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The current definition of dietary fibre was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2009, but implementation requires updating food composition databases with values based on appropriate analysis methods. Previous data on population intakes of dietary fibre fractions are sparse. We studied the intake and sources of total dietary fibre (TDF) and dietary fibre fractions insoluble dietary fibre (IDF), dietary fibre soluble in water but insoluble in 76 % aqueous ethanol (SDFP) and dietary fibre soluble in water and soluble in 76 % aqueous ethanol (SDFS) in Finnish children based on new CODEX-compliant values of the Finnish National Food Composition Database Fineli. Our sample included 5193 children at increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention birth cohort, born between 1996 and 2004. We assessed the intake and sources based on 3-day food records collected at the ages of 6 months, 1, 3 and 6 years. Both absolute and energy-adjusted intakes of TDF were associated with age, sex and breast-feeding status of the child. Children of older parents, parents with a higher level of education, non-smoking mothers and children with no older siblings had higher energy-adjusted TDF intake. IDF was the major dietary fibre fraction in non-breastfed children, followed by SDFP and SDFS. Cereal products, fruits and berries, potatoes and vegetables were major food sources of dietary fibre. Breast milk was a major source of dietary fibre in 6-month-olds due to its human milk oligosaccharide content and resulted in high SDFS intakes in breastfed children.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have an elevated risk of obesity but the causes and mechanisms are unclear. We explored the familial association between parental SMI and body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged offspring. Our objective was to determine if the offspring of either parent with SMI have an increased risk for obesity.
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 is a cohort study of offspring with expected date of birth in 1966. The data include originally 12 068 mothers and 12 231 children from the provinces of Lapland and Oulu in Finland. The final study sample included 5050 middle-aged offspring. Parental SMI was used as exposure in the study. BMI measured at the age of 46 years was used as a primary outcome.
Risk for obesity was elevated in the offspring of mothers with SMI [overweight: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.93 (1.29–2.90), obese class I: 1.97 (1.20–3.25), obese classes II–III: 2.98 (1.67–5.33)]. For the offspring of either parent with SMI, statistically significant results were found in obese class I and obese classes II–III [overweight: adjusted OR 1.21 (0.94–1.54), obese class I: 1.52 (1.03–1.08), obese classes II–III: 1.53 (1.01–2.32)].
We found an elevated risk of obesity in the middle-aged offspring of either parent with SMI, especially in the offspring of mothers with SMI. Thus, there might be a common familial pathway leading to the co-occurrence of obesity and SMI.
Cows’ milk allergy (CMA) is one of the earliest manifestations of allergic diseases. Early dietary factors, like maternal diet during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of allergic diseases in the offspring. We aimed to investigate the association between maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of CMA in the offspring. Our study was conducted in a population-based cohort, the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study. We collected the maternal dietary data by a validated FFQ. We obtained the information on CMA in the study participants (n 448) from registers and from the parents. Dietary data and information on CMA were available for 4921 children. We used logistic regression in the analyses, and fatty acid intakes were energy adjusted. The maternal intake of SFA, MUFA, PUFA, n-3 PUFA, n-6 PUFA, trans fatty acids, ratio of n-3 PUFA to n-6 PUFA or ratio of linoleic acid to α-linolenic acid was not associated with the risk of CMA in the offspring when adjusted for perinatal factors, background factors, parental history of asthma or allergic rhinitis and infant animal contacts. The intake of α-linolenic acid was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0·72; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) of CMA in the offspring of mothers without a history of allergic rhinitis or asthma. In conclusion, the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy is not associated with the risk of CMA in the offspring.
Cows’ milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in young children, and it is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases. Accordingly, very early environmental factors, such as maternal diet during pregnancy, may play a role in the development of CMA, but the evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal intake of antioxidant nutrients during pregnancy and the subsequent development of CMA in the offspring in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Maternal dietary information during pregnancy was collected with a detailed, validated FFQ. The maternal dietary information and the information on putative confounding factors were available for 4403 children. Information on diagnosed CMA (n 448) was obtained from a medical registry and queried from the parents up to child’s age of 3 years. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate the average daily intake of nutrients. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses, and the nutrient intakes were adjusted for energy intake. OR are presented per 1 sd increment of the particular nutrient intake. Maternal total and dietary intake of β-carotene was associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring when adjusted for the putative confounding factors (total OR 1·10, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·20; dietary OR 1·10; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19). Using dietary supplements containing antioxidants in addition to a balanced diet may not confer any additional benefits.
Several prospective studies have shown an association between cows’ milk consumption and the risk of islet autoimmunity and/or type 1 diabetes. We wanted to study whether processing of milk plays a role. A population-based birth cohort of 6081 children with HLA-DQB1-conferred risk to type 1 diabetes was followed until the age of 15 years. We included 5545 children in the analyses. Food records were completed at the ages of 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 years, and diabetes-associated autoantibodies were measured at 3–12-month intervals. For milk products in the food composition database, we used conventional and processing-based classifications. We analysed the data using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data. By the age of 6 years, islet autoimmunity developed in 246 children. Consumption of all cows’ milk products together (energy-adjusted hazard ratio 1·06; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·003), non-fermented milk products (1·06; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·10; P = 0·011) and fermented milk products (1·35; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·67; P = 0·005) was associated with an increased risk of islet autoimmunity. The early milk consumption was not associated with the risk beyond 6 years. We observed no clear differences based on milk homogenisation and heat treatment. Our results are consistent with the previous studies, which indicate that high milk consumption may cause islet autoimmunity in children at increased genetic risk. The study did not identify any specific type of milk processing that would clearly stand out as a sole risk factor apart from other milk products.
Psychoses, especially schizophrenia, are often preceded by cognitive deficits and psychosis risk states. Altered metabolic profiles have been found in schizophrenia. However, the associations between metabolic profiles and poorer cognitive performance and psychosis risk in the population remain to be determined.
Detailed molecular profiles were measured for up to 8976 individuals from two general population-based prospective birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986) and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy platform was used to quantify 70 metabolic measures at age 15–16 years in the NFBC 1986 and at ages 15 and 17 years in ALSPAC. Psychosis risk was assessed using the PROD-screen questionnaire at age 15–16 years in the NFBC 1986 or the psychotic-like symptoms assessment at age 17 years in ALSPAC. Cognitive measures included academic performance at age 16 years in both cohorts and general intelligence and executive function in ALSPAC. Logistic regression measured cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between metabolic measures and psychosis risk and cognitive performance, controlling for important covariates.
Seven metabolic measures, primarily fatty acid (FA) measures, showed cross-sectional associations with general cognitive performance, four across both cohorts (low density lipoprotein diameter, monounsaturated FA ratio, omega-3 ratio and docosahexaenoic acid ratio), even after controlling for important mental and physical health covariates. Psychosis risk showed minimal metabolic associations.
FA ratios may be important in marking risk for cognitive deficits in adolescence. Further research is needed to clarify whether these biomarkers could be causal and thereby possible targets for intervention.
Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows’ milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements.
The objective was to develop a Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI), to determine the relative validity of the index and to examine associations between the index and familial sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in a population-based birth cohort study in Finland.
Type I Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study cohort.
Three-day food records from 1-year-old (n 455), 3-year-old (n 471) and 6-year-old (n 713) children were completed between 2003 and 2005.
Validity of the FCHEI was assessed by studying the associations between the FCHEI and nutrient intakes of the children. Among all age groups, intakes of SFA and sugars decreased across increasing quartiles of the FCHEI while intakes of PUFA, dietary fibre, vitamin D and vitamin E increased. Among 3- and 6-year-olds, being cared for at home was associated with the lowest FCHEI quartile (diet that deviates most from the recommendations). The lowest FCHEI quartile was also associated with residence in a semi-urban area among the 3-year-olds and low maternal education and smoking during pregnancy among the 6-year-olds.
The FCHEI serves as a valid indicator of the quality of Finnish children's diet. Public health programmes aimed at improving the dietary behaviours of pre-school aged children should aim to improve the quality of food served at home. Families with history of lower parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy or non-urban place of residence may require special attention.
The aim of the present study was to examine the associations between the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and the risk of preclinical and clinical type 1 diabetes in the offspring. The study included 4887 children with human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred type 1 diabetes susceptibility born during the years 1997–2004 from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Maternal diet was assessed with a validated FFQ. The offspring were observed at 3- to 12-month intervals for the appearance of type 1 diabetes-associated autoantibodies and development of clinical type 1 diabetes (average follow-up period: 4·6 years (range 0·5–11·5 years)). Altogether, 240 children developed preclinical type 1 diabetes and 112 children developed clinical type 1 diabetes. Piecewise linear log-hazard survival model and Cox proportional-hazards regression were used for statistical analyses. The maternal intake of palmitic acid (hazard ratio (HR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·99) and high consumption of cheese during pregnancy (highest quarter v. intermediate half HR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·31, 0·87) were associated with a decreased risk of clinical type 1 diabetes. The consumption of sour milk products (HR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·28), intake of protein from sour milk (HR 1·15, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·29) and intake of fat from fresh milk (HR 1·43, 95 % CI 1·04, 1·96) were associated with an increased risk of preclinical type 1 diabetes, and the intake of low-fat margarines (HR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·92) was associated with a decreased risk. No conclusive associations between maternal fatty acid intake or food consumption during pregnancy and the development of type 1 diabetes in the offspring were detected.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
To assess the most important sociodemographic determinants of age at introduction of complementary foods in infancy.
A prospective birth cohort with increased risk of type 1 diabetes, recruited between 1996 and 2004. The families completed at home a follow-up form on the age at introduction of new foods and, for each clinic visit, a structured dietary questionnaire with 3 d food records.
Data from the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Project, Finland.
A cohort of 5991 infants (77 % of those invited) belonging to the DIPP Nutrition Study.
Sixty-three per cent of the infants were introduced to complementary foods, including infant formula, before the age of 4 months. The median age at introduction of infant formula was 1·5 months (range 0–18 months) and that of the first other complementary food 3·5 months (range 0·7–8 months). All sociodemographic and lifestyle factors studied were associated with the age at introduction of infant formula and/or first other complementary food. Female sex of the infant, being born in the southern region of Finland, living in a rural municipality, the presence of siblings, the mother or the father being a high-school graduate, high maternal professional education and maternal non-smoking during pregnancy predicted later introduction of complementary foods.
Compliance was relatively poor with the current recommendations for the age of introducing complementary foods. Small-sized young families with less well-educated parents were most prone to introduce complementary foods early.
Fatty acids (FA) are known to have a number of immunological effects and, accordingly, may play a role in the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the effect of maternal intake of FA during pregnancy on the risk of allergic rhinitis, wheeze and atopic eczema in children aged 5 years. The present study analysed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study, a population-based birth cohort study with a 5-year follow-up. Complete information on maternal diet (assessed by a validated FFQ) and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood-based allergic outcomes was available for 2441 children. Cox proportional regression and logistic regression were used for the analyses. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, high maternal consumption of butter and butter spreads (hazard ratio (HR) 1·33; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·71) and higher ratio of n-6:n-3 FA (HR 1·37; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·77) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of allergic rhinitis in the offspring by 5 years of age. High maternal intakes of total PUFA (HR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·52, 0·96) and α-linolenic FA (HR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·54, 0·98) were associated with a decreased risk of allergic rhinitis. However, these results lost their significance after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Overall, our data suggest that maternal consumption of butter, the ratio of n-6:n-3 FA and intake of PUFA and α-linolenic FA during pregnancy may be potential determinants of allergic rhinitis in the offspring.
The duration of the period of time during which diet should be recorded for sufficiently accurate results on the usual intake of an individual is an especially challenging issue in prospective studies among children. We set out to describe nutrient intake variability in preschoolers and to determine the number of record days required (D) to estimate intake of energy and thirty-two nutrients. The diet and the use of dietary supplements were assessed with three consecutive daily food records including one weekend day in 1639 children participating in the population-based birth cohort of the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Project (DIPP) in Finland. Variance ratios and D stratified by sex and age groups were calculated for 455 (1-year-old), 471 (3-year-old) and 713 (6-year-old) children (born between 1998 and 2003). Within:between variance ratios and D increase with increasing age, and are slightly higher for girls. Vitamin A, cholesterol, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, β-carotene and folate intakes require the most replicates. Including supplemental intake has an impact on the variance estimates according to the proportion of supplement users. In the DIPP Nutrition Study with 3 d food records, the correlation coefficients between observed and true intakes of energy and thirty-two nutrients averaged 0·91 in 1-year-old children, 0·79 in 3-year-old children and 0·74 in 6-year-old children. For providing accurate nutrient intake estimates, three replicates of food records are reasonable in 1-year-old children but must be questioned for several nutrients in 3- and 6-year-old children. The accuracy of ranking boys is greater than that for girls.
To describe the diet of a population of pregnant Finnish women over a period of 7 years, with special attention paid to seasonal fluctuations in food consumption and nutrient intake.
A validated 181-item FFQ was applied retrospectively, after delivery, to assess the maternal diet during the 8th month of pregnancy.
Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study Cohort.
The cohort comprised a total of 4880 women who had newly delivered during the years 1997–2004, with the offspring carrying increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Over the study period, the proportion of energy derived from fat decreased while the intake from protein and carbohydrate increased. The intake of vitamin D increased from food sources. Seasonal variation was observed in the mean daily consumption of vegetables, fruits and berries and cereals. Intake of dietary fibre, total fat, MUFA, vitamins A, D, E and C, folate and iron also showed seasonal fluctuation.
These results show an overall positive trend in the diet of pregnant Finnish women through the study years. However, there is still room for improvement, particularly in the types of dietary fats. Although food fortification with vitamin D since 2003 was reflected in the increased intake of vitamin D from foods, the mean intake levels still fell below the recommendations. Seasonal changes in food consumption were observed and related to corresponding fluctuations in nutrient intakes. The mean folate intake fell below the recommendation throughout the year.
To study food consumption and nutrient intake in Finnish children aged 1–6 years and to assess the effect of age and sex on food consumption and nutrient intake.
Cross-sectional samples of children participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort study in Finland.
The study population comprised healthy children recruited in the nutrition study within the DIPP study in 1998–2003. Three-day food records (2535 in total) from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- and 6-year-old children were kept between the years 2003 and 2005.
The energy-adjusted consumption of fruits and berries, cereal products, infant formulas and meat dishes was higher and the consumption of vegetables, salads, breads, dairy products, fat spreads, drinks, sweets and sugar was lower among 1-year-old children than older age groups (P for all <0·05). The mean daily energy intake increased with age and was higher among boys than girls in all age groups, except among the 2-year-olds (P for all <0·05). The diet of the 2–6-year-old children contained too much saturated fat and sucrose, and too little PUFA compared with the current Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The intakes of most vitamins and minerals met the recommendations. However, the intakes of vitamin D, E and iron fell below the recommended levels. The nutrient density of the diet decreased after the age of 1 year at the time that the children adapted to the regular family diet.
In order to improve the diet of young children, it is essential to evaluate the diet of the whole family.
To assess and compare the food consumption and nutrient intake between 3-year-old children cared for at home full-time and those attending day care outside the home. Nutrient intake on weekdays and weekends was also studied.
Cross-sectional sample of children invited to the nutrition study within the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) birth cohort born in 2001. Families returned 3-d food record completed close to the child’s third birthday.
A total of 471 pre-school children aged 3 years of whom 285 had only been cared for at home during the recording time and 186 had attended day care outside the home.
Among the children cared for outside the home, there were more consumers of recommendable foods as fresh vegetables, fruits, berries, rye bread, fish, skimmed milk and vegetable margarines, than among those cared for at home. The day-care group had higher intake of protein, dietary fibre, thiamine, potassium and magnesium, and lower intake of sucrose compared with the group cared for at home. Adjustment for sociodemographic factors did not change the results. In all children, food consumption was more varied on weekdays compared with weekends. On weekdays, children had higher intake of dietary fibre and protein and lower intake of sucrose compared to weekends.
The type of day care was associated with food consumption and nutrient intake among pre-school children and hence might have an impact on their nutrition and health. The diet of the children attending day care outside the home was more balanced and closer to the national recommendations.
To assess milk feeding on the maternity ward and during infancy, and their relationship to sociodemographic determinants. The validity of our 3-month questionnaire in measuring hospital feeding was assessed.
A prospective Finnish birth cohort with increased risk to type 1 diabetes recruited between 1996 and 2004. The families completed a follow-up form on the age at introduction of new foods and age-specific dietary questionnaires.
Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) project, Finland.
A cohort of 5993 children (77 % of those invited) participated in the main study, and 117 randomly selected infants in the validation study.
Breast milk was the predominant milk on the maternity ward given to 99 % of the infants. Altogether, 80 % of the women recalled their child being fed supplementary milk (donated breast milk or infant formula) on the maternity ward. The median duration of exclusive breast-feeding was 1·4 months (range 0–8) and that of total breast-feeding 7·0 months (0–25). Additional milk feeding on the maternity ward, short parental education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, small gestational age and having no siblings were associated with a risk of short duration of both exclusive and total breast-feeding. In the validation study, 78 % of the milk types given on the maternity ward fell into the same category, according to the questionnaire and hospital records.
The recommendations for infant feeding were not achieved. Infant feeding is strongly influenced by sociodemographic determinants and feeding practices on the maternity wards. Long-term breast-feeding may be supported by active promotion on the maternity ward.
The evidence of the effect of the age at introduction of new foods during infancy on the development of asthma and allergic rhinitis is inconsistent and scarce. We set out to study these associations. A prospective birth cohort of infants with increased HLA-DQB1-conferred risk for type 1 diabetes was recruited in 1996–2000. The families completed at home a record on the age at introduction of new foods. Persistent asthma and allergic rhinitis were assessed at the age of 5 years with an International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood-type questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were adjusted for parental asthma and allergic diseases, and several perinatal and sociodemographical factors. Out of the 1293 children, 77 (6·0 %) developed persistent asthma; and out of the 1288 children, 185 (14·4 %) developed allergic rhinitis by the age of 5 years. Early age at introduction of oats was associated with a reduced risk of persistent asthma (hazard ratio (HR; 95 % CI) for the first and mid-tertiles compared with the latest tertile was 0·36 (0·15, 0·85) and 0·37 (0·22, 0·62), respectively, P < 0·001). Early age at introduction of fish was dose dependently associated with a decreased risk of allergic rhinitis (HR (95 % CI) for the first and mid-tertiles compared with the latest tertile was 0·34 (0·22, 0·54) and 0·45 (0·28, 0·70), respectively, P < 0·001). The present finding that age at introduction of oats is inversely and independently associated with development of persistent asthma is novel. We confirmed the earlier observation that the age at introduction of fish is inversely related to the risk of allergic rhinitis. Clinical implications remain to be determined.
Although schizotypal traits, such as anhedonia and aberrant perceptions,
may increase the risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, little is
known about early-life characteristics that predict more pronounced
To examine whether birth size or several other early-life factors that
have been previously linked with schizophrenia predict schizotypal traits
Participants of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study
(n = 4976) completed a questionnaire on positive and
negative schizotypal traits at the age of 31 years.
Lower placental weight, lower birth weight and smaller head circumference
at 12 months predicted elevated positive schizotypal traits in women
after adjusting for several confounders (P<0.02).
Moreover, higher gestational age, lower childhood family socioeconomic
status, undesirability of pregnancy, winter/autumn birth, higher birth
order and maternal smoking during pregnancy predicted some augmented
schizotypal traits in women, some in men and some in both genders.
The results point to similarities in the aetiology of schitzotypal traits
and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.