality are its high sensitivity and fully non-destructive nature and the high speed at which the fluorescence is generated and measured.