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Liver biopsy is indicated in two general clinical scenarios. The first scenario occurs when a diffuse liver disease is suspected, typically after a patient has abnormal liver function tests. In this instance, a nontargeted or random biopsy is performed to obtain a sample of tissue for determination of severity of diffuse liver disease. Random biopsy may also be used to monitor effectiveness of treatment, or for post-transplant monitoring. As these cases require histologic assessment, cytologic assessment is generally not indicated. Conversely, when a targeted liver biopsy is ordered to diagnose a focal liver mass or abnormality that cannot otherwise be characterized, cytology is frequently utilized as a first line diagnostic test.
Palpable thyroid nodules are present in approximately 5–7% of the adult population, and of these, 5–10% harbor malignancy. Additional thyroid nodules are found incidentally on imaging for other medical reasons, including screening for malignancies of other organs or evaluation of vasculature. Ultrasound (US) imaging of the neck with evaluation of the thyroid and lymph nodes is typically used and recommended to characterize thyroid nodules. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) classification, and the Thyroid Imaging, Reporting, and Data System (TIRADS) of the American College of Radiology (ACR-TIRADS) risk stratification systems are commonly used.